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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4225 matches for " Valérie Gaboulaud "
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Prognostic Accuracy of WHO Growth Standards to Predict Mortality in a Large-Scale Nutritional Program in Niger
Nathanael Lapidus,Francisco J Luquero,Valérie Gaboulaud,Susan Shepherd,Rebecca F Grais
PLOS Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000039
Abstract: Background Important differences exist in the diagnosis of malnutrition when comparing the 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards and the 1977 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reference. However, their relationship with mortality has not been studied. Here, we assessed the accuracy of the WHO standards and the NCHS reference in predicting death in a population of malnourished children in a large nutritional program in Niger. Methods and Findings We analyzed data from 64,484 children aged 6–59 mo admitted with malnutrition (<80% weight-for-height percentage of the median [WH]% [NCHS] and/or mid-upper arm circumference [MUAC] <110 mm and/or presence of edema) in 2006 into the Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) nutritional program in Maradi, Niger. Sensitivity and specificity of weight-for-height in terms of Z score (WHZ) and WH% for both WHO standards and NCHS reference were calculated using mortality as the gold standard. Sensitivity and specificity of MUAC were also calculated. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was traced for these cutoffs and its area under curve (AUC) estimated. In predicting mortality, WHZ (NCHS) and WH% (NCHS) showed AUC values of 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60–0.66) and 0.71 (CI 0.68–0.74), respectively. WHZ (WHO) and WH% (WHO) appeared to provide higher accuracy with AUC values of 0.76 (CI 0.75–0.80) and 0.77 (CI 0.75–0.80), respectively. The relationship between MUAC and mortality risk appeared to be relatively weak, with AUC = 0.63 (CI 0.60–0.67). Analyses stratified by sex and age yielded similar results. Conclusions These results suggest that in this population of children being treated for malnutrition, WH indicators calculated using WHO standards were more accurate for predicting mortality risk than those calculated using the NCHS reference. The findings are valid for a population of already malnourished children and are not necessarily generalizable to a population of children being screened for malnutrition. Future work is needed to assess which criteria are best for admission purposes to identify children most likely to benefit from therapeutic or supplementary feeding programs.
Mortality Risk among Children Admitted in a Large-Scale Nutritional Program in Niger, 2006
Nael Lapidus, Andrea Minetti, Ali Djibo, Philippe J. Guerin, Sarah Hustache, Valérie Gaboulaud, Rebecca F. Grais
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004313
Abstract: Background In 2006, the Médecins sans Frontières nutritional program in the region of Maradi (Niger) included 68,001 children 6–59 months of age with either moderate or severe malnutrition, according to the NCHS reference (weight-for-height<80% of the NCHS median, and/or mid-upper arm circumference<110 mm for children taller than 65 cm and/or presence of bipedal edema). Our objective was to identify baseline risk factors for death among children diagnosed with severe malnutrition using the newly introduced WHO growth standards. As the release of WHO growth standards changed the definition of severe malnutrition, which now includes many children formerly identified as moderately malnourished with the NCHS reference, studying this new category of children is crucial. Methodology Program monitoring data were collected from the medical records of all children admitted in the program. Data included age, sex, height, weight, MUAC, clinical signs on admission including edema, and type of discharge (recovery, death, and default/loss to follow up). Additional data included results of a malaria rapid diagnostic test due to Plasmodium falciparum (Paracheck?) and whether the child was a resident of the region of Maradi or came from bordering Nigeria to seek treatment. Multivariate logistic regression was performed on a subset of 27,687 children meeting the new WHO growth standards criteria for severe malnutrition (weight-for-height<?3 Z score, mid-upper arm circumference<110 mm for children taller than 65 cm or presence of bipedal edema). We explored two different models: one with only basic anthropometric data and a second model that included perfunctory clinical signs. Principal Findings In the first model including only weight, height, sex and presence of edema, the risk factors retained were the weight/height1.84 ratio (OR: 5,774; 95% CI: [2,284; 14,594]) and presence of edema (7.51 [5.12; 11.0]). A second model, taking into account supplementary data from perfunctory clinical examination, identified other risk factors for death: apathy (9.71 [6.92; 13.6]), pallor (2.25 [1.25; 4.05]), anorexia (1.89 [1.35; 2.66]), fever>38.5°C (1.83 [1.25; 2.69]), and age below 1 year (1.42 [1.01; 1.99]). Conclusions Although clinicians will continue to perform screening using clinical signs and anthropometry, these risk indicators may provide additional criteria for the assessment of absolute and relative risk of death. Better appraisal of the child's risk of death may help orientate the child towards either hospitalization or ambulatory care. As the transition from the NCHS
Trauma-related psychological disorders among Palestinian children and adults in Gaza and West Bank, 2005-2008
Emmanuelle Espié, Valérie Gaboulaud, Thierry Baubet, German Casas, Yoram Mouchenik, Oliver Yun, Rebecca F Grais, Marie Moro
International Journal of Mental Health Systems , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1752-4458-3-21
