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Application endophytic microorganisms in agriculture and production of substances of economic interest Aplica o de microrganismos endofíticos na agricultura e na produ o de substancias de interesse econ mico
Taides Tavares dos Santos,Maurilio Antonio Varavallo
Semina : Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde , 2011,
Abstract: Endophytic microorganisms are mainly fungi and bacteria that live inside plants, generally inhabiting aerial parts such as leaves and stems, without causing any apparent damage to their hosts. In addition to many important functions for the host, the endophytic microorganisms are potentially useful in agriculture and industry, especially in pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals. By forming themselves into substitutes for chemicals by exercising stock biocontrol and/or promotion of plant growth, favoring theenvironmental preservation, has been appointed as a viable alternative agricultural production systems for environmentally and economically sustainable. Obtaining substances of economic interest, such as enzymes, antibiotics and other drugs from endophytic microorganisms has often been reported in the scientific literature. One example is taxol, a powerful anti-cancer substance that was previously obtained only from the exploitation of the plant Taxus brevifolia, and can now be obtained from different genera of endophytic fungi. Advances like this reinforce the great biotechnological potential of such microorganisms. This study presents an overview of potential applications of endophyticmicroorganisms in agriculture and production of substances of economic interest.
Application of probiotic bacteria for prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases Aplica o de bactérias probióticas para profilaxia e tratamento de doen as gastrointestinais
Maurilio Antonio Varavallo,Julia Nigro Thomé,Elisa Teshima
Semina : Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde , 2008,
Abstract: Probiotics bacteria such as Bifidobacterium ssp and Lactobacillus ssp are important for the health of human beings; therefore , whenever consumed , they increase the number and the activity of intestinal microorganisms with useful properties to the host , being essential for the production of symbiotic products. Probiotics has a positive effect on many diseases, facilitating to the formation of the probiotic barrier in the intestine, thus hindering the settling of microbiota for pathogenic bacteria. Some of the described mechanisms for this impediment are: competition in the intestine favoring the bacteria probiotics, stimulation of the Immunologic System thus facilitating the defense of the organism, reduction of cholesterol levels with reduction of the LDL cholesterol, improvement of the protein digestion and increase of vitamin absorption. Foods with probiotics are known as Probiotics Food, as for example, fermented milk which nowadays helps people with intestine cancer, Crohn’s disease , diarrheas caused for virus and bacteria and traveler’s diarrhea. However, for these probiotics bacteria to be really efficient, they must be resistant to the gastric juice and bile, so that they can reach the microbiota and perform their functions. This work had the purpose to point out the importance of probiotics bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and/or Lactobacillus for the health of human beings. Bactérias probióticas como Bifidobactéria e Lactobacilos s o importantes para a saúde humana, pois quando consumidas, podem aumentar o número e a atividade dos microrganismos intestinais com propriedades úteis ao hospedeiro. S o muitas as doen as em que os probióticos tem efeitos benéficos, facilitando a forma o da chamada barreira probiótica no intestino, impedindo, assim, a coloniza o da microbiota por bactérias patogênicas. Alguns dos mecanismos descritos para esse impedimento é a competi o que ocorre no intestino favorecendo as bactérias probióticas, o estimulo do sistema imunológico facilitando a defesa do organismo, significativa redu o dos níveis de colesterol total com diminui o do LDL colesterol, melhora da digest o de proteínas e aumento da absor o de vitaminas e minerais. Os alimentos que contém probióticos s o chamados de Alimentos Funcionais, como, por exemplo, os leites fermentados que ajudam hoje pessoas com cancer de colo de intestino, doen a de Cronh, diarréias causadas por vírus e bactérias, e diarréia do viajante. Porém, para que essas bactérias probióticas sejam realmente eficazes, é necessário que sejam resistentes ao suco gástrico e à bile, pa
The Anti-TNF-α Therapy in the Rheumatoid Arthritis A Terapia Anti-TNF-α na Artrite Reumatóide
Lilian Resende Faleiro,Lúcia Helena Resende Araújo,Maurilio Antonio Varavallo
Semina : Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde , 2011,
Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, systemic autoimmune disease of unknown etiology that involves predominantly synovial articulations, which can lead to deformity and destruction. With the progression of the disease, patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis develop inability to perform activities of daily living both as a professional, generating a significant economic impact for the patient and to society. Although the exact cause of rheumatoid arthritis remains unknown, studies conducted over the past two decades has enabled greater understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease. This knowledge has allowed the development of new therapies used to treat severe forms of the disease. The main goal of treatment is to achieve remission, however, when this can not be expected to prevent joint damage and loss of function and even reduce pain. The latest strategies for the treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis involve the early diagnosis and aggressive control of inflammation. The recognition of pro-inflammatory cytokines expressed more as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL) 1 and IL6 enabled developing new therapies directed against these cytokines targets. TNF-α is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays a key role in immune response, defense against microorganisms and the inflammatory process. Biological agents that inhibit TNF-α are considered effective in reducing activity and in the retardation of structural joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis, especially in forms refractory to conventional treatments. Currently, they are available in Brazil, three anti-TNF-α: infliximab, etanercept and adalimumab. These drugs are relatively safe for Rheumatoid Arthritis, but may, however, present serious infectious complications such as reactivation of latent tuberculosis.The high cost of these drugs, their use in hospital and the risk to opportunistic infections remain the limiting factors for its widespread use in the treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis in our midst. This study aims at highlighting the importance of the emergence of new therapies in order to attenuate the progression of rheumatoid arthritis, and to analyze risk-benefit offered by their treatment and assess the feasibility and cost of the same. A Artrite Reumatóide é uma doen a cr nica, sistêmica, autoimune, de etiologia desconhecida, que envolve predominantemente as articula es sinoviais, o que pode acarretar deformidade e destrui o das mesmas. Com a progress o da doen a, os pacientes com Artrite Reumatóide desenvolvem incapacidade para realiza o de suas atividades tanto de vida diária como
Development of a transformation system for Penicillium brevicompactum based on the Fusarium oxysporum nitrate reductase gene
Varavallo, Maurílio Ant?nio;Queiroz, Marisa Vieira de;Pereira, Jorge Fernando;Ribeiro, Ronney Adriano;Soares, Marcos Ant?nio;Ribeiro, Jo?o Batista;Araújo, Elza Fernandes de;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822005000200015
Abstract: penicillium brevicompactum is a filamentous fungus that presents a potential for industrial use due its efficient pectinase production. a heterologous transformation system was developed for p. brevicompactum based on the complementation of a nitrate reductase mutant. nitrate reductase mutants were obtained by resistance to chlorate in a rate of 23.24% when compared to other mutations that lead to the chlorate resistance. one mutant named 4457-18x was chosen for the transformation experiments with the pnh24 vector containing de fusarium oxysporum nitrate reductase gene. a frequency of approximately 3 transformants/μg dna was obtained using the circular vector pnh24. this frequency was multiplied about 10 fold using the linearized vector with the xba i restriction enzyme. southern analysis of the transformants showed a tendency of the linearized vector to diminish the number of integrations compared to the use of the circular vector. the integration was random and stable in the analyzed transformants. the establishment of a transformation system for p. brevicompactum is fundamental for genetic manipulation of this microorganism.
Isolation of recombinant strains with enhanced pectinase production by protoplast fusion between Penicillium expansum and Penicillium griseoroseum
Varavallo, Maurilio Antonio;Queiroz, Marisa Vieira de;Lana, Taís Guimar?es;Brito, Admilson Toscano Ribeiro de;Gon?alves, Daniel Bonoto;Araújo, Elza Fernandes de;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822007000100011
Abstract: protoplast fusion between complementary auxotrophic and morphological mutant strains of penicillium griseoroseum and p. expansum was induced by polyethylene glycol and calcium ions (ca2+). fusant strains were obtained in minimal medium and a prototrophic strain, possibly diploid, was chosen for haplodization with the fungicide benomyl. different recombinant strains were isolated and characterized for occurrence of auxotrophic mutations and pectinolytic enzyme production. the fusant prototrophic did not present higher pectinase production than the parental strains, but among 29 recombinants analyzed, four presented enhanced enzyme activities. the recombinant rge27, which possesses the same auxotrophic and morphologic mutations as the p. griseoroseum parental strain, presented a considerable increase in polygalacturonase (3-fold) and pectin lyase production (1.2-fold).
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