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Comparative Analysis of Glycoside Hydrolases Activities from Phylogenetically Diverse Marine Bacteria of the Genus Arenibacter
Irina Bakunina,Olga Nedashkovskaya,Larissa Balabanova,Tatyana Zvyagintseva,Valery Rasskasov,Valery Mikhailov
Marine Drugs , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/md11061977
Abstract: A total of 16 marine strains belonging to the genus Arenibacter, recovered from diverse microbial communities associated with various marine habitats and collected from different locations, were evaluated in degradation of natural polysaccharides and chromogenic glycosides. Most strains were affiliated with five recognized species, and some presented three new species within the genus Arenibacter. No strains contained enzymes depolymerizing polysaccharides, but synthesized a wide spectrum of glycosidases. Highly active β- N-acetylglucosaminidases and α- N-acetylgalactosaminidases were the main glycosidases for all Arenibacter. The genes, encoding two new members of glycoside hydrolyses (GH) families, 20 and 109, were isolated and characterized from the genomes of Arenibacter latericius. Molecular genetic analysis using glycosidase-specific primers shows the absence of GH27 and GH36 genes. A sequence comparison with functionally-characterized GH20 and GH109 enzymes shows that both sequences are closest to the enzymes of chitinolytic bacteria Vibrio furnissii and Cellulomonas fimi of marine and terrestrial origin, as well as human pathogen Elisabethkingia meningoseptica and simbionts Akkermansia muciniphila, gut and non-gut Bacteroides, respectively. These results revealed that the genus Arenibacter is a highly taxonomic diverse group of microorganisms, which can participate in degradation of natural polymers in marine environments depending on their niche and habitat adaptations. They are new prospective candidates for biotechnological applications due to their production of unique glycosidases.
New Trends in Non-Destructive Evaluation of Surface Hardened Layers and Coatings  [PDF]
Valery Vengrinovich
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology (JSEMAT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsemat.2013.32020

This article should not be considered as a full review of current methods for non-destructive testing of surface layers. Rather, it is a subjective in this area. However, the article provides some review of the challenges posed by the current state of surface layers treatment techniques on the area of Non-Destructive materials evaluation: enhancement of the sensitivity to the type of defects, increasing resolution to submicron values, the requirement to diagnose the surface layers with depth resolution of properties, diagnosis of multilayer multicomponent surface layers and coatings, treated with concentrated energy.

