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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 214 matches for " Vaishali Jayashankar "
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Protein Phosphatase 1 β Paralogs Encode the Zebrafish Myosin Phosphatase Catalytic Subunit
Vaishali Jayashankar, Michael J. Nguyen, Brandon W. Carr, Dale C. Zheng, Joseph B. Rosales, Joshua B. Rosales, Douglas C. Weiser
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075766
Abstract: Background The myosin phosphatase is a highly conserved regulator of actomyosin contractility. Zebrafish has emerged as an ideal model system to study the in vivo role of myosin phosphatase in controlling cell contractility, cell movement and epithelial biology. Most work in zebrafish has focused on the regulatory subunit of the myosin phosphatase called Mypt1. In this work, we examined the critical role of Protein Phosphatase 1, PP1, the catalytic subunit of the myosin phosphatase. Methodology/Principal Findings We observed that in zebrafish two paralogous genes encoding PP1β, called ppp1cba and ppp1cbb, are both broadly expressed during early development. Furthermore, we found that both gene products interact with Mypt1 and assemble an active myosin phosphatase complex. In addition, expression of this complex results in dephosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain and large scale rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. Morpholino knock-down of ppp1cba and ppp1cbb results in severe defects in morphogenetic cell movements during gastrulation through loss of myosin phosphatase function. Conclusions/Significance Our work demonstrates that zebrafish have two genes encoding PP1β, both of which can interact with Mypt1 and assemble an active myosin phosphatase. In addition, both genes are required for convergence and extension during gastrulation and correct dosage of the protein products is required.
Ageing Society and Labor Policy in China: Analyzing Policy Challenges and Options  [PDF]
Vaishali Singh
Chinese Studies (ChnStd) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/chnstd.2018.73021
Abstract: As the defining characteristic of the twenty-first century, global ageing poses some overwhelming demographic questions. The most important challenge comes in the form of the glaring impact of ageing society on the continuous labor supply to sustain the growth momentum. Given the vast size and rapid pace of demographic change, China is one nation facing a humongous policy challenge in the arena of labor and social policy. From retirement policies, older worker discrimination to the strain on social security systems, the range of issues is quite varied. The paper thus looks at the policy challenges and options in framing a prudent labor policy in the light of a rapidly ageing society. In dealing with the policy challenges and learning from international experience, the study makes a comparison with policies in Japan where the concerted efforts by state has resulted in innovative and elderly-friendly work policies. The study finds that managing ageing workforce is the most viable option which requires that policies be rejiggered at state, market and familial level.
K-Means Graph Database Clustering and Matching for Fingerprint Recognition  [PDF]
Vaishali Pawar, Mukesh Zaveri
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2015.74019
Abstract: The graph can contain huge amount of data. It is heavily used for pattern recognition and matching tasks like symbol recognition, information retrieval, data mining etc. In all these applications, the objects or underlying data are represented in the form of graph and graph based matching is performed. The conventional algorithms of graph matching have higher complexity. This is because the most of the applications have large number of sub graphs and the matching of these sub graphs becomes computationally expensive. In this paper, we propose a graph based novel algorithm for fingerprint recognition. In our work we perform graph based clustering which reduces the computational complexity heavily. In our algorithm, we exploit structural features of the fingerprint for K-means clustering of the database. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using realtime fingerprint database and the simulation results show that our algorithm outperforms the existing algorithm for the same task.
PDE5: A target for erectile dysfunction
Mr. L. Jayashankar
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2007,
Abstract: Phosphodiesterases are enzymes that catalyze the degradation of the cyclic nucleotides, cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, to the corresponding 5’ nucleotide monophosphates. Ten different phosphodiesterase families have been described to date.These enzymes exist as homodimers and there is structural similarity between the different families. However, they differ in several respects like selectivity for cyclic nucleotides, sensitivity for inhibitors and activators, physiological roles and tissue distribution.Physiological PropertiesPhysiological activity of the EnzymeA phosphodiesterase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds, for instance a bond in a molecule of cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP (Figure 1) . It plays a role in signal transduction by regulating the intracellular concentration of cyclic nucleotides. This phosphodiesterase catalyzes the specific hydrolysis of cGMP to 5'-GMP. Human phosphodiesterase 5 is responsible for the degradation of cyclic GMP in the corpus cavernosum.
