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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 225589 matches for " Valentino R. Cooper "
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Van der Waals density functional: an appropriate exchange functional
Valentino R. Cooper
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.81.161104
Abstract: In this paper, an exchange functional which is compatible with the non-local Rutgers-Chalmers correlation functional (vdW-DF) is presented. This functional, when employed with vdW-DF, demonstrates remarkable improvements on intermolecular separation distances while further improving the accuracy of vdW-DF interaction energies. The key to the success of this three parameter functional is its reduction of short range exchange repulsion through matching to the gradient exchange approximation in the slowly varying/high density limit while recovering the large reduced gradient, s, limit set in the revised PBE exchange functional. This augmented exchange functional could be a solution to long-standing issues of vdW-DF lending to further applicability of density functional theory to the study of relatively large, dispersion bound (van der Waals) complexes.
Enhanced two dimensional electron gas charge densities at III-III/I-V oxide heterostructure interfaces
Valentino R. Cooper
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.85.235109
Abstract: In this paper, density functional theory calculations are used to explore the electronic and atomic reconstruction at interfaces between III-III/I-V oxides. In particular, at these interfaces, two dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) with twice the interfacial charge densities of the prototypical LaTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructure are observed. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the band effective masses of the conduction electrons is shown, suggesting that possible enhancements in electron mobilities may be achievable. These findings represent a framework for chemically modulating 2DEGs, thereby providing a platform through which the underlying physics of electron confinement can be explored with implications for modern microelectronic devices.
Enhancing piezoelectricity through polarization-strain coupling in ferroelectric superlattices
Valentino R. Cooper,Karin M. Rabe
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.79.180101
Abstract: Short period ferroelectric/ferroelectric BaTiO3 (BTO)/PbTiO3 (PTO) superlattices are studied using density functional theory. Contrary to the trends in paraelectric/ferroelectric superlattices the polarization remains nearly constant for PTO concentrations below 50%. In addition, a significant decrease in the c/a ratio below the PTO values were observed. Using a superlattice effective Hamiltonian we predict an enhancement in the d33 piezoelectric coefficient peaking at ~75% PTO concentration due to the different polarization-strain coupling in PTO and BTO layers. Further analysis reveals that these trends are bulk properties which are a consequence of the reduced $P$ brought about by the polarization saturation in the BTO layers.
Polarization Enhancement in Short Period Superlattices via Interfacial Intermixing
Valentino R. Cooper,Karen Johnston,Karin M. Rabe
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.76.020103
Abstract: The effect of intermixing at the interface of short period PbTiO$_3$/SrTiO$_3$ superlattices is studied using first-principles density functional theory. The results indicate that interfacial intermixing significantly enhances the polarization within the superlattice. This enhancement is directly related to the off-centering of Pb and Sr cations and can be explained through a discussion of interacting dipoles. This picture should be general for a wide range of multicomponent superlattices and may have important consequences for the design of ferroelectric devices.
Thickness Dependent Carrier Density at the Surface of SrTiO3 (111) Slabs
N. Sivadas,H. Dixit,Valentino R. Cooper,Di Xiao
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.075303
Abstract: We investigate the surface electronic structure and thermodynamic stability of the SrTiO3 (111) slabs using density functional theory. We observe that, for Ti-terminated slabs it is indeed possible to create a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). However, the carrier density of the 2DEG displays a strong thickness dependence due to the competition between electronic reconstruction and polar distortions. As expected, having a surface oxygen atom at the Ti termination can stabilize the system, eliminating any electronic reconstruction, thereby making the system insulating. An analysis of the surface thermodynamic stability suggests that the Ti terminated (111) surface should be experimentally realizable. This surface may be useful for exploring the behavior of electrons in oxide (111) interfaces and may have implications for modern device applications.
