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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 222692 matches for " Vanessa C. Kinney "
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Seasonal Pattern of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Infection and Mortality in Lithobates areolatus: Affirmation of Vredenburg's “10,000 Zoospore Rule”
Vanessa C. Kinney,Jennifer L. Heemeyer,Allan P. Pessier,Michael J. Lannoo
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016708
Abstract: To fully comprehend chytridiomycosis, the amphibian disease caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), it is essential to understand how Bd affects amphibians throughout their remarkable range of life histories. Crawfish Frogs (Lithobates areolatus) are a typical North American pond-breeding species that forms explosive spring breeding aggregations in seasonal and semipermanent wetlands. But unlike most species, when not breeding Crawfish Frogs usually live singly—in nearly total isolation from conspecifics—and obligately in burrows dug by crayfish. Crayfish burrows penetrate the water table, and therefore offer Crawfish Frogs a second, permanent aquatic habitat when not breeding. Over the course of two years we sampled for the presence of Bd in Crawfish Frog adults. Sampling was conducted seasonally, as animals moved from post-winter emergence through breeding migrations, then back into upland burrow habitats. During our study, 53% of Crawfish Frog breeding adults tested positive for Bd in at least one sample; 27% entered breeding wetlands Bd positive; 46% exited wetlands Bd positive. Five emigrating Crawfish Frogs (12%) developed chytridiomycosis and died. In contrast, all 25 adult frogs sampled while occupying upland crayfish burrows during the summer tested Bd negative. One percent of postmetamorphic juveniles sampled were Bd positive. Zoospore equivalents/swab ranged from 0.8 to 24,436; five out of eight frogs with zoospore equivalents near or >10,000 are known to have died. In summary, Bd infection rates in Crawfish Frog populations ratchet up from near zero during the summer to over 25% following overwintering; rates then nearly double again during and just after breeding—when mortality occurs—before the infection wanes during the summer. Bd-negative postmetamorphic juveniles may not be exposed again to this pathogen until they take up residence in crayfish burrows, or until their first breeding, some years later.
Mine Spoil Prairies Expand Critical Habitat for Endangered and Threatened Amphibian and Reptile Species
Michael J. Lannoo,Vanessa C. Kinney,Jennifer L. Heemeyer,Nathan J. Engbrecht,Alisa L. Gallant,Robert W. Klaver
Diversity , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/d1020118
Abstract: Coal extraction has been occurring in the Midwestern United States for over a century. Despite the pre-mining history of the landscape as woodlands, spent surface coalfields are often reclaimed to grasslands. We assessed amphibian and reptile species on a large tract of coal spoil prairie and found 13 species of amphibians (nine frog and four salamander species) and 19 species of reptiles (one lizard, five turtle, and 13 snake species). Two state-endangered and three state species of special concern were documented. The amphibian diversity at our study site was comparable to the diversity found at a large restored prairie situated 175 km north, within the historic prairie peninsula.
