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Does the Indian Economy Support Wagner’s Law? An Econometric Analysis
Satish VERMA,Rahul ARORA
Eurasian Journal of Business and Economics , 2010,
Abstract: The present study endeavors to examine the validity of Wagner’s Law in India over the period 1950/51 to 2007/08. Six versions of Wagner’s hypothesis given by different economists have been estimated which support the existence of long-run relationship between economic growth and growth of public expenditure. Two structural breaks have also been given to test the impact of structural changes in Indian economy on the growth of public expenditure. It has been found that the first structural break given for mild-liberalization period causes insignificant changes in the growth elasticity of public expenditure. However, the observed change in the elasticity due to the second phase of intensive liberalization is statistically significant. Nevertheless, the Wagner’s law is still supported during the intensive phase of liberalization given a significant fall in the elasticity. Empirical evidences regarding the short-run dynamics refute the existence of any relationship between the economic growth and the size of the government expenditure.
Microemulsion: New Insights into the Ocular Drug Delivery
Rahul Rama Hegde,Anurag Verma,Amitava Ghosh
ISRN Pharmaceutics , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/826798
Abstract: Delivery of drugs into eyes using conventional drug delivery systems, such as solutions, is a considerable challenge to the treatment of ocular diseases. Drug loss from the ocular surface by lachrymal fluid secretion, lachrymal fluid-eye barriers, and blood-ocular barriers are main obstacles. A number of ophthalmic drug delivery carriers have been made to improve the bioavailability and to prolong the residence time of drugs applied topically onto the eye. The potential use of microemulsions as an ocular drug delivery carrier offers several favorable pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical properties such as their excellent thermodynamic stability, phase transition to liquid-crystal state, very low surface tension, and small droplet size, which may result in improved ocular drug retention, extended duration of action, high ocular absorption, and permeation of loaded drugs. Further, both lipophilic and hydrophilic characteristics are present in microemulsions, so that the loaded drugs can diffuse passively as well get significantly partitioned in the variable lipophilic-hydrophilic corneal barrier. This review will provide an insight into previous studies on microemulsions for ocular delivery of drugs using various nonionic surfactants, cosurfactants, and associated irritation potential on the ocular surface. The reported in vivo experiments have shown a delayed effect of drug incorporated in microemulsion and an increase in the corneal permeation of the drug. 1. Introduction The human eye is a complex structure designed in such a way that its anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry render it almost impervious to foreign agents, including drugs. The human eye has two segments, that is, anterior segment (cornea, conjunctiva, etc.) and posterior segment (vitreous humor, retina, etc.) as shown in detail in Figure 1. The human corneal epithelium represents one of the major rate-limiting barriers which hinders permeation of hydrophilic drugs and macromolecules. Another rate-limiting barrier is stroma which prevents diffusion of highly lipophilic drugs due to abundant hydrated collagen contents [1]. Other significant barriers include lacrimal fluid secretion and lachrymal fluid-eye barriers. Considering these barriers, it is very challenging to develop ocular drug delivery systems which can circumvent these protective barriers and deliver the drug to the posterior segment of the eye without causing permanent tissue damage [2]. Conventional dosage forms like ophthalmic solutions, suspensions, and so forth, are now primordial as they can only deliver the drug to the
Study of prevalence and response to needle stick injuries among health care workers in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, India
Sharma Rahul,Rasania S,Verma Anita,Singh Saudan
Indian Journal of Community Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Because of the environment in which they work, many health care workers are at an increased risk of accidental needle stick injuries (NSI). Objective: To study prevalence and response to needle stick injuries among health care workers. Materials and Methods: Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: A tertiary care hospital in Delhi. Participants: 322 resident doctors, interns, nursing staff, nursing students, and technicians. Statistical Analysis: Proportions and Chi-square test. Results: A large percentage (79.5%) of HCWs reported having had one or more NSIs in their career. The average number of NSIs ever was found to be 3.85 per HCW (range 0-20). 72 (22.4%) reported having received a NSI within the last month. More than half (50.4%) ascribed fatigue as a cause in their injury. Most of the injuries (34.0%) occurred during recapping. In response to their most recent NSI, 60.9% washed the site of injury with water and soap while 38 (14.8%) did nothing. Only 20 (7.8%) of the HCWs took post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) against HIV/AIDS after their injury. Conclusions: The occurrence of NSI was found to be quite common. Avoidable practices like recapping of needles were contributing to the injuries. Prevention of NSI is an integral part of prevention programs in the work place, and training of HCWs regarding safety practices indispensably needs to be an ongoing activity at a hospital.