Assessment of Changes in Ice Regime Characteristics of Russian Lakes and Rivers under Current Climate Conditions  [PDF]
Valery Vuglinsky
Natural Resources (NR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2017.86027
Abstract: This article deals with assessment of changes in ice cover duration and maximum ice cover thickness for the last three decades compared with the previous period by the example of observation data for 28 hydrometric stations on rivers and 10 hydrological stations on lakes. Estimations of homogeneity and trends of long term serious of above mentioned rivers and lakes ice regime characteristics for three time periods were carried out using Student and Fisher criteria. Assessment of changes in ice regime characteristics for the period 1980-2010 compared with the period of stationary climate (from the beginning of observations until 1979) using two methodological approaches was made. The results can be used for solving problems of economy branches adaptation in case of rivers and lakes used in winter conditions.
Photochemical Properties of Precipitated Solid Aerosol Produced by Burning of Titanium Microparticles under Ambient Air  [PDF]
Valery Zakharenko, Sophia Khromova
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2010.12017
Abstract: In order to neutralize a drastic pollution of the environment (technogenic catastrophe) it is suggested to use technogenic technologies of chemical compound decontamination. One in such technologies can be the technology using metal oxide solid aerosols which are active in removal of pollutant compounds and obtainable by combustion under ambient air of appropriate metal particles, for example, aluminum, magnesium, titanium and etc. It is shown that the titanium dioxide out of an solid aerosol, obtained by pyrotechnic mixture combustion containing titanium microparticles has optic, chemical and photocatalytic properties close to properties of titanium dioxide produced by a different way. The production of such aerosol in direct place of a technogenic catastrophe can be made for the cleaning of atmosphere near a pollution source.
Combined Algorithms of Optimal Resource Allocation  [PDF]
Valery I. Struchenkov
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.31013
Abstract: Under study is the problem of optimum allocation of a resource. The following is proposed: the algorithm of dynamic programming in which on each step we only use the set of Pareto-optimal points, from which unpromising points are in addition excluded. For this purpose, initial approximations and bilateral prognostic evaluations of optimum are used. These evaluations are obtained by the method of branch and bound. A new algorithm “descent-ascent” is proposed to find upper and lower limits of the optimum. It repeatedly allows to increase the efficiency of the algorithm in the comparison with the well known methods. The results of calculations are included.
Model of Overlapping Messages with Degenerate Coding  [PDF]
Valery Kirzhner, Zeev Volkovich
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.32030
Abstract: Superposition of signals in DNA molecule is a sufficiently general principle of information coding. The necessary re-quirement for such superposition is the degeneracy of the code, which allows placing different messages on the same DNA fragment. Code words that are equivalent in the informational sense (i.e., synonyms) form synonymous group and the entire set of code words is partitioned into synonymous groups. This paper is dedicated to constructing and analyzing the model of synonymous coding. We evaluate some characteristics of synonymous coding as applied to code words of length two although many definitions may be extended for words of arbitrary length.
Modulation Equations for Roll Waves on Vertically Falling Films of a Power-Law Fluid  [PDF]
Abdelaziz Boudlal, Valery Liapidevskii
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2012.21001
Abstract: Waves of finite amplitude on a thin layer of non-Newtonian fluid modelled as a power-law fluid are considered. In the long wave approximation, the system of equations taking into account the viscous and nonlinear effects has the hyper- bolic type. For the two-parameter family of periodic waves in the film flow on a vertical wall the modulation equations for nonlinear wave trains are derived and investigated. The stability criterium for roll waves based on the hyperbolicity of the modulation equations is suggested. It is shown that the evolution of stable roll waves can be described by self-similar solutions of the modulation equations.
Mathematical Models and Optimization in Line Structure Routing: Survey and Advanced Results  [PDF]
Valery I. Struchenkov
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2012.529073
Abstract: Under study is the optimization problem of line structure (primarily railroad) routing. The improved mathematical models and algorithms of vertical alignment by set versions of the route plan are offered. The problem is solved in some stages in interrelation with other design problems. The original algorithm of descent is given for solving the arising problem of nonlinear programming. Structural features of constraints are used and so it is not required to solve any systems of linear equations.
Mixing Enhancement in a Coaxial Jet Mixer  [PDF]
Valery Zhdanov, Egon Hassel
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry (AMPC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ampc.2012.24B035
Abstract: Experimental investigations of mixing in a coaxial jet mixer have been carried out applying Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) methods simultaneously. A developed turbulent jet of an aqueous solution of Rhodamine 6G issued from the nozzle was mixed with co-flow water. Velocity and scalar fields were studied quite far downstream flow to control the formation of a quasi homogeneous mixture. The intensity of mixing was varied by mouthpieces with rectangular and triangular vortex generators of different sizes installed in the nozzle. The formation length of the quasi homogeneous mixture was reduced about 10 jet diameters by the tabs. The triangular tabs were more effective than the rectangular ones.
Origin and development of homoiothermy: A case study of avian energetics  [PDF]
Valery M. Gavrilov
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.48A1001

The study is based on the results of the integrated measurement of the energy expenditure at rest and common activity in birds belonging to various systematic groups. Homeothermy has formed in birds and mammals independently and in different geological ages. However, in both groups it originated as a side effect of selection for aerobic metabolism improvement that provided a higher level of activity. Advantages of having high and stable body temperature, which were inevitably related with metabolism intensification, led to development of thermoregulatory adaptations such as fur and feathers. This made it possible to retain the metabolically generated heat and reduce heat absorption in hot environments. Emergence of homeothermy with aerobic supply of motion activity, possibilities to regulate the level of metabolism and thermal conductance, has opened a lot of opportunities for homoeothermic animals. Achieving such a level of energy utilization allowed them to maintain activity for a longer time, while its sensory support led to complication and diversification of birds’ behavioral repertoire (as well as that of mammals) facilitating the conquest of almost entire part of the biosphere that was suitable for living. This process was favored by the development of nurturing and passing on the information, collected throughout the life, to new generations. Formation of high levels of aerobic metabolism in birds and mammals was proceeding in parallel among different groups of reptilian ancestors. The level of homeothermy, at which aerobic metabolism was able to maintain prolonged activity, developed in birds and mammals in different ways: they had got dissimilar partitioning of venous and arterial networks, erythrocytes with or without a cell nucleus, different lungs design—but, at that, similar minimum metabolic power and rather close body temperatures which corresponded well to the environmental conditions on the Earth. Natural selection allowed animals with high energetic metabolism to increase their diversity and abundance, but only when homoeothermic animals could satisfy their demands for food resources, that had risen manifold. That happened in the middle of Cretaceous, in time with the appearance of angiosperms and expansion of related fauna of invertebrates.

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