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Effect of the proportion of Duroc genes in crosses with Large White and Landrace pigs on the characteristics of seasoned Parma ham
Alberto Sabbioni,Valentino Beretti,Alessio Zanon,Paola Superchi
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2004.31
Abstract: The aim of this study was to estimate the linear and quadratic effects of the proportion of Duroc genes on the characteristics of seasoned Parma hams by means of a covariance model. The study was carried out on 167 pigs (87 castrated males, 80 females) from different crosses among Duroc (D), Large White (LW) and Landrace (L) breeds, slaughtered at 300 d of age (live weight 170 kg). All pigs were raised under similar conditions. The curing period was 380 days. The proportion of Duroc genes was 0% (LWxL; n. 33), 25% [(LWx(DxL); n. 31 and Lx(DxLW); n. 35)] and 50% [Dx(LWx(LWxL)); n. 68]. The increase in the proportion of Duroc genes had a positive linear effect (P<0.01) and a negative quadratic effect (P=0.01) on the yield of deboned ham while ham fat thickness decreased linearly (P=0.07) and increased quadratically (P<0.01). A higher proportion of Duroc genes was also linearly associated with a lower lightness (P<0.01) and a less yellow color (P=0.09) of the biceps femoris muscle; positive quadratic coefficients have been shown for lightness (P<0.01), yellowness (P=0.01) and hue (P=0.03). The chemical composition of the semitendinosus muscle featured a linear increase in moisture (P<0.01) and decrease in fat (P=0.03) and non protein nitrogen (P=0.01) content, in addition to significant quadratic effects with an increase in the proportion of Duroc genes. In conclusion, crossbreeding with the Duroc breed (up to 50%) makes it possible to obtain positive quality characteristics of cured Parma ham.
Effect of sex and season of birth on Gompertz growth curve parameters in “Nero di Parma” pigs
Alberto Sabbioni,Valentino Beretti,Raffaele Manini,Claudio Cervi
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2009.719
Abstract: The growth curves of “Nero di Parma” pigs were studied by applying the Gompertz equation to 1069 body weight (BW) records from 285 pigs (156 females, 129 castrated males) born in 11 outdoor and 5 indoor herds; pigs were fed commercial complete feeds offered ad libitum and, on a limited basis in the outdoor system, diets were integrated with pasture. The parameters of the Gompertz equation were compared with reference to sex and season of birth. Mature BW for castrated males (229.0 kg) was 3.5% greater than that for females (221.3 kg) (P<0.05), but growth rate was 7.6% lower (7.38*10-3 vs 7.99*10-3, respectively) (P<0.05) and age at maturity (205.7 vs 189.6 d, respectively) was 16.1 d greater (P<0.05). Summer and winter born pigs showed a lower mature BW (P<0.05) than those born in other seasons. Summer born pigs grew slower than those born in spring (9.57%), winter (9.58%) and autumn (21.47%) (P<0.05). Earlier maturing pigs were those born in autumn, followed by those born in winter, spring and summer, respectively. Regardless of sex and season of birth, pigs showed their maximum ADG (ADGmax) of 635 g/d at 82.6 kg BW. Castrated males have a lower ADGmax than females (622 vs 650 g/d) at a heavier weight (84.2 vs 81.4 kg). Autumn born pigs showed the highest ADGmax (695 g/d), reached at 84.9 kg BW. The growth performance of “Nero di Parma” pigs is greater than those reported for Italian domestic pig breeds. The significant effect of the studied environmental factors on the growth curve in this genetic type will make it possible to choose the best rearing conditions in relation to its usual weight at slaughter (>180 kg).
