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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 131114 matches for " V. V. Lakshmi "
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Need for national/regional guidelines and policies in India to combat antibiotic resistance
Lakshmi V
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2008,
Culture of body fluids using the bact/alert system
Lakshmi V
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2001,
Abstract: The BacT/Alert system was evaluated for its utility to recover clinically significant bacteria from several sterile body fluids, other than blood. Of the1500 specimens processed, 530 (35.33%) cultures were recorded positive by the BacT/Alert bottles while only 379 (25%) cultures were recovered on the plate cultures. The mean time to detection was <12 hours for Gram-negative organisms and 12 - 16 hours for the Gram-positive organisms. The rapid detection of important pathogens like Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes and Salmonella typhi, within 12 hours of inoculation, is of particular interest especially in serious infections like deep-seated abscesses. This enabled the treating physician to start the specific and appropriate antibiotics early and facilitated a better prognosis in the patient. The system is also very efficient in the early detection of anaerobes from the clinical specimens.
Biodegradation of Caffeine by Trichosporon asahii Isolated from Caffeine Contaminated Soil
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: Studies were carried out on caffeine degradation using Trichosporon asahii, a yeast species isolated from caffeine contaminated soil. There was 100 % degradation of caffeine at 54 h by the yeast cells acclimated to the medium containing caffeine and sucrose both. Experiments with T. asahii growing on caffeine in the presenceof 1 mM 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT), an inhibitor of the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system, resulted inhibition of biomass production relative to positive control implicating the utilization of this enzyme system in caffeine degradation. The study of the enzymes responsible for caffeine degradation showed the enhanced activities ofcaffeine demethylases and xanthine oxidases. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysisof caffeine metabolites confirmed the biodegradation of caffeine by T. asahii. We propose the biodegradation pathway for caffeine which occurs via stepwise demethylation and oxidation process.
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: Here we present a fuzzy approach for tackling qualitative Multi criteria analysis (MA) problems with a straight forward method. Here effective decisions can be made with the model presented. An empirical model for the selection of a good teacher is also given at the end.
Ventriculoperitoneal shunt infections
Sarguna P,Lakshmi V
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2006,
Abstract: Central nervous system (CNS) shunt infection is a cause of significant morbidity, causing shunt malfunction and chronic ill health. This study was carried out to evaluate the infection rate associated with CNS shunts, assess the frequency of the pathogens as well as their antibiotic sensitivity pattern aiming at suitable prophylaxis. A retrospective analysis of 226 CSF cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt procedures sent for bacteriological work up over a period of one year and six months was undertaken. Laboratory diagnosis was established by subjecting the CSF to cell count, biochemical tests, bacteriological culture and antibiotic susceptibility test. Nine out of 226(3.98%) of the CSF samples were culture positive. Coagulase negative Staphylococcus was the most common isolate accounting for 36.36%. Majority of the isolates were sensitive to the thirdgeneration cephalosporins and quinolones. The antibiotic sensitivity pattern suggests cephalosporins and quinolones to be a better choice of antibiotics either prophylactically or therapeutically, which may result in effective and rapid sterilisation of the CSF.
Neonatal septic arthritis due to Salmonella typhimurium
Sarguna P,Lakshmi V
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2005,
Simultaneous HPLC estimation of omeprazole and domperidone from tablets
Sivasubramanian Lakshmi,Anilkumar V
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The present work describes a simple reverse phase HPLC method for the determination of omeprazole and domperidone from tablet formulations. The determination was carried out on a Hypersil, ODS, C-18 (150x4.6 mm, 5 micron) column using a mobile phase of methanol:0.1 M ammonium acetate (pH 4.9) (60:40). The flow rate and runtime were 1 ml/min and 10 min, respectively. The eluent was monitored at 280 nm. The method was reproducible, with good resolution between omeprazole and domperidone. The detector response was found to be linear in the concentration range of 10-60 μg/ml for omeprazole and 5-30 μg/ml for domperidone.
