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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 462829 matches for " Vernon A. Barnes "
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Functional and Neural Mechanisms of Out-of-Body Experiences: Importance of Retinogeniculo-Cortical Oscillations  [PDF]
Ravinder Jerath, Shannon M. Cearley, Vernon A. Barnes, Mike Jensen
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2016.64032
Abstract: Current research on the various forms of autoscopic phenomena addresses the clinical and neurological correlates of out-of-body experiences, autoscopic hallucinations, and heautoscopy. Yet most of this research is based on functional magnetic resonance imaging results and focuses predominantly on abnormal cortical activity. Previously we proposed that visual consciousness resulted from the dynamic retinogeniculo-cortical oscillations, such that the photoreceptors dynamically integrated with visual and other vision-associated cortices, and was theorized to be mapped out by photoreceptor discs and rich retinal networks which synchronized with the retinotopic mapping and the associated cortex. The feedback from neural input that is received from the thalamus and cortex via retinogeniculo-cortical oscillations and sent to the retina is multifold higher than feed-forward input to the cortex. This can effectively translate into out-of-body experiences projected onto the screen formed by the retina as it is perceived via feedback and feed-forward oscillations from the reticular thalamic nucleus, or “internal searchlight”. This article explores the role of the reticular thalamic nucleus and the retinogeniculo-cortical oscillations as pivotal internal components in vision and various autoscopic phenomena.
The Dynamic Role of Breathing and Cellular Membrane Potentials in the Experience of Consciousness  [PDF]
Ravinder Jerath, Shannon M. Cearley, Vernon A. Barnes, Santiago Junca
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2017.71007
Abstract: Understanding the mechanics of consciousness remains one of the most important challenges in modern cognitive science. One key step toward understanding consciousness is to associate unconscious physiological processes with subjective experiences of sensory, motor, and emotional contents. This article explores the role of various cellular membrane potential differences and how they give rise to the dynamic infrastructure of conscious experience. This article explains that consciousness is a body-wide, biological process not limited to individual organs because the mind and body are unified as one entity; therefore, no single location of consciousness can be pinpointed. Consciousness exists throughout the entire body, and unified consciousness is experienced and maintained through dynamic repolarization during inhalation and expiration. Extant knowledge is reviewed to provide insight into how differences in cellular membrane potential play a vital role in the triggering of neural and non-neural oscillations. The role of dynamic cellular membrane potentials in the activity of the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, cardiorespiratory system, and various other tissues (such as muscles and sensory organs) in the physiology of consciousness is also explored. Inspiration and expiration are accompanied by oscillating membrane potentials throughout all cells and play a vital role in subconscious human perception of feelings and states of mind. In addition, the role of the brainstem, hypothalamus, and complete nervous system (central, peripheral, and autonomic) within the mind-body space combine to allow consciousness to emerge and to come alive. This concept departs from the notion that the brain is the only organ that gives rise to consciousness.
Sensory Consciousness is Experienced through Amplification of Sensory Stimuli via Lateral Inhibition  [PDF]
Ravinder Jerath, Shannon M. Cearley, Ruchir Paladiya, Vernon A. Barnes
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2017.73020
Abstract: At present, researchers are unclear about which activity within the brain is responsible for the emergence of consciousness—the subconscious or unconscious. Current literature suggests that consciousness is isolated in the brain; however, we suggest consciousness emerges from both—subconscious and unconscious activity, in addition to sensory consciousness. This article contends that sensory consciousness arises from neurophysiological brain activity, intrapersonal space, sensory information, and parallel processing of the external and internal environment through vision, olfaction, the integumentary system, gustation, and audition. Traditionally, lateral inhibition is defined as the ability for an excited neuron to laterally inhibit its neighbors, and is an integral part of neurophysiology in all senses. In this article, we are connecting the science behind the well-established physiological observations of gamma wave activity in the interneurons of peripheral receptors with what is currently unknown regarding the functional significance of seemingly unrelated gamma activity in the cortico-thalamic gamma oscillations. We suggest that this allows for instantaneous integration of the brain with sensory receptors. This article uses existing literature on lateral inhibition to investigate its role in sensory organs and various areas of the body. We explain how sensory consciousness is only one component of unified consciousness. We propose that lateral inhibition also plays a vital role in consciousness theory, and understanding this can help illustrate the dynamic interactions between the central and peripheral nervous systems within the body.
