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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1242 matches for " Verdiana Grace Masanja "
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Peter Nyamuhanga Mwita,Romanus Odhiambo Otieno,Verdiana Grace Masanja,Charles Muyanja
Pakistan Journal of Statistics and Operation Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1234/pjsor.v7i2.241
Abstract: This paper considers the modeling and prediction of households food security status using a sample of households in the Lake Victoria region of Kenya. A priori expected food security factors and their measurements are given. A binary logistic regression model derived was fitted to thirteen priori expected factors. Analysis of the marginal effects revealed that effecting the use of the seven significant determinants: farmland size, per capita aggregate production, household size, gender of household head, use of fertilizer, use of pesticide/herbicide and education of household head, increase the likelihood of a household being food secure. Finally, interpretations of predicted conditional probabilities, following improvement of significant determinants, are given.
Environmental Burden of Charcoal Production and Use in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  [PDF]
Neema Msuya, Enock Masanja, Abrahamu Kimangano Temu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.210158
Abstract: Tanzanian forests are excessively threatened by increased charcoal production fuelled by increased demand crucially in Dar es Salaam city which consumes nearly 70% of all the charcoal produced in the country. Through use of ecological modeling software STELLA® the environmental burden of charcoal production and use in Tanzania has been established. The study has revealed that the country losses 150,433 ha of forest per year. Due to increase in population by year 2030 almost 2.8 million ha of forests will have been lost. This is equivalent to 8.5% of the total forest cover the country had in 2009. The environmental burden includes air pollution characterized by a total emission of 49, 1.0, and 9.0, 12 million tonnes of CO2, SO2, NOx, and CH4, respectively by 2030. Other adverse impacts include loss of forest cover which ultimately causes degradation of soil quality by increased soil erosion, degradation of water sources and disruption of rainfall pattern including inducing draught. Taking into account that the agriculture in Tanzania is primarily rain fed, this has an adverse impact in agricultural production. In the current exploitation of this important natural resource, its sustainability is severely challenged and the whole concept of the forest being renewable is put into question. From these findings, it is recommended that concrete and deliberate efforts be made to reduce and eventually prohibit the use of charcoal in cities and towns.
Monitoring and Evaluating Progress towards Universal Health Coverage in Tanzania
Gemini Mtei ,Suzan Makawia,Honorati Masanja
PLOS Medicine , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001698
Does Reactive Adaptation Exist? Using the Ecosystem Service Governance Approach to Evaluate Post-Drought Rural Food Security in Kenya  [PDF]
Grace W. Ngaruiya
Natural Resources (NR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2014.58037
Controversial climate change studies purport that predicted food insecurity and resource scarcity will intensify resource conflicts in developing nations. This belief is based on a prevalent assumption that African agricultural production systems are rigid and that their respective governments lack comprehensive adaptation ability. Therefore, I investigate whether and how effective post- drought adaptation activity is sustaining food production and livelihoods at Loitoktok district in Kenya. This study uses the theoretical three-step ecosystem service governance approach that analyzes both natural resources attributes and relational data. Results confirm a substantial decline in productivity and huge monetary losses in the agricultural sector of Loitoktok following the 2009 drought. Post-drought analysis reveals high diversification in crops and livestock that are drought-tolerant, fast maturing and high income generating such as camels, rabbits and dairy goats, horticultural and fruit production that sustain food security, income and local livelihoods. These reactive adaptation activities originate from an active public-private cooperation that promotes knowledge exchange among Loitoktok stakeholders. This cooperation is also seen in the efficient resource conflict resolution network. In conclusion, rural communities seem to be efficiently adapting to changing environmental conditions but require more financial and technical support from the government. Unfortunately, appraisal of national planned adaptation reveals effort-duplication that may divert much needed adaptation funds from being invested in research projects with multiple benefits to Kenyan food producers.
Testing the Effect of Soil Heterogeneity on Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi (AMF) Contribution to Plant Productivity  [PDF]
Samuel Ayesu, Grace Gyabaah
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2014.46028

Most natural soils are heterogeneous and nutrient availability and soil structure change greatly over small distances. It is still unclear whether AMF are advantageous for plants under such heterogeneous soil conditions. The objective of this study was to determine whether diverse AMF community support host plant community productivity in heterogeneous soil. It was also tested whether soil heterogeneity affects plant productivity. This was carried out in a greenhouse experiment made up of two factors: soil heterogeneity and AMF richness. Soil heterogeneity was simulated by mixing three soil types (sand, field soil and organic soil) together (homogenous soil (HM)), mixing them partly (semi homogenous (SH)) or keeping the three soil types separate in three compartments within one pot (heterogeneous (HT)). AMF richness was simulated by adding no AMF, one of four different AMF species separately, or all four different AMF together. The pots were planted with a mixture of Trifolium pratense and Lolium multiflorum. There was no effect of soil heterogeneity on total plant biomass. However, the biomass of the individual plant species was greatly affected by soil heterogeneity with Lolium being the most abundant in the heterogeneous soil and Trifolium being the most abundant in the homogenous soil. Total plant biomass did not increase with AMF richness. Moreover, opposite to the hypothesis, AMF richness was not beneficial for plant productivity in a heterogenous soil environment. However, there were significant differences in plant biomass with different AMF treatments in the SH and HT treatment indicating that effects of AMF on plant productivity are influenced by soil type. These effects on yield and AMF reflect a combination of local responses to growing conditions. The results show that AMF influence on plant yield may not always be positive but is strongly dependent on ecological elasticity and environmental condition.

