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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 145806 matches for " Valenzuela B "
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Valenzuela B.,Alfonso;
Revista chilena de nutrición , 2004, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-75182004000200001
Abstract: tea is a widely consumed beverage and most of its chemical components are associated to health benefits. tea may be consumed as green tea, oolong, and black tea, which contain a variable but important amount of catechins and polyphenols. the final amount of these substances is mainly determined by the degree of oxidation of tea leaves. green tea is prepared from recently harvested tea leaves, instead oolong and black tea that are prepared from the controlled oxidation of tea leaves. health benefits from tea consumption are related to the antioxidant properties of its components which acting as oxygen free radical scavengers may protect nucleic acid, proteins, and lipid structures. tea polyphenols can inhibit in vitro cancer initiation, promotion, and progression by acting over specific enzymes in each stage. tea polyphenols may have also inhibitory effects in atherogenesis by inhibiting ldl oxidation, and by acting on enzymes and/or metabolites involved in cholesterol, and vascular homeostasis. tea consumption may improve quality of life by stimulation of fat metabolism and thermogenesis at the adipose tissue, and by promoting the bone remineralization due its fluoride content. scientific evidence about the biochemical and physiological effects of tea have been obtained mainly from in vitro experiments. however, there are epidemiological studies in populations of different age also providing strong evidence about the health benefits of tea consumption. tea is a recommendable beverage that helps in maintaining a better health fitness and quality of life.
Valenzuela B,Alfonso;
Revista chilena de nutrición , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-75182011000200010
Abstract: the composition of our diet partially reflects our body composition and from these it is possible to obtain some information about the quality of our feeding. however, the question may be, do we eat that we really need to eat? or, why we eat what we eat? the human body is the result of the highly regulated expression of our genes, and our genetic heritage is the result of a constant evolutionary process of millions of years. almost the totally of our genome was formed during the pre-agricultural era and we suppose that this is the optimal informational patrimony for the normal development of our life. this genetic patrimony has allowed our adaptation to the constant modifications of our environment, particularly to the climatic variations where our ancestors developed millions of years ago. our genetic patrimony was slowly molded, without important changes, during each of the steps of the evolutionary process, from the ardipithecus ramidus of arboreal life until the present homo sapiens sapiens, determining our actual nutritional requirements. during these evolution steps aroused the "thrifty genotype" expressed as tissue leptin resistance and differential insulin resistance. at present the expression of the thrifty genotype is not necessary and the effects of its action are associated with the opulence diseases; obesity, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, among others. this work discusses why we have reached to eat what we eat and how the evolution of our feeding can be related with diseases of high prevalence in the western world.
Valenzuela B,Alfonso;
Revista chilena de nutrición , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-75182008000300001
Abstract: it has been observed thatfoods with similar amount ofstarch can genérate different glycemic responses. the evidence ofa direct link between saturatedfat consumption and an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases has led consumers to consider oils derived from vegetables, and industrial products derived from them, as healthier substitutes than animal fats. during the technological manipulation of vegetable oils, in order to transform them into more stable products it is applied the process of hydrogenaíion. the main side effeci of this process is the formation ofgeometric and positional isomers ofthe unsaturatedfatty acids, primarüy trans isomers offatty acids (tfa). dietary tfa consumption has a biological and industrial origin; the latterfound in margarine, shortening, home and industrial cooking oil, bakery goods, and the wide range of'snack foods. substantial tfa amounts comefrom the so called "invisible fats", the raw material used to manufacture more complexfoods. the current wisdom is that tfa have an adverse effect on cardiovascular health, and its consumption poses a potential risk for increasing the incidence ofheart disease.
