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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 953 matches for " Valerie Speirs "
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Articles selected in February 2004
Valerie Speirs
Breast Cancer Research , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/bcr769
Articles selected in September 2004
Valerie Speirs
Breast Cancer Research , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/bcr955
Articles selected in July 2004
Valerie Speirs
Breast Cancer Research , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/bcr925
Articles selected in May 2004
Valerie Speirs
Breast Cancer Research , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/bcr817
The evolving role of oestrogen receptor beta in clinical breast cancer
Valerie Speirs
Breast Cancer Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2140
Abstract: Oestrogen receptor (ER)α remains the most important biomarker in breast cancer as it indicates the likelihood of patients to benefit from endocrine therapy. The discovery of ERβ over a decade ago was initially greeted with interest by the breast cancer community. Its presence indicated that ER signalling was no longer restricted to ERα, with a real possibility of using ERβ as an additional prognostic or predictive marker in breast cancer, complementing ERα. A number of studies were subsequently published, examining ERβ mRNA, protein or a combination of both – but many of these studies suffered from small sample numbers, use of poorly validated primary antibodies and failure to consider the potential importance of known ERβ isoforms. This led to conflicting results, holding back anticipated progress. As a result, a great deal of scepticism began to surround the potential importance of ERβ in breast cancer.ERβ has recently emerged from the shadows with the concurrent publication of three papers [1-3]. These articles stand out from previous studies because they examined large numbers of breast cancers using well validated, readily available antibodies.In the present journal, Novelli and colleagues conducted a prospective immunohistochemical study of ERβ1 in 936 breast cancers [1]. Rather than relying solely on conventional statistics to define ERβ association with clinicopathological factors, the authors used two additional statistical approaches: multiple correspondence analysis, and classification and regression tree analysis. The former approach analyses patterns of relationships of several categorical dependent variables, while the latter is a tree-building technique developed to reveal complex interactions between predictors that may be difficult to find using traditional multivariate techniques. Multiple correspondence analysis showed ERβ1 positivity was associated with more aggressive breast cancer phenotypes, namely HER2-positive tumours and triple negative/bas
Choosing the right cell line for breast cancer research
Deborah L Holliday, Valerie Speirs
Breast Cancer Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2889
Abstract: The first human cell line was established in a Baltimore laboratory over 50 years ago by George Gey [1]. This cell line was HeLa - named after Henrietta Lacks, the lady from whom the cell line was derived, who had cervical carcinoma. Gey's vision paved the way for cell culture as we know it today, allowing its widespread development into an important experimental tool in cancer research. One of the major benefits of using cultured cell lines in cancer research is that they offer an infinite supply of a relatively homogeneous cell population that is capable of self-replication in standard cell culture medium.The first breast cancer cell line to be established was BT-20 in 1958 [2]. It was another 20 years, however, before establishing breast cancer cell lines became more widespread, including the MD Anderson series [3] and what still remains the most commonly used breast cancer cell line in the world, MCF-7 established in 1973 at the Michigan Cancer Foundation [4]. The popularity of MCF-7 is largely due to its exquisite hormone sensitivity through expression of oestrogen receptor (ER), making it an ideal model to study hormone response [5].Despite these early accomplishments, relatively few breast cancer cell lines have been established in the more recent past, mainly because of difficulties in culturing homogeneous populations without significant stromal contamination and, at least in the United Kingdom, partly due to rigorous ethical regulations surrounding obtaining human tissue for research [6]. Successes include the SUM series of 10 cell lines derived from either breast primary tumours, pleural effusions or various metastatic sites in individual patients [7]. These cell lines are now widely available through commercial cell banks.Long before the advent of modern molecular profiling techniques, histopathologists recognised that breast cancer was heterogeneous through morphological observations. Classification was based on the following measures: histological type
91st Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research
Valerie Speirs, Karen L Schmeichel
Breast Cancer Research , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/bcr71