Hydrolyzable and fermentable carbohydrates in North Italian pastures for horses
Paola Superchi,Alberto Sabbioni,Valentino Beretti,Ilaria Vecchi
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2010.e66
Abstract: Digestive and metabolic disorders in the horse were previously associated with hydrolyzable and nonhydrolyzable but rapidly fermentable components of nonstructural carbohydrates, particularly fructans. Aim of the study was to assess the contribution of the carbohydrate fractions to the composition of pastures in specific areas of Italy ordinarily designed for horses feeding. Seventy-seven samples from 11 pastures differing for floristic composition were collected across two growing seasons from April 18th 2008 to May 10th 2009 in the foothills (380 m a.s.l.) of the province of Parma (Italy). All samples were collected during the vegetative growth phase. To identify the bioclimatologic conditions of the growth, the average fortnightly thermohygrometric index (THI) was used. Slow fermentable carbohydrates mean concentration (NDF: 510.6, ADF: 274.7, ADL: 31.5 g/kg DM) reflected the typical chemical composition of high-quality grass and grass-legume mixtures. Among the nonstructual carbohydrates (NSC 199.9 g/kg DM), hydrlolyzable carbohydrates content accounted for about the 18%. Nonhydrolyzable but rapidly fermentable carbohydrates were constituted for about the 23% by fructans (37.7 g/kg DM, range 15.5 to 138.2). The environmental conditions significantly affected the carbohydrate concentration in forages. Between NSC, fructans concentration in pastures was affected by bioclimatologic conditions (P<0.05). The floristic composition influenced the fructans content at a lesser extent. These results indicate a high variability of fructans concentration and reflect what previously observed in other areas. In any case the high levels observed for fructans in some geographic areas are not been achieved. Further interdisciplinary studies in this area between veterinarians and forage researchers is clearly warranted.
Body measures and milk production, milk fat globules granulometry and milk fatty acid content in Cabannina cattle breed
Ricardo Communod,Silvia Guida,Daniele Vigo,Valentino Beretti
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2013, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2013.e18
Abstract: Aim of the study was to achieve scientific information about body measures and milk production of Cabannina cattle, a local breed reared in northern Italy. Fourteen body measures and five morphologic indexes were recorded from 86 heads enrolled in the herd book. Low differences between males and females of the same age-class were shown. Body measures were generally greater than those reported in previous studies, probably due to recent crosses. With reference to milk production, 991 test-day records from 128 lactations of 59 cows were analysed. Average milk daily production was 8 kg/d in 1st lactation to 10.61 in 3rd (P<0.05); the parameters of the Wood equation draw atypical curves with the exception of curves from spring calving cows. Only 74.5% of lactations with an adjusted R2 >0.75 showed a standard curve, with low persistence (7.7%), high value of d at peak (103 d) and peak production of 20.18 kg of milk. Moreover, 100 milk samples (40 to 220 d of lactation) were submitted to a granulometric survey by laser scatter technique in order to evaluate the dimensions of fat globules; then milk fat was analyzed by gas chromatography, and desaturase indexes were determined. Cabannina cows showed small fat globules with high specific surface. Furthermore mean diameter of milk fat globules decreased during lactation then rose. Milk fat contained high levels of cis-MUFA, and high desaturase indexes. In conclusion, the low size of Cabannina cattle orients for a limited meat production. Instead milk production has a higher economic potential, aimed at cheese production and human nutrition.
Milk production and lactation curves of Bianca Val Padana and Italian Friesian dairy cows in relation to the management system
Alberto Sabbioni,Valentino Beretti,Luigi Tardini,Sandra Vezzali
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2012.e26
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate milk production and lactation curve parameters of Bianca Val Padana (BVP) and Italian Friesian (IF) cattle reared in the same herds in relation to different housing-feeding systems. Therefore, 8488 test-day records of 103 BVP and 367 IF cows from 7 herds were used; 2 herds had free stalls and total mixed ration feeding (FS-TMR group) and 5 had tie stalls and traditional feeding (TS-TF group). Data for milk production (kg), fat, protein, lactose production (kg) and content (%), and somatic cell score (SCS) were submitted to analysis by ANOVA, using a model with breed, housingfeeding type, test day, herd within housingfeeding type, season of calving, lactation number, class of days in milk, and two- and threeway interactions as fixed factors. A mixed model according to Wood’s equation in linear form was also performed. Interactions between breed and type of housing-feeding were always significant (P<0.05), except for milk fat percentage and SCS. Daily milk, fat, protein and lactose productions were lower in TS-TF compared to FS-TMR, but the reduction was significantly higher (P<0.05) in IF than in BVP. Protein percentage showed an opposite trend in the two breeds depending on the type of housing-feeding. The lactation curves were continuously decreasing for BVP in FS-TMR housing-feeding type. In TS-TF rearing conditions, BVP showed an earlier week at peak and a lower peak production than IF. In conclusion, BVP seems to be better adapted to TS-TF rearing conditions than IF.