Valenzuela B,Alfonso;
Revista chilena de nutrición , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-75182007000400001
Abstract: the different stages of the development of human beings has been mainly determined by the climate modification at earth. the evolution from a vegan quadruped hominid of arboreal life with a very small brain, to a bipedal terrestrial omnivore not well-adapted-to-be carnivore, with a bigger and more complex brain, produced modifications in their feeding habits, particularly in the consumption of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. the transition from a vegan feeding to an omnivore-carnivore feeding needed an obligatory modification of the biochemistry and physiology of the hominid nutrition. it was necessary the development of insulin-resistance in some tissues such as skeletal muscle, and also a certain degree of leptin-resistance to improve the access of glucose to those tissues with high glucose-dependence. these changes induced a genotype, now identified as the ?thrifty genotype?, which is expressed in a phenotype that favors the accumulation of fat as an energy reservoir. however, nowadays the activity of the thrifty genotype is not needed and its expression results in the vertiginous increment of obesity in the population. the present work reviews the evolution of nutrition in different stages during the development of the genus homo, emphasizing the importance of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in brain development. it is also discussed how the modification of nutrition during the development of human being influenced on the increment of obesity which is presently observed in the population
Valenzuela B,Alfonso;
Revista chilena de nutrición , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-75182007000300001
Abstract: cocoa, which is obtained from the beans of the cocoa tree, was used hundred of years ago by the south america indigenous population for the preparation of a strong and bitter beverage. later, the europeans modified the preparation and composition of this beverage to develop what we now know as chocolate, presently produced as black (or dark) chocolate, milk chocolate, or white chocolate. from these products, black chocolate is the most interesting, because of its high content of the flavanols epicatechin, catechin and procyanidins. these flavanols exhibit strong antioxidant activity inhibiting ldl oxidation, platelet adhesion and reducing arterial pressure. consumption of black chocolate containing a high amount of flavanols is associated with beneficial effects in cardiovascular health and other diseases were oxidative process are involved, demonstrated in a number of experimental, clinical, and epidemiological studies. the present review summarizes the state of the art about the health benefits of chocolate consumption
Valenzuela B,Alfonso;
Revista chilena de nutrición , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-75182010000400013
Abstract: caffeine is the principal active component of coffee and the effects of coffee consumption are mainly associated to this component. caffeine is a methylxanthine, which acts as antagonist of adenine receptors at the nervous system. a great number of health effects, both beneficial and detrimental, have been associated to caffeine consumption: such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, hepatic cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, are included as the main targets. the present work reviews two of the main concerns about coffee and caffeine consumption: cardiovascular disease and maternal health (perinatal period). the general conclusion is that caffeine consumption up to 300 mg/day does not constitute a risk of myocardial infarction, hypertension, or modification of cardiovascular risk markers such as reactive c protein or homocysteine plasmatic levels. similar conclusions are reached about the maternal health. moderate caffeine consumption (300 mg/day or less) does not constitute a major risk of less conception, increased gestational diabetes, decrease fetal growth, or congenital defects. however, absence frisk may not be interpreted as a signal to stimulate coffee consumption during pregnancy. future mothers, which are moderated coffee consumers, may be suggested to continue this consumption during pregnancy, but under medical supervision.
Valenzuela B,Alfonso;
Revista chilena de nutrición , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-75182008000300002
Abstract: tfa consumption is well established in developed countries, all ofwhich have begun to adopt policies and regulations to drastically reduce the tfa content ofprocessedfoods. not so in latín américa. we lack up-to-date studies on tfa, and in most cases, have only estimates oftfa consumption based on information from incomplete tables, sometimes from other countries or regions with different consumption habits. fot intake varíes widely within each country or group of countries. some countries have no regulations governing the fot composition offoods, especially their tfa content. the methodology developedfor the industry to reduce the tfa content of hydrogenated products involves the use ofoils with high degree of saturation in their natural state, or previously hydrogenated vegetable oils until reaching a high degree of saturation. in light ofthe nutritional recommendations to reduce tfa intake, it is expected that consumption ofthese isomers, primarily those of industrial origin, will decrease in the coming years. this paper discusses the sources ofthe tfa in our diet, the current alternatives for reducing tfa content infoods, and includes information regarding the production and estimated intake offats and tfa for some latin american countries for which this information is available.
Valenzuela B,Alfonso;
Revista chilena de nutrición , 2005, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-75182005000100001
Abstract: presently chile is at present the first salmon world producer and exporter, a fish highly requested by its organoleptic characteristics. the fish is also a good source of some important omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5, epa) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6, dha). epa when consumed is associated to the protection of cardiovascular diseases, because its hipotriglyceridemic, hipocholesterolemic, and anti-inflammatory actions. dha is related to the development of the nervous and visual system. it has been proposed that the consumption of these fatty acids by the general population may have important health benefits. consumption of omega-3 fatty acids by the western population is very low, particularly those fatty acids from marine origin, such as epa and dha. fish consumption in chile is very low in spite the position of the country as an important producer of fish. therefore, the benefit of fish consumption is very restricted to the chilean population. two to three salmon servings provide twice the suggested epa and dha requirements. it is necessary to promote a policy intended to increase fish consumption, particularly of salmon, because the high content of omega-3 fatty acids, in addition to the other nutritional properties of the fish. to achieve this it is necessary a high availability of the fish for the population at a reasonable cost
Comercio y calidad institucional en el crecimiento económico del cono sur americano: cuestiones y desafíos
Valenzuela Klagges,Bárbara;
Revista Pilquen , 2011,
Abstract: several studies emphasise the importance of three sets of variables that can significantly affect a country's productivity and economic growth: its geographical location, international trade and institutional quality. the main objective of this paper is to identify the effect of international trade and institutional quality on economic growth in some south american countries (argentina, brazil, chile, colombia and peru) with their major trading partners over the period 1996-2004. for this purpose, this chapter has been divided into three parts.
Importancia de las vacunas contra los virus de las hepatitis A y B en Chile
Valenzuela B,M Teresa;
Revista médica de Chile , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0034-98872009000600017
Abstract: the mode of transmission and epidemiological approach for hepatitis a and b are different. however, both are preventable with vaccines whose efficacy and long lasting protection has been demonstrated. this review describes the secular tendency of both infections in chile, their risk factors that have contributed to their persistence in the country and the interventions that have been carried out to reduce the disease burden. although the vaccine for hepatitis b was incorporated to the immunization program in 2005, the vaccine for hepatitis a persists in the list of interventions that must be assumed with priority by the ministry of health. if chilean health authorities pretend to reach the enteric disease indicators of developed countries, they must accelerate the epidemiological transition towards the elimination of hepatitis a.
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