A study of job satisfaction and work environment perception among doctors in a tertiary hospital in Delhi
Kaur Suminder,Sharma Rahul,Talwar Richa,Verma Anita
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Background : Many doctors are dissatisfied with their jobs, which is due to long working hours and overwork. This can affect patient care and reduce quality of care. Objectives : To study job satisfaction among doctors in a tertiary hospital in Delhi and the various factors related with it. Materials and Methods: Data collection was done among 250 doctors on tenure-based job, selected by stratified random sampling, in a teaching hospital in Delhi, by using a self-administered questionnaire. Statistical Analysis : Proportions and Chi-square tests. Results : The mean number of work-hours among doctors was 9.7 ± 2.7 hours per day, and the mean number of night shifts was 5.6 per month. About half (49.6%) of the doctors were dissatisfied with the average number of work-hours per day. Dissatisfaction was significantly more in those who had an average of> 8 work-hours per day and who had ≥8 night shifts per month. About half (45.6%) of the doctors considered their salary as ′bad,′ and this was significantly more among unmarried doctors, interns and those who had ≥8 night shifts per month. More than half (55.2%) of the doctors were dissatisfied with their choice of profession, i.e., being a doctor, as compared to other professions. Conclusions : A significant proportion of doctors were found to be dissatisfied with the average number of their work-hours and salary. Factors like the average number of work-hours per day and the number of night shifts per month were found to have a significant relation with dissatisfaction. Further studies are needed to explore how best the work-hours of doctors could be adjusted to improve their job satisfaction.
BACTERIAL DNA GYRASE IS NOT THE TARGET OF QUINOLINE-BASED ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS COMPOUNDS
Verma Rahul,Tripathy Rajan K.,Paul Manash,Nayyar Amit
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013,
Abstract: Few quinoline-based synthetic compounds (2, 8 Dicyclopentyl-4-methyl quinoline and 2, 8 Dicyclohexyl-4-methyl quinoline), the synthesis of which have been already shown by our medicinal chemistry group, were found to be potent inhibitor of mycobacterial growth. Based on the results of cell culture-based cell killing assays using DNA gyrase positive E. coli strains, we presumed that bacterial DNA gyrase might be a probable target of quinolines. The resemblance of the basic skeletal structural moiety of quinolone and quinoline inspired us to hypothesize that these quinolines might inhibit DNA gyrase. While the non-gyrase inhibitors like ethambutol and isoniazid did not inhibit the growth of these strains. The genesis of the notion of using E. coli DNA gyrase as an alternative to DNA gyrase from the pathogenic Mycobacterium, stems from the fact that E. coli DNA gyrase is found to be about eighty times more sensitive to the action of quinolones than the Mycobacterium DNA gyrase. Therefore, we had used E. coli DNA gyrase as a model enzyme for studying the action of some synthetic quinoline compounds synthesized by us. In the present work, we have used cell killing assay, gel electrophoresis assay (for DNA supercoiling) and UV spectroscopy-based coupled assay (for ATP hydrolysis) for characterizing the activity of DNA gyrase. Quinolones exhibited low IC50 values as compared to the studied quinolines on DNA gyrase positive E. coli strains We found that although quinolones are the potent inhibitors of supercoiling activity of E. coli DNA gyrase, quinolines are not. We further found that ATPase activity of E. coli DNA gyrase (Non-specific inhibitor) was inhibited to a very minor extent in the presence of very high concentration of these synthetic quinolines. DNA gyrase is not the primary target of these synthetic quinolines (2, 8 Dicyclopentyl-4-methyl quinoline and 2, 8 Dicyclohexyl-4-methyl quinoline).
Electrical Characterization of Electron Beam Evaporated Cd1-xSex Thin Films
S.R. Vishwakarma,A.K. Verma,R.S.N. Tripathi,Rahul
Journal of Nano- and Electronic Physics , 2011,
Abstract: CdSe is an important compound semiconducting material for the development of various applications in solid state devices such as solar cells, high efficiency thin film transistors. In recent years major attention has been given to the investigation of structural properties for the improvement of performance of such devices and applications. The prepared starting materials have composition Cd1 – xSex (0.22 ≤ x ≤ 0.40) was used to fabrication of thin films. The n-type cadmium selenide thin films have been deposited by electron beam evaporation technique on well cleaned glass substrate in vacuum ~10 – 5 torr keeping substrate temperature at 300 K. The resistivity, conductivity, Hall mobility and carrier concentration of the deposited films were calculated of different compositions ratio of Cd/Se.