Evaluation of an indigenous western blot kit for human immunodeficiency virus
Lakshmi V,Ponamgi S
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2002,
Abstract: PURPOSE: The Western Blot test is considered a gold standard test for the confirmation of an ELISA and/or rapid assay screened reactive sample in the diagnosis of HIV infection, especially in the low risk population. In this study, an indigenously developed HIV W. Blot kit (J.Mitra & Co., New Delhi, India) was compared for its performance characteristics with a widely used Western Blot kit, HIV Blot 2.2 (Genelabs, Singapore). Antigens of both HIV-1 and the indicator antigen gp36 of HIV-2 are included in the strips. METHODS: A panel of 150 clinical serum samples was used in the evaluation. All the sera were tested simultaneously by both the kits. RESULTS: The HIV W. Blot kit had high performance characteristics (100% sensitivity and 100% specificity), like the HIV Blot 2.2. The test procedure was easy to perform. There was clear delineation of the bands. CONCLUSIONS: The interpretation of the results on the HIV W. Blot was less prone to subjective errors. The test gave positive bands at even very high serum dilutions in the test kit. This fact indicates that HIV W. Blot probably has a potential application in early phases of infection, when the antibody concentrations are still very low.
Statistical optimization of process variables by response surface methodology to enhance phenol degradation by Pseudomonas putida (NCIM 2102)  [PDF]
Velluru Sridevi, M. V. V Chandana Lakshmi, A. V. N Swamy, M Narasimha Rao
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2011.24028
Abstract: Removal efficiency of phenol from aqueous solutions was determined using Pseudomonas putida (NCIM 2102). Experiments were made as a function of pH (4 - 9), temperature (28 - 36oC), and agitation speed (100 - 200 rpm). Optimization of these three process parameters for phenol degradation was studied. Statistically designed experiments using response surface methodology was used to get more information about the significant effects and the interactions between these three parameters. A 23 full-factorial central composite design was employed for experimental design and for analysis of the results. A second order polynomial regression model, has been developed using the experimental data. It was found that the degrading potential of P.putida (NCIM 2102) was strongly affected by the variations in pH, temperature and agitation speed. The experimental values were in good agreement with the predicted values and the correlation coefficient was found to be 0.9871. The optimum process conditions for maximizing phenol degradation were recognized as follows: pH (7.49), temperature (29.99oC), and agitation speed (138.89) rpm.
Efficient Degradation of Feather by Keratinase Producing Bacillus sp.
P. Jeevana Lakshmi,Ch. M. Kumari Chitturi,V. V. Lakshmi
International Journal of Microbiology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/608321
Abstract: Keratinase producing microorganisms are being increasingly utilized for degradation and recycling of poultry feather waste. Two native strains BF11 (Bacillus subtilis) and BF21 (Bacillus cereus) degrading keratin completely were characterized. The native strains produced more than 10?KU/mL of enzyme. Strain improvement resulted in isolation of MBF11 and MBF21 from BF11 and BF21 isolates, respectively. Optimization of nutritional and physical parameters of these MBF isolates at laboratory scale increased the overall keratinase activity by 50-fold resulting in a yield of 518–520?KU/mL. Fermentation media designed with starch as carbon source and soya bean meal as nitrogen source supported high levels of enzyme production. The optimum conditions for enzyme production were determined to be pH 8.5 and temperatures of 45–55°C for MBF11 and 37°C for MBF21, respectively. Culture filtrate showed a significant increase in the amounts of cysteine, cystine, methionine, and total free amino acids during the fermentation period. The ratio of organic sulphur concentration was also considerably higher than that of the inorganic sulphate in the culture filtrate suggesting the hydrolysis of disulphide by the isolates. 1. Introduction Feather is generated in bulk quantities as a by-product in the poultry industry globally. It is a very rich source of protein with β-keratin constituting 91% of feather protein. The presence of keratin makes feather recalcitrant to most common proteases like trypsin, pepsin, papain, and so forth, thus slowing down its degradation process in nature [1]. Typically, each bird has up to 125?gm of feather and with more than 400 million chickens being processed every week worldwide, the daily accumulation of feather waste reaches five million tons [2]. The bulk of feather waste is poorly recycled in nature and has limited utility due to the chemically unreactive nature of keratin. Conventionally, this waste has been converted into feed supplement, resulting in feed of poor quality which is nonviable economically [3]. Thus, recycling of this by-product is neither profitable nor environmentally friendly. The disposal of this waste is a global environmental issue leading to pollution of both air and underground water resources [4]. In recent years, feather treated with microbial keratinase is attracting wide attention with several applications. Keratinase-treated feather is increasingly considered as a viable source of dietary protein in food and feed supplements, as the enzyme-treated end product retained high nutritive value. Keratinases are
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