Modeling the Encephalopathy of Prematurity in Animals: The Important Role of Translational Research
Hannah C. Kinney,Joseph J. Volpe
Neurology Research International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/295389
Abstract: Translational research in preterm brain injury depends upon the delineation of the human neuropathology in order that animal models faithfully reiterate it, thereby ensuring direct relevance to the human condition. The major substrate of human preterm brain injury is the encephalopathy of prematurity that is characterized by gray and white matter lesions reflecting combined acquired insults, altered developmental trajectories, and reparative phenomena. Here we highlight the key features of human preterm brain development and the encephalopathy of prematurity that are critical for modeling in animals. The complete mimicry of the complex human neuropathology is difficult in animal models. Many models focus upon mechanisms related to a specific feature, for example, loss of premyelinating oligodendrocytes in the cerebral white matter. Nevertheless, animal models that simultaneously address oligodendrocyte, neuronal, and axonal injury carry the potential to decipher shared mechanisms and synergistic treatments to ameliorate the global consequences of the encephalopathy of prematurity. 1. Introduction Translational research in the brain injury of premature infants involves the delineation of basic mechanisms and therapeutic strategies in animal models and their subsequent transformation into human clinical trials to improve neurological outcome. Yet, from the outset, advances in our understanding of preterm brain injury are directly contingent upon neuropathologic studies in humans. Indeed, translational research depends upon the initial delineation of the basic neuropathology in the human brain and then development of animal models that faithfully reiterate this pathology, thereby ensuring direct relevance to the human condition. The major neuropathologic substrate of human preterm brain injury is the encephalopathy of prematurity (EP), a term coined to characterize the multifaceted gray and white matter lesions in the preterm brain that reflect acquired insults, altered developmental trajectories, and reparative phenomena in various combinations [1–4]. The encephalopathy of prematurity also is associated with hemorrhages, notably in the germinal matrix of the ganglionic eminence and cerebellum and with focal micro or macroinfarcts [5–7]. Because EP occurs at a time of rapid brain growth, the insult may impact a host of developmental programs, resulting in maturational defects that compound the acquired lesion, for example, hypoxic-ischemic injury leading to loss of pre-OLs in turn leading to impaired myelination. The cause of EP is multifactorial, and
An Investigation into the Geometry of Seyfert Galaxies
C. J. Clarke,A. L. Kinney,J. E. Pringle
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1086/305285
Abstract: We present a new method for the statistical investigation into the distributions of the angle beta between the radio axis and the normal to the galactic disk for a sample of Seyfert galaxies. We discuss how further observations of the sample galaxies can strengthen the conclusions. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that AGN jets are oriented randomly in space, independent of the position of the plane of the galaxy. By making the simple assumption that the Standard Model of AGN holds, with a universal opening angle of the thick torus of phi_c, we demonstrate a statistical method to obtain an estimate of phi_c. Our data are not consistent with the simple-minded idea that Seyfert 1s and Seyfert 2s are differentiated solely by whether or not our line of sight lies within some fixed angle of the jet axis. Our result is significant on the 2 sigma level and can thus be considered only suggestive, not conclusive. A complete sample of Seyfert galaxies selected on an isotropic property is required to obtain a conclusive result.
A Patchwork Quilt to a Grand Design” – A Planned Approach to Preservation for Libraries and Archives in the United Kingdom and Ireland
Vanessa C. Marshall
Liber Quarterly : The Journal of European Research Libraries , 2001,
Abstract: This paper is divided into five sections: 1. an introduction to the National Preservation Office (NPO): 1984 to 1995; 1996 – 1999, when a new funding basis and management structure was put in place 2. set out the NPO’s strategic aim, which is the adoption of a planned approach to preservation by libraries and archives in the UK and Ireland and lay before you the achievements of the Office since 1999 3. bring you up to date on digital preservation in the UK since 1996 4. touch briefly on factors affecting the preservation profession in the UK today, and 5. give some personal thoughts on where preservation management initiatives might advance the profession and where that could take us over the next three years (2002 – 2005).
Review of: Ruth Herzog / Reto Feller (Hrsg./ Ed.), Bernische Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit in Geschichte und Gegenwart.
Vanessa C. Duss Jacobi
Forum Historiae Iuris , 2012,
Being Old Does Not Necessarily Mean Being Inactive: Health Profile of Elderly Athletes versus Community-Dwelling Older Adults  [PDF]
Mimi Tse, Anthony Wong, Vanessa T. C. Wan
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.521182
Introduction: According to the records of the Hong Kong Athletic Gala for the Elderly, some sports events have been won by the same group of elderly participants for several consecutive years. What made these elderly athletes different from others? Method: This was a retrospective quantitative study. The health profile data on a total of 125 elderly participants were collected. 36 and 29 were the winners and losers of the Hong Kong Athletic Gala for the Elderly between 2008 and 2010, respectively. The remaining 60 were non-participants. The non-participants came from six elderly centers in different districts in Hong Kong. Health profile parameters were measured using the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, which is used to measure healthy behaviors such as physical activity level, nutrition, stress management, health responsibility, interpersonal relations and spiritual growth. Results: About 41.7% (n = 15) and 80.0% (n = 48) of the elderly (mean age = 74 ± 9.0) in the winner and non-participant groups with chronic diseases. There were significant (p < 0.05) differences in fat percentage, mobility, and body mass index among the three groups of elderly. Five out of six domains in the HPLP-II: physical activity, nutrition, interpersonal relations, spiritual growth and health responsibility, were siginificantly different among two groups. Conclusion: It could be concluded that elderly people who had better health status and lifestyle, and who undertook regular exercise, fared better than others in sports events.