Application of different growth models to “Nero di Parma” pigs
Alberto Sabbioni,Valentino Beretti,Raffaele Manini,Claudio Cervi
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2009.s2.537
Abstract: The growth curves of 280 “Nero di Parma” pigs from birth to maturity were calculated by applying nine different models (regressions from 1st to 4th degree and nonlinear regressions following the Brody, Logistic, Janoschek, Bertalannfy and Gompertz models) to 1109 individual records of body weight (BW) from two different data sets. The goodness of fit of experimental data was calculated by means of Residual Variance, Akaike Information Criterion, Residual Standard Deviation and R2. The best fit was obtained by Gompertz equation, as follows: BW(kg)= 240.2±2.4 * esp (-exp (-0.0069±0.0001*(age(d)–213.5±3.1))). Regardless to the model, all correlations between actual and estimated BW were highly significant (P<0.001): the highest correlation (0.980) was obtained by the application of the Gompertz equation. In conclusion the growth of “Nero di Parma” pigs can be well described by applying the Gompertz model to field data.
Relationship between serum β-lactoglobulin content during gestation and reproductive efficiency in primiparous sows
Alberto Sabbioni,Mario Baratta,Matteo Lavarini,Valentino Beretti
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2004.219
Abstract: The relationship between β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) serum concentration in sows during the last 8 weeks of gestation and subsequent piglet performance was investigated in 10 Dunel gilts. Two classes of gilts were identified with low (<150 ng/ml) or high (>150 ng/ml) average serum β-LG content. For both low and high content groups, equations were calculated to describe trends in serum β-LG content, respectively y1=10.07e0.0237x (R2=0.3122) and y2=69.00e0.0201x (R2=0.6959), where x is the number of days of gestation. Differences in serum β-LG content between the two groups were highly significant at all weeks (P<0.01 from week 8 to 6 before farrowing; P<0.001 from week 5 to farrowing). No significant differences (P>0.05) between groups were shown for total number of piglets born, born alive, stillborn or mummified and piglet survival rates up until d 21 after farrowing. The group with high serum β-LG content during gestation showed higher litter weights at d 5 (P<0.05) and d 21 (P<0.10) and higher estimated milk production from farrowing to d 5 (P<0.10). The results indicate that serum β-LG content during the final weeks of gestation could be used as an early indicator of reproductive efficiency, and that gilts with high content could be selected to improve herd productivity.
Prediction of milk, fat and protein yields in first lactation from serum -lactoglobulin concentrations during gestation in Italian Brown heifers
Alberto Sabbioni,Mario Baratta,Valentino Beretti,Alessio Zanon
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2007.205
Abstract: The Authors report the results of a study carried out on 23 pregnant Italian Brown heifers, with the aim to determine the relationships between blood serum -lactoglobulin ( -LG) concentrations during first gestation and subsequent milk production and quality in first lactation, in order to obtain an improved selection method for replacement heifers. At weeks 20, 26 and 32 of gestation, -LG concentrations (±SE) were 706±78, 753±66 and 772±63 ng/ml, respectively (P>0.05). High and significant (P≤0.05) correlation coefficients were observed only between -LG content at week 32 and total milk and protein yields in first lactation. Prediction equations of milk, fat and protein production in first lactation from log10 -LG content at week 32 of gestation, from parent average genetic indexes and from both were calculated by means of multiple regression analysis. When the contribution of both -LG content and predicted genetic indexes were considered, the regression equations gave generally a better estimate of the production parameters in first lactation (higher R2, lower SE of estimate) than the above mentioned parameters alone. These results suggest that it is valuable to pre-estimate milk, fat and protein production in Italian Brown first lactating cows by means of the analysis of serum -LG content during gestation.
Aquileia, Parma, Venezia e Ferrara: Il ruolo della Serbia (e della Macedonia) in quattro casi di "maniera greca" nel Veneto e in Emilia
Pace Valentino
Zograf , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/zog0530063p
Abstract: (italijanski) Il saggio prende in considerazione le quattro testimonianze di pittura dell'Italia nord-orientale menzionate nel suo titolo, per cercare di evidenziarne i vitali rapporti di dipendenza dei loro modelli (se non di rovenienza dei pittori) dall'area bizantina, di possibile mediazione serbo-macedone. Qui, come altrove, i modelli della pittura bizantina furono cercati e utilizzati per la loro valenza rappresentativa dei valori affettivi e umani, oltre che per gestualità espressiva. La qualità della ricezione fu diversa sia per la diversità delle situazioni locali che per la qualità stessa per gli esecutori. In ogni caso si tratta di testimonianze che a pieno titolo mostrano il ruolo essenziale della figuratività bizantina.
Conversion to an open approach during video-laparocholecystectomy
Pio Valentino
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 2005,
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