Abstract: From 2005 to 2008, 1369 patients aged more than 1 year were identified through a local mental health and counseling health network. All were clinically assessed using a semi-structured interview based on the DSM-IV-TR criteria.Among 1254 patients, 23.2% reported post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], 17.3% anxiety disorder (other than PTSD or acute stress disorder), and 15.3% depression. PTSD was more frequently identified in children ≤ 15 years old, while depression was the main symptom observed in adults. Among children ≤ 15 years old, factors significantly associated with PTSD included being witness to murder or physical abuse, receiving threats, and property destruction or loss (p < 0.03). Psychological care, primarily in the form of individual, short-term psychotherapy, was provided to 65.1% of patients, with about 30.6% required psychotropic medication. Duration of therapy sessions was higher for children ≤ 15 years old compared with adults (p = 0.05). Following psychotherapy, 79.0% had improved symptoms, and this improvement was significantly higher in children ≤ 15 years old (82.8%) compared with adults (75.3%; p = 0.001).These observations suggest that short-term psychotherapy could be an effective treatment for specific psychiatric disorders occurring in vulnerable populations, including children, living in violent conflict zones, such as in Gaza strip and the West Bank.The effects of war and violence on the mental health of children and adults are well known and are often expressed through severe and chronic reactive psychological syndromes, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and behavioral problems [1-4]. The Palestinian population living in the occupied territories has been subjected to continuous violence, such as shooting, bombardment, and physical injuries. As a result of this ongoing crisis, Palestinians, especially women and children, have developed severe psychological distress [5-9]. Although these patients require immediat
Evaluation of psychological support for victims of sexual violence in a conflict setting: results from Brazzaville, Congo
Sarah Hustache, Marie-Rose Moro, Jacky Roptin, Renato Souza, Grégoire Gansou, Alain Mbemba, Thomas Roederer, Rebecca F Grais, Valérie Gaboulaud, Thierry Baubet
International Journal of Mental Health Systems , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1752-4458-3-7
Abstract: Women who attended the Médecins Sans Frontières program for sexual violence in Brazzaville during the conflict were selected to evaluate the psychological consequences of rape and the late effect of post-rape psychological support. A total of 178 patients met the eligibility criteria: 1) Women aged more than 15 years; 2) raped by unknown person(s) wearing military clothes; 3) admitted to the program between the 1/1/2002 and the 30/4/2003; and 4) living in Brazzaville.The initial diagnosis according to DSM criteria showed a predominance of anxious disorders (54.1%) and acute stress disorders (24.6%). One to two years after the initial psychological care, 64 women were evaluated using the Trauma Screening Questionnaire (TSQ), the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF) and an assessment scale to address medico-psychological care in emergencies (EUMP). Two patients (3.1%) met the needed criteria for PTSD diagnosis from the TSQ. Among the 56 women evaluated using GAF both as pre and post-test, global functioning was significantly improved by initial post-rape support (50 women (89.3%) had extreme or medium impairment at first post-rape evaluation, and 16 (28.6%) after psychological care; p = 0.04). When interviewed one to two years later, the benefit was fully maintained (16 women (28.6%) presenting extreme or medium impairment).We found the benefits of post-rape psychological support to be present and lasting in this conflict situation. However, we were unable to evaluate all women for the long-term impact, underscoring the difficulty of leading evaluation studies in unstable contexts. Future research is needed to validate these findings in other settings.Sexual violence is not simply a consequence or side effect of war and displacement, but rather can be used as a deliberate tool of war [1]. Aside from medical consequences, such as sexually transmitted diseases or unwanted pregnancies, sexual violence, and rape in particular, may lead to long-lasting trauma and s
Neuroendocrine Differentiation in the Progression of Prostate Cancer: An Update on Recent Developments  [PDF]
Valérie Perrot
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2012.223032
Abstract: Neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation, either benign or malignant, is the hallmark of prostate cancer (PCa). Clusters of malignant NE cells are found in most prostate cancer cases. NE differentiation is among the non-mutually exclusive theories proposed to explain the progression to androgen independence of PCa. NE differentiation is usually associated with an increased aggressivity and invasiveness of prostate tumors and a poor prognosis. This review aims to present an overview of current knowledge on neuroendocrine differentiation in PCa to improve our understanding of tumour progression and androgen independence. The NE component represents an important therapeutic axis. Development of new generation of drugs that selectively target NE-like cells may lead to the development of new therapeutic modalities for advanced and hormone-refractory PCa.
Bordetella holmesii: Comparison of Two Isolates from Blood and a Respiratory Sample  [PDF]
Valérie Bouchez, Nicole Guiso
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2013.32020

Interest in Bordetella holmesii is increasing, but very little is known about this bacterium, which can be isolated from both blood and respiratory samples. In this study, we compared a B. holmesii isolate from the blood sample of an adult with bacteremia with another isolate from a nasopharyngeal swab from an adult with whooping cough syndrome. Genetic analysis was carried out, targeting relevant genes, and virulence properties were studied in cellular and animal models. Our genomic analysis provided no evidence of traits specific to either blood or respiratory isolates of B. holmesii. Neither isolate was cytotoxic to human tracheal epithelial cells. Both isolates were only weakly invasive and they did not persist within epithelial cells for less than 48 h.