The Incidence and Alliance of Metabolic Syndrome with Cardiovascular Risk Markers among Kodavas  [PDF]
Deepti A. Lokanath, Sharada A. Chandrashekariah, D. Xaviour, Jayashankar Rao
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases (OJEMD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojemd.2014.46016

Background: Metabolic syndrome is the major cause for life threatening disorders such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. These disorders are associated with hyperuricemia and the number is growing among the urban population. Methods: A cross sectional study was done among Kodava population by conducting health camps in Mysore district. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to Joint Interim Statement criteria. Anthropometry was done and blood pressure readings were noted. Clinical markers like fasting glucose, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, CVD markers and uric acid levels were analyzed. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 60.77% and the utmost occurrence was in 41 - 60 age groups. Women were more affected than men (31.58%) and MetS became pronounced with advance of age. Biochemical levels of C-reactive protein, ApolipoproteinB/ApolipoproteinA1 ratio and uric acid wereraised (P < 0.05) and the severity correlated with the number of components of metabolic syndrome. Conclusions: This study helped in identifying new subjects with metabolic syndrome wherein, abdominal obesity was the most common abnormality followed by elevated fasting glucose. Female subjects and subjects with increased waist circumference along with mid aged people are more susceptible to MetS which amplified their CVD risk factors and hyperuricemic conditions. Life style modifications and therapeutic approach are critical prerequisite. However, there is an urgent need for further health camps for the awareness, and prevention of MetS and its associated risk factors among Kodavas.

In with the Old, in with the New: The Promiscuity of the Duplication Process Engenders Diverse Pathways for Novel Gene Creation
Vaishali Katju
International Journal of Evolutionary Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/341932
Abstract: The gene duplication process has exhibited far greater promiscuity in the creation of paralogs with novel exon-intron structures than anticipated even by Ohno. In this paper I explore the history of the field, from the neo-Darwinian synthesis through Ohno’s formulation of the canonical model for the evolution of gene duplicates and culminating in the present genomic era. I delineate the major tenets of Ohno’s model and discuss its failure to encapsulate the full complexity of the duplication process as revealed in the era of genomics. I discuss the diverse classes of paralogs originating from both DNA- and RNA-mediated duplication events and their evolutionary potential for assuming radically altered functions, as well as the degree to which they can function unconstrained from the pressure of gene conversion. Lastly, I explore theoretical population-genetic considerations of how the effective population size () of a species may influence the probability of emergence of genes with radically altered functions.
Technical Review of peephole Technique in compiler to optimize intermediate code
Vaishali Sanghvi
American Journal of Engineering Research , 2013,
Abstract: Peephole optimization is a efficient and easy optimization technique used by compilers sometime called window or peephole is set of code that replace one sequence of instructions by another equivalent set of instructions, but shorter, faster. Peephole optimization is traditionally done through String pattern matching that is using regular expression. There are some the techniques of peephole optimization like constant folding, Strength reduction, null sequences, combine operation, algebraic laws, special case instructions, address mode operations.The peephole optimization is applied to several parts or section of program or code so main question is where to apply it before compilation, on the intermediate code or after compilation of the code .The aim of this dissertation to show the current state of peephole optimization and how apply it to the IR (Intermediate Representation) code that is generated by any programming language.
