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El lenguaje químico de la interacción inmune-neuroendócrina
Luciana Larocca,Mario Calafat,Valeria Roca,Rosanna Ramhorst
Química Viva , 2008,
Abstract: En un esquema simplificado del organismo de un mamífero que responde en forma adaptativa frente a estímulos externos, la fisiología y otras ciencias biomédicas basadas en la evidencia sostuvieron hasta mediados del siglo pasado que el sistema nervioso respondía a los estímulos neurosensoriales mientras que el sistema inmune lo hacía frente a la posible entrada de un organismo extra o. Cada uno con su identidad de células, compartimientos y mediadores, aislado del otro. Las evidencias que se describen brevemente a continuación prueban la hipótesis de una interacción química y molecular bidireccional mediada por citoquinas y neurotransmisores que pueden actuar sobre las células de ambos sistemas. Es posible ahora comprobar observaciones hechas desde los primeros registros de las ciencias de la salud sobre la relación de los estados emocionales-afectivos, con la susceptibilidad a contraer enfermedades y, en sentido inverso, acerca de la influencia de las enfermedades infecciosas sobre los estados de ánimo y conductas en una aparente interacción bidireccional. La descripción de las estrategias experimentales para acceder a ese conocimiento se privilegió por sobre los detalles de los resultados con el fin de estimular la curiosidad sobre este nuevo enfoque.
The Degenerating Substantia Nigra as a Susceptible Region for Gene Transfer-Mediated Inflammation
Valeria Roca,Juan Cruz Casabona,Pablo Radice,Verónica Murta,Fernando Juan Pitossi
Parkinson's Disease , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/931572
Abstract: Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive degeneration of neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN). The na?ve SN is highly susceptible to inflammation. In addition, microglial activation in the degenerating SN displays distinct characteristics that increase the reactivity of the region towards inflammatory stimuli. On the other hand, gene therapy for PD has recently move forward into clinical settings, with PD being the neurodegenerative disorder with the highest number of Phase I/II gene therapy clinical trials approved and completed. These clinical trials are not targeting the SN, but this region is a certain candidate for future gene therapy interventions. Here, the unique immune-related properties of the degenerating SN in the context of a putative gene therapy intervention are reviewed. Several variables affecting the host response to gene delivery such as vector type and dosage, age and stage of disease of patients, and method of gene delivery and transgene used are discussed. Finally, approaches to diminish the risk of immune-mediated toxicity by gene transfer in the SN are presented. 1. Introduction Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN) (reviewed in [1]). The aetiology of the most common forms of PD remains unknown. Current therapeutic treatments comprise pharmacological strategies to compensate for dopamine deficiency or surgical interventions that reduce the hyperactivity of specific regions within the basal ganglia (reviewed in [2]). However, dopamine replacement can lead to undesired side-effects 5–10 years after the beginning of treatment [3]. As no treatment is available that can prevent disease progression, the search for new therapeutic interventions is intense. In particular, gene therapy approaches have successfully reached the clinical trial stage in a number of cases [4]. Approved gene therapy clinical trials are based on restoring the activity of the basal ganglia by providing growth factors, inhibiting hyperactive regions, or enhancing dopamine synthesis [4]. Viral gene delivery seems to be the method of choice for gene therapy for PD due to its high efficiency for gene transduction. A drawback to the delivery of genes via viral vectors comes by introducing an antigenic load into the brain. These antigens will invariably elicit a transient innate immune response [5]. The nature and functional (toxic or protective) consequences of this response will vary depending on a number of
Un corpo di donna per fare la guerra. Lettura della Ifigenia in Aulide di Euripide
Valeria Andò
Storia delle Donne , 2009,
Abstract: This paper analyzes Euripides’s Iphigenia in Aulis from a perspective that highlights the relationship between three different levels - the sacred, the political and the private -intersected as they are by the opposition male/female. In the course of the tragedy we assist at the gradual domination of the two spheres of “public” and “political”, while the sphere of “sacred” provides only a ritual frame. On the other hand, from the overall structure of the tragedy it also results that the sphere of “private” relationships and loves is a loser. Iphigenia, who takes upon herself the political and patriotic values of war, peculiar to the male, allows the execution of the sacrificial ritual and hence leads to the apparent triumph of the sacred final. Nevertheless, by resetting the other plans, she attains to upset oppositions and dichotomies and thus questions the prevalence of the sphere of “political” and, paradoxically, even her own reasons. The tragedy not only denounces war and politics as meaningless categories, but even erodes the religious value of sacrifice: in the final part of the tragedy, violence is actually rejected, but the refusal of human sacrifice does not involve a new political tension, and what remains is nothing but the beauty of poetry.