Serum Prolidase Activity, Oxidant and Antioxidant Status in Nonulcer Dyspepsia and Healthy Volunteers
Shweta Kumari,Akhilesh Kumar Verma,Sumit Rungta,Rahul Mitra,Ragini Srivastava,Narender Kumar
ISRN Biochemistry , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/182601
Abstract: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is associated with increased oxidative stress and serum prolidase activity (SPA) in many diseases. We aimed to observe SPA and oxidative stress in nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD) infected with and without H. pylori among eastern Indians. 106 patients with H. pylori positive NUD, 82 patients with H. pylori negative NUD, and 50 healthy individuals were selected. SPA, total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), and total oxidant status (TOS) were measured with the use of spectrophotometer and an automated measurement method. SPA, TOS, and oxidative stress index (OSI) were significantly higher in patients with H. pylori positive than H. pylori negative NUD and healthy individuals (all ), whereas TAOC was significantly lower ( ). Nonsignificant, increased SPA ( value = 0.6083) and decreased TAOC ( value = 0.1186) were observed in patients with H. pylori negative NUD than healthy individuals, while increased TOS and OSI were significant ( ). Weak, nonsignificant correlations were observed between serum prolidase activity and TAOC, TOS, and OSI in H. pylori positive cases. Thus, increased SPA along with increased oxidative stress was observed, which seem to be closely associated with H. pylori infection. SPA and oxidative stress seem to be used as biomarkers for H. pylori infection in NUD. 1. Introduction In 1984, it was first reported that H. pylori, a gram negative, spiral shaped, microaerophilic bacterium that colonizes the stomach and is involved in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulceration, gastric cancer, gastric ulceration, and active chronic gastritis [1, 2]. Dyspepsia is a common term used for abdomen pain and complimented with other gastrointestinal symptoms. Nonulcer dyspepsia is characterized with as upper gastrointestinal symptoms of the patients. Nonulcer dyspepsia is also known as functional dyspepsia which found to be associated with H. pylori infection [3, 4]. H. pylori infection was found to be associated with gastric cancer, peptic ulcer, duodenal ulcer, gastric carcinoma [5–8], and so forth. Prolidase (EC 3.4.13.9), proline dipeptidase, degraded dipeptides with hydroxyproline or proline as c-terminal amino acid [9, 10]. It participates in collagen metabolism, cell growth, and matrix remodeling [11]. Its activity has been reported in leukocytes, erythrocytes, plasma, and the various organs such as brain, heart, kidney, uterus, thymus, and dermal fibroblasts. Prolidase activity has been reported in various disorders, like osteoarthritis, chronic liver disease, and osteoporosis [12–15]. H. pylori infection leads to
Beam Dynamics and Electromagnetic Design Studies of 3 MeV RFQ for SNS Programme  [PDF]
Rahul Gaur, Purushottam Shrivastava
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2010.29068
Abstract: The physics design of a 3 MeV, 30 mA, 352.2 MHz Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) is done for the future Indian Spallation Neutron Source (ISNS) project at RRCAT, India. The beam dynamics design of RFQ and the error analysis of the input beam parameters are done by using standard beam dynamics code PARMTEQM. The electromagnetic stu-dies for the two-dimensional and three-dimensional cavity design are performed using computer codes SUPERFISH and CST Microwave Studio. The physics design of RFQ consisting of the beam dynamics design near the beam axis and the electromagnetic design for the RFQ resonator is described here.
A Note on Crank-Nicolson Scheme for Burgers’ Equation  [PDF]
Kanti Pandey, Lajja Verma
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/am.2011.27118
Abstract: In this work we generate the numerical solutions of the Burgers’ equation by applying the Crank-Nicolson method directly to the Burgers’ equation, i.e., we do not use Hopf-Cole transformation to reduce Burgers’ equation into the linear heat equation. Absolute error of the present method is compared to the absolute error of the two existing methods for two test problems. The method is also analyzed for a third test problem, nu-merical solutions as well as exact solutions for different values of viscosity are calculated and we find that the numerical solutions are very close to exact solution.
Energy Consumption Patterns for Different Mobility Conditions in WSN  [PDF]
Manjusha Pandey, Shekhar Verma
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2011.312044
Abstract: Wireless sensor networks are challenging networks regarding communication because of its resource constrained nature and dynamic network topology. Plenty of research has being going on throughout the world to optimize communication cost and overhead due to it in the ad hoc networks, thus efforts are being made to make the communications more energy efficient. The application spectrum and use cases of wireless sensor networks includes many critical applications as environmental monitoring, to resource monitoring, to Industrial measurements, to public safety applications and last but not the least to sensitive applications as military sector applications .The erratic size of such networks and along with its exotic topology pose a magnificent set of challenges to the routing algorithms designed and implemented within such networks. The present work concentrates on the comparative analysis of some of reactive and proactive protocols used in the wireless sensor networks. The parameter for comparative analysis is the energy consumption for different simulation time and for different mobility conditions based scenario.
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