The Universality of the Portrayal of Gender in Television Advertisements: An East-West Comparison  [PDF]
Grace Lim, Adrian Furnham
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.713154
Abstract: This study compared portrayals of gender in Malaysian and British television advertisements regarding the portrayal of men and women across these two countries. A total of 236 advertisements were content analyzed for nine variables relating to the primary character of the advertisement. The findings provide evidence of gender stereotyping in both countries for types of products advertised, credibility and role of the primary characters. The results suggest that portrayals in British advertisements are similar to those in Malaysian advertisements despite the cultural gap. These findings are discussed in relation to implications and the limitations of the study are noted.
Virtues in Clinical Practice: Teaching Students about the Complexities and Depth of Professional Practice  [PDF]
Sandra Grace, Airdre Grant
Creative Education (CE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2017.813143
Abstract: This paper investigates the integration of virtues into teaching programs for allied health students. It explores the notion that practitioners’ effectiveness is enhanced when they practice virtues along with their technical expertise. These virtues include wisdom and love and they imbue the practitioner’s role with a meaning that extends beyond efficient diagnosis and competent case management. Practicing virtues can deepen the clinical relationship. Allied health students may feel cautious and uncertain about what it actually means to be a virtuous practitioner. Reflexive practice and dialogic encounters are presented as teaching activities that can cultivate virtuous practice.
Telomeres and Telomerase: Molecular Views and Perspectives  [PDF]
Kumar Arvind, Tony Grace
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2018.75008
Abstract: Telomere, the nucleoprotein structure at the end of eukaryotic linear chromosomes is indispensable for maintaining the genome stability. Telomeric DNA loss is apparent with each cell division, which marks an endpoint to the indefinite replication of the cell by causing replicative senescence that may lead to the programmed cell death. The loss of telomere is normal in cell division and as such after 20 - 40 divisions, telomere becomes too short to facilitate the capping function. Telomere uncapping or chromosomal free end causes a potential threat to the genomic stability and thus leads to the accumulation of chromosomal abnormalities that have been known to play a role in aging and cancer. Telomerase, the ribonucleoprotein complex, and its accessory proteins are required to maintain the telomere sequence. Telomerase plays a key role in maintaining the length of telomere by adding G-rich repeat sequences. Its activity has been found to be quite high in the gametes, stem cells and most importantly tumor cells. Almost 85% of tumor cells compensate for telomere loss aided by telomerase-associated protein complex and shelter in complex or telosome. However, 5% - 10% of the cells undergo telomerase-independent mechanism. This review presents the molecular view of the telomere and telomerase along with its associated complex structures. It also discusses its contrasting role in causing cellular senescence and promoting tumorigenesis.
Early Exposure to Environmental Toxin Contributes to Neuronal Vulnerability and Axonal Pathology in a Model of Familial ALS  [PDF]
Grace Lee, Christopher A. Shaw
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2012.34050
Abstract: Adult onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) arises due to progressive and irreversible functional deficits to the central nervous system, specifically the loss of motor neurons. Sporadic ALS causality is not well understood, but is almost certainly of multifactorial origin involving a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The discovery of endemic ALS in the native Chamorro population of Guam during the 1950s and the co-occurrence of Parkinsonism and dementia in some patients led to searches for environmental toxins that could be responsible. In the present paper, we report that an environmental neurotoxin enhances mutant superoxide dismutase (SOD)-induced spinal motor neuron death and pathology and induces motor axon abnormalities. These results cumulatively confirm earlier findings that exposure to an environmental toxin is sufficient to produce the disease phenotype and indicate a role for gene-environment interaction in some forms of the disease.
Identification of a Highly Expressed 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Gene in the Root Tissue of Taraxacum kok-saghyz  [PDF]
Grisel Ponciano, Grace Q. Chen
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.524376
Kazakh dandelion (Taraxacum kok-saghyz, Tk) is a rubber-producing plant currently being investigated as a source of natural rubber for industrial applications. Like many other isoprenoids, rubber is a downstream product of the mevalonate pathway. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) enzyme catalyzes the conversion of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA to mevalonic acid, a key regulatory step in the MVA pathway. Such regulated steps provide targets for increases in isoprenoid and rubber contents via genetic engineering to increase enzyme activities. In this study, we identify a TkHMGR1 gene that is highly expressed in the roots of Kazakh dandelion, the main tissue where rubber is synthesized and stored. This finding paves the way for further molecular and genetic studies of the TkHMGR1 gene, and its role in rubber biosynthesis in Tk and other rubber-producing plants.
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