Starbursts and Star Clusters in the Ultraviolet
G. R. Meurer,T. M. Heckman,C. Leitherer,A. Kinney,C. Robert,D. R. Garnett
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1086/117721
Abstract: Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet (UV) images of nine starburst galaxies reveal them to be highly irregular, even after excluding compact sources (clusters and resolved stars). Most (7/9) are found to have a similar intrinsic effective surface brightnesses, suggesting that a negative feedback mechanism is setting an upper limit to the star formation rate per unit area. All starbursts in our sample contain UV bright star clusters indicating that cluster formation is an important mode of star formation in starbursts. On average about 20% of the UV luminosity comes from these clusters. The brightest clusters, or super star clusters (SSC), are preferentially found at the very heart of starbursts. The size of the nearest SSCs are consistent with those of Galactic globular clusters. The luminosity function of SSCs is well represented by a power law with a slope alpha ~ -2. There is a strong correlation between the far infrared excess and the UV spectral slope. The correlation is well modeled by a geometry where much of their dust is in a foreground screen near to the starburst, but not by a geometry of well mixed stars and dust.
Macroepizoísmo em Libinia ferreirae (Crustacea, Brachyura, Majidae)
Winter, Vanessa C.;Masunari, Setuko;
Iheringia. Série Zoologia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0073-47212006000200002
Abstract: a study of the distribution of the macroepizoites was carried out on a population of the spider crab libinia ferreirae brito capello, 1871 from the southern brazilian coast. crabs were obtained from shrimps and fishes by-catch. they were measured, and their macroepizoites were identified and counted. the following sessile macroepizoites were registered: calliactis tricolor (lesueur, 1817) (cnidaria); actiniaria (cnidaria); arca sp. (mollusca); ostreidae (mollusca); acanthodesia tenuis (desor, 1848) (bryozoa); cirripedia and two species of gammaridea (crustacea). the sea anemone c. tricolor was the most frequent species and probably it is used as a mechanism of camouflage by crabs. macroepizoites on l. ferreirae are related to its age or size, therefore, bigger or older crabs had greater incidence of macroepizoites. however, the density of macroepizoites is about three per crab. there is not a relationship between macroepizoism and sex of the host, but ovigerous females use this resource more frequently than non-ovigerous ones. due to larger setting area, macroepizoites colonize mainly the carapace of the host; bryozoans predominate in hosts' pereiopods.
Investigation of Intramolecular Dynamics and Conformations of α-, β- and γ-Synuclein
Vanessa C. Ducas, Elizabeth Rhoades
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086983
Abstract: The synucleins are a family of natively unstructured proteins consisting of α-, β-, and γ-synuclein which are primarily expressed in neurons. They have been linked to a wide variety of pathologies, including neurological disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease (α-synuclein) and dementia with Lewy bodies (α- and β-synuclein), as well as various types of cancers (γ-synuclein). Self-association is a key pathological feature of many of these disorders, with α-synuclein having the highest propensity to form aggregates, while β-synuclein is the least prone. Here, we used a combination of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and single molecule F?rster resonance energy transfer to compare the intrinsic dynamics of different regions of all three synuclein proteins to investigate any correlation with putative functional or dysfunctional interactions. Despite a relatively high degree of sequence homology, we find that individual regions sample a broad range of diffusion coefficients, differing by almost a factor of four. At low pH, a condition that accelerates aggregation of α-synuclein, on average smaller diffusion coefficients are measured, supporting a hypothesis that slower intrachain dynamics may be correlated with self-association. Moreover, there is a surprising inverse correlation between dynamics and bulkiness of the segments. Aside from this observation, we could not discern any clear relationship between the physico-chemical properties of the constructs and their intrinsic dynamics. This work suggests that while protein dynamics may play a role in modulating self-association or interactions with other binding partners, other factors, particularly the local cellular environment, may be more important.
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