Effect of Pulsed Ultraviolet Light on the Total Phenol Content of Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) Fruit  [PDF]
Ramesh Murugesan, Valérie Orsat, Mark Lefsrud
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.36104
Abstract: The changes in total polyphenolics in elderberry (Sambucus nigra) following treatment with various doses of pulsed ultraviolet rays (UV) were investigated. Four pulsed UV durations (5, 10, 20, 30 seconds) at three energy dosages (4500, 6000, 11,000 J/m2/pulse) were considered for the research. All treated elderberry fruits were incubated for 24 h at room temperature (25℃) following treatment to ensure enough response duration for enhanced development of polyphenols by the berries. The highest increase in total phenolics around 50% was found with 11,000 J/m2/pulse for a 10 seconds treatment while nearly 40% increase in total phenolics was found at an energy dosage of 11,000 J/m2/pulse after 5 seconds exposure. Even though most of the treatments indicated an increase in total polyphenols, some treatment expressed a decrease in phenolics content when compared to untreated fruits.
The Unconscious Experimentally Demonstrated by Means of Hypnosis  [PDF]
Edoardo Casiglia, Valérie Tikhonoff, Enrico Facco
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.74048

Although taken for granted today by people and by some experts, the unconscious has never been experimentally demonstrated. Even for the psychoanalysts, the unconscious is nothing more than a model. The unconscious, if anything, is normally obscured by conscious activities and can only express itself in response to conditions leading to non-ordinary mental expressions, for instance during hypnosis. For many years, we have been using hypnosis in variegating experimental setting, and we think one of the evidences coming from our tests is the experimental demonstration that the unconscious exists and can be forced to respond to solicitations the participant is not aware of. We administered hypnotic suggestions to highly-hypnotizable normal participants with the aim of inducing hallucination of body heating, alexia, amusia, spatial neglect, focused analgesia, general anaesthesia, and age regression. Following such suggestions, participants actually experienced a sensation of heat, incapability to read, lack of interest in a side of the world, indifference to painful stimuli, and revivification of infantile age, respectively. But this is not all. Through the above-mentioned suggestions we also obtained some physical reactions that could only be defined as unconscious, i.e. increase of the stroke volume and of the mesenteric artery flow following hallucinated body heating, reduction of reaction times to incongruent color words in a Stroop task following alexia, prolongation of ipsilateral reaction times following spatial neglect, reduction of mismatch negativity to deviant stimuli following hypnotic amusia, coherent modifications of the sympathetic/parasympathetic balance to trigeminal and non-trigeminal pain during analgesia and anaesthesia, reduction of Raven score and Raven-induced stress during age regression. These responses evoked during hypnosis in response to mental images are clearly non-voluntary and non-conscious, and demonstrate in experimental setting with the tools that are typical of human physiology—the existence of unconscious to perceive and react.

A Critical Evaluation of Single Extractions from the SMT Program to Determine Trace Element Mobility in Sediments
Valérie Cappuyns
Applied and Environmental Soil Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/672914
Abstract: Two commonly applied single extractions procedures, namely extractions with ammonium-EDTA and acetic acid, were evaluated based on the analysis of 72 samples from alluvial sediments. For most trace elements (Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, As, and Pb), a significant linear relationship could be established between their ammonium-EDTA or acetic acid extractable concentrations and their total concentrations, the organic carbon content, pH, and Fe , Al, and/or Ca content in the sediments. The scientific understanding of trace element partitioning in the complex soil-water system with these simple models is rather limited, but they offer the opportunity to use data from single extractions in a more comprehensive way. Despite the fact that these extractions cannot directly be related to the bioavailability of elements, they can provide input data for use in risk assessment models. Additionally, they also offer possibilities to perform a fast screening of the mobilizable pool of elements in soils and/or sediments. 1. Introduction The contamination of soils and sediments is widespread and is a potential threat for the environment in the short and long term. The impact of trace elements in soils and sediments on the environment depends on their speciation, mobility, and bioavailability. Over the past decades, the term “heavy metals” has increasingly been used, without any consistency to denote trace element contamination of environmental media. An overview of the use of the term “heavy metals” in scientific dictionaries and relevant literature can be found in Duffus [1]. Since “heavy metals” is a poor scientific term and many alternatives exit [2], we will use the term “trace elements” in the present study to refer to As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Talking about trace metals would be incorrect because arsenic is actually a metalloid. Before discussing the different methods for determination of “trace element” availability in soils and/or sediments and before addressing the pros and cons of single and sequential extraction procedures, the difference between soils and sediments will be clarified, as well as the terminology used throughout this paper. 1.1. Soils versus Sediments Soils and sediments are different matrixes from many viewpoints, especially under the environmental context. “Soil” can be defined as a “three-dimensional body with properties that reflect the impact of climate, vegetation, fauna, and topography on soils parent material over a variable time span. Soils are still in a process of change. As a result of “soil formation” or “pedogenesis,” soil profiles show
The chicken as a model to study microchromosomes in birds: a review
Valérie Fillon
Genetics Selection Evolution , 1998, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-30-3-209
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