Predicting C-H/$π$ interactions with nonlocal density functional theory
Joe Hooper,Valentino R. Cooper,T. Thonhauser,Nichols A. Romero,Frank Zerilli,David C. Langreth
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1063/1.2833065
Abstract: We examine the performance of a recently developed nonlocal density functional in predicting a model noncovalent interaction, the weak bond between an aromatic $\pi$ system and an aliphatic C-H group. The new functional is a significant improvement over traditional density functionals, providing results which compare favorably to high-level quantum-chemistry techniques but at considerably lower computational cost. Interaction energies in several model C-H/$\pi$ systems are in generally good agreement with coupled-cluster calculations, though equilibrium distances are consistently overpredicted when using the revPBE functional for exchange. The new functional correctly predicts changes in energy upon addition of halogen substituents.
Support-mediated activation and deactivation of Pt thin films
Valentino R. Cooper,Alexie M. Kolpak,Yashar Yourdshahyan,Andrew M. Rappe
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.72.081409
Abstract: Using ab initio methods, we examine the the charge distribution at the interface of alpha-alumina-supported Pt films, and we consider the influence of this interface on CO adsorption. We demonstrate that a combination of electrostatic charge transfer and covalent bonding governs the interfacial interactions, and that these interactions play an important role in the metal reactivity. By modifying the interface and varying the Pt film thickness over a nanoscale range, CO adsorption can be significantly enhanced or diminished. These observations could be used to tune the reactivity of Pt particles.
A van der Waals density functional study of adenine on graphite: Single molecular adsorption and overlayer binding
Kristian Berland,Svetla D. Chakarova-Kack,Valentino R. Cooper,David C. Langreth,Elsebeth Schroder
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: The adsorption of an adenine molecule on graphene is studied using a first-principles van der Waals functional (vdW-DF) [Dion et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 246401 (2004)]. The cohesive energy of an ordered adenine overlayer is also estimated. For the adsorption of a single molecule, we determine the optimal binding configuration and adsorption energy by translating and rotating the molecule. The adsorption energy for a single molecule of adenine is found to be 711 meV, which is close to the calculated adsorption energy of the similar-sized naphthalene. Based on the single molecular binding configuration, we estimate the cohesive energy of a two-dimensional ordered overlayer. We find a significantly stronger binding energy for the ordered overlayer than for single-molecule adsorption.
Spontaneous Formation of Dipolar Metal Nanoclusters
Elizabeth A. Sokol,Sara E. Mason,Valentino R. Cooper,Andrew M. Rappe
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: The adsorption of Ag$_3$ and Ag$_4$ clusters on the $\alpha$-Al$_2$O$_3$(0001) surface is explored with density functional theory. Within each adsorbed cluster, two different cluster-surface interactions are present. We find that silver clusters simultaneously form both ionic bonds with surface oxygen and intermetallic bonds with surface aluminum. The simultaneous formation of disparate electronic structure motifs within a single metal nanoparticle is termed a "dipolar nanocluster". This coexistence is ascribed to the similar bond enthalpies of Ag--Al and Ag--O bonds, and its importance for nanoparticle catalysis is highlighted.
Windowed Carbon Nanotubes for Efficient CO2 Removal from Natural Gas
Hongjun Liu,Valentino R. Cooper,Sheng Dai,De-en Jiang
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1021/jz301576s
Abstract: We demonstrate from molecular dynamics simulations that windowed carbon nanotubes can efficiently separate CO2 from the CO2/CH4 mixture, resembling polymeric hollow fibers for gas separation. Three CO2/CH4 mixtures with 30%, 50% and 80% CO2 are investigated as a function of applied pressure from 80 to 180 bar. In all simulated conditions, only CO2 permeation is observed; CH4 is completely rejected by the nitrogen-functionalized windows or pores on the nanotube wall in the accessible timescale, while maintaining a fast diffusion rate along the tube. The estimated time-dependent CO2 permeance ranges from 107 to 105 GPU (gas permeation unit), compared with ~100 GPU for typical polymeric membranes. CO2/CH4 selectivity is estimated to be ~108 from the difference in free-energy barriers of permeation. This work suggests that a windowed carbon nanotube can be used as a highly efficient medium, configurable in hollow-fiber-like modules, for removing CO2 from natural gas.
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