Impact of Transcendental Meditation on Left Ventricular Mass in African American Adolescents
Vernon A. Barnes,Gaston K. Kapuku,Frank A. Treiber
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/923153
Abstract: Background. An early sign of ventricular remodeling is increased left ventricular mass (LVM) which over time may lead to left ventricular hypertrophy, the strongest predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, other than advancing age. Methods. 62 (30 TM; 32 CTL) African American adolescents (age 16.2±1.3 years) with high normal systolic BP were randomly assigned to either 4-month Transcendental Meditation (TM) or health education control groups. The echocardiographic-derived measure of LVM index (LVMI = LVM/ht2.7) was measured before and after the 4-month TM study and at 4-month followup. 2D-guided M-mode echocardiography using a Hewlett Packard 5500 echosonograph was used to determine LVMI. Results. The TM group exhibited a greater decrease in LVMI at 4-month followup compared to the CTL group (−2.6 versus
Impact of stress reduction on negative school behavior in adolescents
Vernon A Barnes, Lynnette B Bauza, Frank A Treiber
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-1-10
Abstract: Forty-five African American adolescents (ages 15–18 years) with high normal systolic blood pressure were randomly assigned to either Transcendental Meditation (n = 25) or health education control (n = 20) groups. The meditation group engaged in 15-min sessions at home and at school each day for 4 months. The control group was presented 15-min sessions of health education at school each day for 4 months. Primary outcome measures were changes in absenteeism, school rule infractions and suspension days during the four-month pretest period prior to randomization compared with the four-month intervention period.Comparing the pretest and intervention periods, the meditation group exhibited a mean decrease of 6.4 absentee periods compared to an increase of 4.8 in the control group (p < .05). The meditation group exhibited a mean decrease of 0.1 infractions over the four months compared to an increase of 0.3 in the control group (p < .03). There was a mean reduction of 0.3 suspension days due to behavior-related problems in the meditation group compared to an increase of 1.2 in the control group (p < .04).These findings demonstrate that the Transcendental Meditation program conducted in the school setting has a beneficial impact upon absenteeism, rule infractions, and suspension rates in African American adolescents.The prevalence of negative school behaviors remains a significant health problem in the U.S [1]. For example, with respect to behaviors that contribute to intentional injuries, according to the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey, 36.6% of high school students reported having been in a physical fight in the past month, with 14.8% of the fights occurring on school property, 3.5% were injured in a physical fight and five percent of students missed school because of feeling unsafe [1]. Results of studies attempting to reduce such aggressive behaviors in schools have been mixed. A school-based violence prevention curriculum reportedly reduced self-reported aggre
El impacto de la reducción del estrés en la hipertensión esencial y las enfermedades cardiovasculares. (Impact of stress reduction on essential hypertension and cardiovascular disease).
Vernon A. Barnes,David W. Orme-Johnson
RICYDE : Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte , 2008,
Abstract: Resumen Se ha considerado que el estrés contribuye a la patogénesis y la progresión de las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV). Se ha demostrado que la reducción del estrés mediante la Meditación Trascendental [Transcendental Meditation (TM) ] ha bajado los niveles de presión arterial (PA) y reducido el riesgo de ECV en adultos y adolescentes. Este artículo repasa los resultados que sugieren el impacto beneficioso de la TM en reducir la PA en adultos hipertensos en reposo y en adolescentes pre-hipertensos en reposo, durante un estrés agudo creado en el laboratorio y durante la actividad diaria normal. Dichos resultados tienen implicaciones importantes para la inclusión de la TM en los esfuerzos que se realizan para prevenir y tratar las ECV y sus consecuencias clínicas.Abstract Stress has been thought to contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Stress reduction via Trasncendental Meditation (TM) has been shown to lower blood pressure (BP) levels and reduce CVD risk in adults and adolescents. This article reviews findings suggesting a beneficial BP-lowering impact of TM in hypertensive adults at rest and in pre-hypertensive adolescents at rest, during acute laboratory stress and during normal daily activity. These findings have important implications for inclusion of TM efforts to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases and their clinical consequences.
Differential Impact of Stress Reduction Programs upon Ambulatory Blood Pressure among African American Adolescents: Influences of Endothelin-1 Gene and Chronic Stress Exposure
Mathew J. Gregoski,Vernon A. Barnes,Martha S. Tingen,Yanbin Dong,Haidong Zhu,Frank A. Treiber
International Journal of Hypertension , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/510291
Abstract: Stress-activated gene × environment interactions may contribute to individual variability in blood pressure reductions from behavioral interventions. We investigated effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1) LYS198ASN SNP and discriminatory stress exposure upon impact of 12-week behavioral interventions upon ambulatory BP (ABP) among 162 prehypertensive African American adolescents. Following genotyping, completion of questionnaire battery, and 24-hour ABP monitoring, participants were randomized to health education control (HEC), life skills training (LST), or breathing awareness meditation (BAM). Postintervention ABP was obtained. Significant three-way interactions on ABP changes indicated that among ET-1 SNP carriers, the only group to show reductions was BAM from low chronic stress environments. Among ET-1 SNP noncarriers, under low chronic stress exposure, all approaches worked, especially BAM. Among high stress exposure noncarriers, only BAM resulted in reductions. If these preliminary findings are replicated via ancillary analyses of archival databases and then via efficacy trials, selection of behavioral prescriptions for prehypertensives will be edging closer to being guided by individual's underlying genetic and environmental factors incorporating the healthcare model of personalized preventive medicine.