Abstract: A number of scientists were honoured at the meeting for their outstanding contributions to cancer research. Charles Sherr (St Jude's Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA) was awarded the Pezcoller International Cancer Research Award for his work on the mechanisms of cell growth control and neoplastic transformation. The Bruce F Cain Memorial Award was given to Axel Ullrich (Max-Planck Institute for Biochemistry, Martinsried, Germany) who has successfully translated his pioneering work on tyrosine kinase receptors, such as HER2/neu, into actual treatment strategies. Edison T Liu (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA) was also recognized for his work in establishing a correlation between HER2/neu overexpression and those breast cancers that have an unfavourable prognosis and high probability of responding to doxorubicin therapy. Finally, the prestigious GHA Clowes Memorial Award was presented to Elizabeth Blackburn (University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA) for her pioneering work in the discovery of telomerase and its potential role in cancer.Herein we outline a few of the many provocative studies discussed at the meeting. Although some of the topics discussed below are specific to the breast, others addressing global mechanisms of tumour progression are also considered because they may be appropriate paradigms for understanding and treating breast cancer in the future.The role of steroids and their receptors in breast cancer progression was the focus of a number of presentations.In an informative and entertaining plenary session talk, Malcolm Pike (USC/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA) discussed the concept of breast cancer prevention through hormonal manipulation (eg early full-term pregnancy or use of the oral contraceptive pill). This theme was followed up in a subsequent mini-symposium in which a number of animal studies that examined the timing of oestrogen exposure in breast cancer risk were presented. Ana Caba
British Cancer Research Meeting, 30 June-3 July 2002, Glasgow
Alicia T Parkes, Valerie Speirs
Breast Cancer Research , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/bcr453
Abstract: Rain and the city of Glasgow are almost synonymous and sadly this was indeed the case for the duration of the British Cancer Research Meeting 2002, held at the Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre from 30th June to 3rd July. The rain did not dampen the spirits of the almost 600 delegates, however, and a feast of good science was enjoyed. This ranged from plenary sessions and award lectures to proffered paper sessions and posters, covering various aspects of clinically diagnosed and experimental cancer models. Here we present some of the highlights.A number of scientists, both young and established, were honoured at the meeting for their contributions to cancer research. The British Association for Cancer Research (BACR) Tom Connors Award Lecture "Close Encounters of a Molecular Kind" was given by Malcolm Stevens (University of Nottingham, UK). In his lecture, he outlined the need to nurture 'cunning' rather than 'stunning' chemistry as the way forward in drug discovery. The BACR Translational Research Award went to his colleague Tracey Bradshaw for her work on Phortress. In an eloquent presentation, the history of Phortress was outlined, underlining the interplay between chemistry and biology that led to its development and selection as a candidate therapy. Phortress evolved from polyhydroxylated 2-phenylbenzothiazoles designed as potential tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In laboratory studies it has shown very promising results in treating breast and ovarian cancers and it will shortly be undergoing Phase I clinical trials. Marie Boyd (University of Glasgow, UK) received the BACR Young Scientist Award and outlined the exciting prospect of linking conventional radiation-based therapies with gene therapy for treating malignancy.In "Re-designing Cancer Therapy", Sir David Lane (University of Dundee, UK) emphasised the need for patient-specific therapy, a consensus that was reiterated throughout the conference. He also discussed the necessity of looking not only at th
Phyto-oestrogens and breast cancer chemoprevention
Jane L Limer, Valerie Speirs
Breast Cancer Research , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/bcr781
Abstract: The current mortality rate for premenopausal breast cancer is approximately fourfold higher in the Western World than in Far East Asian nations [1]. Migrants from Asia to the USA typically acquire a breast cancer risk associated with their host nation by the second generation, suggesting a direct influence of environmental rather than genetic factors [2,3]. The reduced prevalence of breast cancer in Far East Asian nations directly correlates with the consumption of a staple diet that is abundant in soy [4]. Asian populations consume an approximate mean daily soy intake of 10–50 g, declining to just 1–3 g in the USA. The recent adoption of a more westernized diet correlates with an increased breast cancer incidence in urban areas of Japan, Singapore and China [5]. Soy-containing foods are an abundant source of phyto-oestrogens, and research suggests that these compounds may exhibit chemoprotectant activity against a number of human cancers, including colon carcinoma and hormone-dependent cancers of the breast and prostate [6]. This report focuses on the putative chemopreventive role of phyto-oestrogens in breast cancer, providing a comprehensive review of the published literature to date.Phyto-oestrogens may be classified into a number of principal groups [2,7-9]: the isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, biochanin A), the lignans (enterolactone, enterodiol), the coumestans (coumestrol) and the stilbenes (resveratrol). As illustrated in Fig. 1, all are polyphenols sharing structural similarity with the principal mammalian estrogen 17β-oestradiol. Shared features include the presence of a pair of hydroxyl groups and a phenolic ring, which is required for binding to the oestrogen receptor (ER) subtypes α and β. The position of the hydroxyl groups appears to be important in determining ER binding ability and transcriptional activation, with maximal potency achieved at positions four, six and seven [10-12]. The isoflavones are naturally found in soybeans and soy-based food p
Problems (and solutions) in the study of male breast cancer
Valerie Speirs,Steven Pollock,Abeer M. Shaaban,Andrew M. Hanby
Rare Tumors , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/rt.2010.e28
Abstract: Owing to its rarity, large-scale retrospective studies in male breast cancer have suffered from the small numbers of cases available for study from any one center. Here we describe our experience in establishing a large collection of male breast cancers in tissue micro-array format suitable for biomarker analysis by immunohistochemistry.
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