Abstract:
We present a relativistic covariant form of many-body theory. The many-body covariant Lagrangian is derived from QED by integrating out the internal non-quantized electromagnetic field. The ordinary many-body Hamiltonian is recovered as an approximation to the exact covariant theory that contains many-body terms beyond the solely electrostatic interaction, e.g. the Lorentz force among electrons, spin-spin etc. Spin and relativistic terms, e.g. spin-orbit, are also automatically accounted. Moreover, the theory is compact, gauge-invariant and respects causality.

Abstract:
Graphene two-dimensional nature combined with today lithography allows to achieve nanoelectronics devices smaller than the Dirac electrons wavelength. Here we show that in these graphene subwavelength nanodevices the electronic quantum transport properties present deep analogies with classical phenomena of subwavelength optics. By introducing the concept of electronic diffraction barrier to represent the effect of constrictions, we can easily describe the rich transport physics in a wealth of nanodevices: from Bethe and Kirchhoff diffraction in graphene slits, to Fabry-Perot interference oscillations in nanoribbons. The same concept applies to graphene quantum dots and gives new insigth into recent experiments on these systems.

Abstract:
The unconventional properties of graphene, with a massless Dirac band dispersion and large coherence properties, have raised a large interest for applications in nanoelectronics. In this work, we emphasize that graphene two dimensional character combined with current standard lithography processes allow to achieve devices smaller than the Dirac electrons wavelength. In this regime, we demonstrate that the electronic properties present deep analogies with subwavelength optics phenomena. We describe the rich transport physics in graphene-based nanodevices through optical analogies: From the Bethe and Kirchhoff-like diffraction patterns in the conductance of graphene slits to the Fabry-Perot oscillations of the conductance in nanoribbons. We introduce the concept of {\it electronic diffraction barriers}, which transmission cancels at the Dirac point. This gives central insight in the properties of Graphene subwavelength devices including nanoelectronics standard systems, such as quantum dots. As an application we propose a new type of quantum dots, namely functionalized subwavelength quantum dots, which could be used as molecular spin valves.

Abstract:
We discuss the current status of a computational approach which allows to evaluate the dielectric matrix, and hence electronic excitations like optical properties, including local field and excitonic effects. We introduce a recent numerical development which greatly reduces the use of memory in such type of calculations, and hence eliminates one of the bottlenecks for the application to complex systems. We present recent applications of the method, focusing our interest on insulating oxides.

Abstract:
We investigate some aspects of the self-consistency in the Dyson-Schwinger approach to both the QED and the self-interacting scalar field theories. We prove that the set of the Dyson-Schwinger equations, together with the Green-Ward-Takahashi identity, is equivalent to the analogous set of integral equations studied in condensed matter, namely many-body perturbation theory, where it is solved self-consistently and iteratively. In this framework, we compute the non-perturbative solution of the gap equation for the self-interacting scalar field theory.

Abstract:
We introduce a new quantum transport formalism based on a map of a real 3-dimensional lead-conductor-lead system into an effective 1-dimensional system. The resulting effective 1D theory is an in principle exact formalism to calculate the conductance. Besides being more efficient than the principal layers approach, it naturally leads to a 5-partitioned workbench (instead of 3) where each part of the device (the true central device, the ballistic and the non-ballistic leads) is explicitely treated, allowing better physical insight into the contact resistance mechanisms. Independently, we derive a generalized Fisher-Lee formula and a generalized Meir-Wingreen formula for the correlated and uncorrelated conductance and current of the system where the initial restrictions to ballistic leads are generalized to the case of resistive contacts. We present an application to graphene nanoribbons.

Abstract:
We evaluate the performances of ab initio GW calculations for the ionization energies and HOMO-LUMO gaps of thirteen gas phase molecules of interest for organic electronic and photovoltaic applications, including the C60 fullerene, pentacene, free-base porphyrins and phtalocyanine, PTCDA, and standard monomers such as thiophene, fluorene, benzothiazole or thiadiazole. Standard G0W0 calculations, that is starting from eigenstates obtained with local or semilocal functionals, significantly improve the ionization energy and band gap as compared to density functional theory Kohn-Sham results, but the calculated quasiparticle values remain too small as a result of overscreening. Starting from Hartree-Fock-like eigenvalues provides much better results and is equivalent to performing self-consistency on the eigenvalues, with a resulting accuracy of 2~4% as compared to experiment. Our calculations are based on an efficient gaussian-basis implementation of GW with explicit treatment of the dynamical screening through contour deformation techniques.

Abstract:
We present an ab initio approach to electronic transport in nanoscale systems which includes electronic correlations through the GW approximation. With respect to Landauer approaches based on density-functional theory (DFT), we introduce a physical quasiparticle electronic-structure into a non-equilibrium Green's function theory framework. We use an equilibrium non-selfconsistent $G^0W^0$ self-energy considering both full non-hermiticity and dynamical effects. The method is applied to a real system, a gold mono-atomic chain. With respect to DFT results, the conductance profile is modified and reduced by to the introduction of diffusion and loss-of-coherence effects. The linear response conductance characteristic appear to be in agreement with experimental results.

Abstract:
We present calculations of the absorption spectrum of semiconductors and insulators comparing various approaches: (i) the two-particle Bethe-Salpeter equation of Many-Body Perturbation Theory; (ii) time-dependent density-functional theory using a recently developed kernel that was derived from the Bethe-Salpeter equation; (iii) a scheme that we propose in the present work and that allows one to derive different parameter-free approximations to (ii). We show that all methods reproduce the series of bound excitons in the gap of solid argon, as well as continuum excitons in semiconductors. This is even true for the simplest static approximation, which allows us to reformulate the equations in a way such that the scaling of the calculations with number of atoms equals the one of the Random Phase Approximation.

Abstract:
Measurable spectra are theoretically very often derived from complicated many-body Green's functions. In this way, one calculates much more information than actually needed. Here we present an in principle exact approach to construct effective potentials and kernels for the direct calculation of electronic spectra. In particular, the potential that yields the spectral function needed to describe photoemission turns out to be dynamical but {\it local} and {\it real}. As example we illustrate this ``photoemission potential'' for sodium and aluminium, modelled as homogeneous electron gas, and discuss in particular its frequency dependence stemming from the nonlocality of the corresponding self-energy. We also show that our approach leads to a very short derivation of a kernel that is known to well describe absorption and energy-loss spectra of a wide range of materials.