Simulation Based Evaluation of Highway Road Scenario between DSRC/802.11p MAC Protocol and STDMA for Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication  [PDF]
Vaishali D. Khairnar, Srikhant N. Pradhan
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2013.31009

In this paper the DSRC/IEEE 802.11p Medium Access Control (MAC) method of the vehicular communication has been simulated on highway road scenario with periodic broadcast of packets in a vehicle-to-vehicle situation. IEEE 802.11p MAC method is basically based on carrier sense multiple accesses (CSMA) where nodes listen to the wireless channel before sending the packets. If the channel is busy, the vehicle node must defer its access and during high utilization periods this could lead to unbounded delays. This well-known property of CSMA is undesirable for critical communications scenarios. The simulation results reveal that a specific vehicle is forced to drop over 80% of its packets/messages because no channel access was possible before the next message/packet was generated. To overcome this problem, we propose to use self-organizing time division multiple access (STDMA) for real-time data traffic between vehicles. Our initial results indicate that STDMA outperforms CSMA for time-critical traffic safety applications in ad- hoc vehicular networks.

Does Existence of Long-Run Relationship Ensure Predictability of Exchange Rate? Empirical Analysis of Indian Rupee Vis-à-Vis US Dollar under Monetary Model Framework  [PDF]
Vaishali Padake, Bhargavi Karamcheti, T. Geetha
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2016.63062
Abstract: This paper examines the empirical relevance of the flexible price monetary model in the Indian context to determine whether US dollar-Indian rupee exchange rate movements are in line with the changes in monetary fundamentals namely relative money supply, relative interest rates and relative output. A sample period of nineteen years (August 1996 to March 2015) was considered for the study and the entire period was divided into two sub periods marked by distinct patterns of exchange rate volatility and variations in the behaviour of macro-economic fundamentals. The study examined whether there exists a long-term relationship between exchange rate and variables of the monetary model besides investigating the predictive ability of the model in determining the exchange rate in the Indian context. The Johansen Juselius test of cointegration was carried out and the variables were found to be linearly cointegrated establishing the long-run relationship between exchange rate and monetary fundamentals rate thereby confirming the suitability of the flexible price monetary model in determining Indian rupee vis-à-vis US dollar. The Granger causality test [21] was conducted to determine the direction of causality between variables and to evaluate the predictive power of the monetary model and the test results exhibited some idiosyncratic patterns among the variables across the two sub periods. For the first sub period, the Granger causality test results show that there is a one-way causality from relative output and relative money supply to exchange rate, while there is no causality from relative interest rate to exchange rates. This result is quite puzzling and calls for further investigation. As the direction of causality is changing within the sample, the study suggests that the monetary model standalone cannot be effectively used for predicting exchange rate in the Indian context. A more comprehensive model with more macro-economic variables such as trade balance and capital flows may be combined with the existing variables for effective forecasting of exchange rate in India.
The INR/USD Exchange Rate Determination: An Empirical Investigation of the Flexible Price Monetary Model in a Vector Auto Regression Framework  [PDF]
Bhargavi Karamcheti, Vaishali Padake, T. Geetha
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.85074
Abstract: The current study attempts to examine the importance of the Flexible Price Monetary (FPM) Model in explaining the INR/USD exchange rate movement with macro variables such as relative money stock, relative rates of interest and relative output for the period from April 1995 till December 2016. Prior to estimating the empirical model, an array of non-stationarity tests was employed to identify the time series characteristics of the data. Since all the data series were confirmed to be integrated of order one, the multivariate cointegration methodology was used to verify long-run validity of the model. The empirical results garner support for the FPM model in determining INR/USD exchange rate in the long run. The test on direction of causality confirmed existence of causality from FPM variables to exchange rate. The empirical model was estimated in the Vector Auto regression (VAR) framework and variance decomposition analysis was used to examine fluctuation in INR/USD exchange rate caused by the shocks in FPM model variables. It was found that, the monetary model variables explain the exchange rate patterns over a longer period of time but was found not very effective in the short run and hence cannot be considered as a useful framework in explaining the variations in INR/USD exchange rate.
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