Differential Impact of Stress Reduction Programs upon Ambulatory Blood Pressure among African American Adolescents: Influences of Endothelin-1 Gene and Chronic Stress Exposure
Mathew J. Gregoski,Vernon A. Barnes,Martha S. Tingen,Yanbin Dong,Haidong Zhu,Frank A. Treiber
International Journal of Hypertension , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/510291
Abstract: Stress-activated gene × environment interactions may contribute to individual variability in blood pressure reductions from behavioral interventions. We investigated effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1) LYS198ASN SNP and discriminatory stress exposure upon impact of 12-week behavioral interventions upon ambulatory BP (ABP) among 162 prehypertensive African American adolescents. Following genotyping, completion of questionnaire battery, and 24-hour ABP monitoring, participants were randomized to health education control (HEC), life skills training (LST), or breathing awareness meditation (BAM). Postintervention ABP was obtained. Significant three-way interactions on ABP changes indicated that among ET-1 SNP carriers, the only group to show reductions was BAM from low chronic stress environments. Among ET-1 SNP noncarriers, under low chronic stress exposure, all approaches worked, especially BAM. Among high stress exposure noncarriers, only BAM resulted in reductions. If these preliminary findings are replicated via ancillary analyses of archival databases and then via efficacy trials, selection of behavioral prescriptions for prehypertensives will be edging closer to being guided by individual's underlying genetic and environmental factors incorporating the healthcare model of personalized preventive medicine. 1. Introduction Essential hypertension (EH) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and EH incidence among youth is increasing [1]. African Americans (AAs) experience a higher prevalence, earlier onset, and greater severity of EH-related complications than other ethnic groups [2]. From late childhood onward, AAs display increased levels of resting and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) compared to other ethnic groups [3–5]. BP levels are monotonically associated with future CVD morbidity and mortality [6]. Stage I prehypertensive adults (i.e., SBP/DBP 121–129/81–84?mmHg) have a 40% increased risk and adults with stage II prehypertension (i.e., SBP/DBP 130–139/85–89?mmHg) are twice as likely to develop CVD compared to those with optimal BP (<120/<80?mmHg) [6–8]. BP percentile ranking tracks from late childhood into adulthood [9–11] placing AA adolescents with BP between the 50th and 95th percentiles for age and sex at an increased risk of future EH and CVD development [9]. EH, like other multifactorial chronic diseases, results from a complex interplay between an individual’s genetic underpinnings, lifestyle behaviors, psychosocial factors, and exposures to various environmental toxins. Over time, this dynamic interplay eventuates in adverse
Regional GPS receiver networks for monitoring local mid-latitude total electron content
A. Vernon,L. R. Cander
Annals of Geophysics , 2002, DOI: 10.4401/ag-3527
Abstract: Two regional GPS receiver networks from the Ordnance Survey U.K.(OS)and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) have been used for monitoring mid-latitude Total Electron Content (TEC)during quiet and disturbed ionospheric conditions in the current solar cycle.A few quiet and disturbed days in March and April 2002 were examined. These showed how the temporal and spatial patterns of changes develop and how they are related to solar and geomagnetic activity for parameter descriptive of plasmaspheric-ionospheric ionisation.Use is then made of computer contouring techniques to produce snapshots of daily maps of TEC for these different regional areas.
Gyrochronology and its usage for main sequence cool star ages
Sydney A. Barnes
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1017/S1743921309032001
Abstract: The construction of all age indicators consists of certain basic steps which lead to the identification of the properties desirable for stellar age indicators. Prior age indicators for main sequence field stars possess only some of these properties. The measured rotation periods of cool stars are particularly useful in this respect because they have well-defined dependencies that allow stellar ages to be determined with ~20% errors. This method, called gyrochronology, is explained informally in this talk, shown to have the desired properties, compared to prior methods, and used to derive ages for samples of main sequence field stars.
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