Vasoactive intestinal peptide inhibits TNF-α-induced apoptotic events in acinar cells from nonobese diabetic mice submandibular glands
Mario Calafat, Luciana Larocca, Valeria Roca, Vanesa Hauk, Nicolás Pregi, Alcira Nesse, Claudia Pérez Leirós
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/ar2671
Abstract: Acinar cells were isolated from submandibular glands of 16-week-old NOD females with salivary flow decline. Age-matched BALB/c females or eight-week-old NOD females were used as controls. Apoptotic mediators and TNF-α receptor expression were assessed by immunoblotting and RT-PCR, caspase 3 activity was assessed by optical density at 405 nm with Ac-DEVD-pNA as a substrate and chromatin condensation by Hoechst stain. They were evaluated in resting conditions and after a 3.5 or 6 hours of culture with TNF-α. VIP effects in acinar cells were assessed at 100 nM in TNF-α-treated cultures and VIP receptor functional assays by radio immunoassay (cAMP) or enzymatic detection (amylase).NOD acinar cells at 16 weeks present an increased expression of TNF-α receptor1 together with increased Bax, tumour protein 53-induced nuclear protein1α (TP53INP1α), caspase 3 activity and chromatin condensation. Acini from NOD mice were more sensitive to TNF-α-induced increases of apoptotic mediators than control cells. VIP inhibited TNF-α-induced apoptotic events through functional VPAC1 receptors coupled to the protein kinase A (PKA) signalling pathway.Our results indicate that acinar cells isolated from submandibular glands of NOD mice with salivary dysfunction are more sensitive to apoptosis induced by TNF-α which could be prevented by VIP through a PKA-mediated pathway.Sj?gren's syndrome is an autoimmune rheumatic disease characterised by a progressive loss of exocrine secretion that affects women in a 9:1 ratio [1-3]. The pathogenic mechanisms of disease are presently unknown and the active involvement of epithelial acinar cells producing inflammatory mediators has been discussed previously [4]. Hence, studies on acinar cell cultures from patients with Sj?gren's syndrome and biopsies indicate an aberrant expression and activation of inflammatory mediators together with defective activity of key enzymes involved in saliva secretion [4-6].Observations that acinar cells may be actively inv
El hombre del cuadro (fabulación para escépticos)
Roca Roca, Eduardo
Arbor : Ciencia, Pensamiento y Cultura , 2004,
Abstract: No disponible
Roca Roca, Eduardo
Arbor : Ciencia, Pensamiento y Cultura , 2004,
Negative Emotions and Defence Mechanisms in Obese People  [PDF]
Valeria Biasi, Paolo Bonaiuto
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.518201
Abstract: Previous investigations, using an effective non-invasive procedure of short-term experimental stress, proved that Obese vs. Normal Women develop about double the intensity of negative emotions (anxiety, anger, sadness) when under stress (Bonaiuto et al., 1993). A high production of negative emotions as a reaction to many everyday life stressors forces people to resort to psychological defense mechanisms. In the case of Obese Persons, these include oral regression (“neonatal regression”) and somatization, together with repression and denial. The latter components are part of the so-called Lifestyle Defense Mechanisms, studied by Grossarth-Maticek (1980). In the rigorous revision and classification carried out by Spielberger (1988) and Spielberger & Reheiser (2000, 2009), these factors were defined as “Need for Harmony” (N/H) and “Rationality/Emotional Defensiveness” (R/ED). In order to develop further appropriate indications, more than seven hundred Italian adults were examined by also recording the Body Mass Index (BMI) and using some evaluation tools, including the LDM Inventory. Significantly higher N/H scores were found in Obese Persons when compared with Overweight, Normal weight and Underweight ones. Other personological differences included significantly higher frequencies of the Type B Behaviour Pattern and higher average levels of Hyperphagic tendencies among the obese people. A development of this study involved more than one thousand participants and provided a confirmation of the influence of these defence mechanisms and personality structures as co-factors in determining obesity.
The “Need for Harmony” Defence Mechanisms as Co-Factor in Stress Sensitivity Producing Sadness and Depression  [PDF]
Valeria Biasi, Paolo Bonaiuto
Open Journal of Depression (OJD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojd.2014.35021
Abstract: The aim of this investigation is to develop useful research toolsfor assessingpsychological traits and defence mechanisms towardnegative emotions. The present study examined 124 young women adults (19 - 39 years) participating in short-term stress sessions conducted with a non-invasive procedure called “Drawing Recollection” of real personal stressful life experiences (Biasi & Bonaiuto, 1997a, 1997b, 2007). This treatment lasts 20 minutes and is as effective as the heavier traditional techniques. Emotional and motivational changes are documented by pre- and post- treatment bipolar “Self-Appraisal Scales” (Biasi, Bonaiuto, & Giannini, 2010). With the LDM Inventory, the participants were selected and divided into two contrasting extreme groups, according to their very high or very low Need for Harmony (N/H) sub-scale scores. We identified favourable and unfavourable personality traits for developing specific negative emotions under stress: in particular the N/H, concerning the tendency to avoid interpersonal conflicts at the cost of self-sacrifice and self-punishment (Spielberger, 1988; Spielberger & Reheiser, 2000). Participants who obtained high “Sadness” scores under stress (measured by “Self-Appraisal Scales”), had significantly higher scores on N/H scales compared to the opposite group (p < 0.001). The N/H defence mechanism and negative emotion of “Sadness” (“Depression”) combination represents significant co-factors of stress sensitivity.
Trastornos metabólicos relacionados con el VIH y el tratamiento antirretroviral
Anales de Medicina Interna , 2003, DOI: 10.4321/S0212-71992003001100008
Abstract: in the last few years, recently developed antirretroviral treatment has allowed a dramatic improvement in the prognosis of hiv disease. as a result, other medical problems are taking increasing relevance in the follow up of the patients infected by such virus. in this article, metabolic disorders associated with hiv, as well as those provoked by antiretroviral therapy, are comprehensively reviewed.
Infecciones por clamidias
Anales de Medicina Interna , 2007, DOI: 10.4321/S0212-71992007000600009
Abstract: chlamydiae are a singular group of bacteria, with a vital cycle that is intracellular in part. these microorganisms adhere to epithelia, where they may provoke infection. there are three pathogenic species for humans: chlamydia trachomatis, which produce infections mainly in the genital and urinary tracts, and c. psittaci and c. pneumoniae, which mostly produce respiratory infections. the last two microorganisms are now classified in a different genus, known as chlamydophila.
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