Abstract:
We address the problems of an energy spectrum and backscattering of massive Dirac fermions confined in a cylindrical quantum wire. The Dirac fermions are described by the 3D Dirac equation supplemented by time-reversal-invariant boundary conditions at a surface of the wire. Even in zero magnetic field, spectra quantum-confined and surface states substantially depend on a boundary parameter a0. At the wire surface with a0 > 0 (a0 < 0) the surface states form 1D massive subbands inside (outside) the bulk gap. The longitudinal magnetic field transforms the energy spectra. In the limit of the thick wires and the weak magnetic fields, the 1D massless surface subbands arise at half- integer number of magnetic flux quanta passing through the wire cross section. We reveal conditions when backscattering of the surface Dirac fermions by a non-magnetic impurity is suppressed. In addition, we calculate a conductance formed by the massless surface Dirac fermions in the magnetic field in collisional and ballistic regimes.

Abstract:
We derive a theory for 3D Dirac fermions confined in a cylindrical nanowire. The system is described by the isotropic Dirac equation supplemented by time-reversal-invariant boundary condition at surface of the nanowire. In this approach properties of surface structure of the nanowire is described by a single phenomenological real parameter $a_0$. The sign of $a_0$ qualitatively distinguishes spectra of the surface states. At $a_0>0$ ($a_0<0$) the surface states form 1D massive subbands with hyperbolic dispersion inside (outside) the bulk gap. In longitudinal magnetic field the surface states lead to the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations (with Berry phase $\pi$) of electrical conductivity of the nanowire. Two gapless surface subbands arise periodically in energy spectra at $a_0\geq 0$. In case of the nanowire with smooth inhomogeneous cross section, 1D supersymmetric-like state controlled by magnetic field may emerge.

Abstract:
We study spectra of surface states in 2D topological insulators (TIs) based on HgTe/(Hg,Cd)Te quantum wells and 3D Bi$_2$Se$_3$-type compounds by constructing a class of feasible time-reversal invariant boundary conditions (BCs) for an effective ${\bf k}{\bf p}$-Hamiltonian and a tight-binding model of the topological insulators. The BCs contain some phenomenological parameters which implicitly depend on both bulk Hamiltonian parameters and crystal potential behavior near the crystal surface. Space symmetry reduces the number of the boundary parameters to four real parameters in the 2D case and three in the 3D case. We found that the boundary parameters may strongly affect not only an energy spectrum but even the very existence of these states inside the bulk gap near the Brillouin zone center. Nevertheless, we reveal in frames of the tight-binding model that when surface states do not exist in the bulk gap in the Brillouin zone center they cross the gap in other points of the Brillouin zone in agreement with the bulk-boundary correspondence.

Abstract:
The edge states which were observed on a linear edge of graphene may also persist on a curved edge. We calculate the elastic transport scattering cross section on a graphene nanohole supporting the edge states. Resonant peaks in the gate voltage dependence of conductivity of graphene with such nanoholes are obtained. Position and height of the resonances are determined by the localization depth of the quasibound edge states, and width -- by their lifetime. The scattering amplitude near the resonant energies has a strong valley asymmetry. We evaluate the effect of moderate edge rippling, inhomogeneity of boundary parameter along the edge, and Coulomb effects (charged nanohole) on the edge states and show that they do not affect the presence of the resonances, but can substantially influence their position, height and width. The local density of states near the nanohole also demonstrates a resonant dependence on gate voltage.

Abstract:
Graphene is a stable single atomic layer material exhibiting two-dimensional electron gas of massless Dirac fermions of high mobility. One of the intriguing properties of graphene is a possibility of realization of the Tamm-type edge states. These states differ from the usual surface states caused by defects, impurities and other imperfections at the edge of the system, as well as they differ from the magnetic edge states caused by skipping cyclotron orbits. The Tamm states result from breaking of periodic crystal potential at the edge, they can exist even at zero magnetic field and form a conducting band. Until recently those states have been observed in graphene only by local STM technique and there were no direct experiments on their contribution to transport measurements. Here we present the experiments on Aharonov-Bohm (AB) oscillations of resistance in a single-nanohole graphite and graphene structures, it indicates the presence of conducting edge states cycling around nanohole. An estimation show the penetration depth of the edge states to be as short as about 2 nm. The oscillations persist up to temperature T=115 K and the T-range of their existence increases with a decrease of the nanohole diameter. The proposed mechanism of the AB oscillations based on the resonant intervalley backscattering of the Dirac fermions by the nanohole via the Tamm states. The experimental results are consistent with such a scenario. Our findings show a way towards interference devices operating at high temperatures on the edge states in graphene

Abstract:
There are two types of intrinsic surface states in solids. The first type is formed on the surface of topological insulators. Recently, transport of massless Dirac fermions in the band of "topological" states has been demonstrated. States of the second type were predicted by Tamm and Shockley long ago. They do not have a topological background and are therefore strongly dependent on the properties of the surface. We study the problem of the conductivity of Tamm-Shockley edge states through direct transport experiments. Aharonov-Bohm magneto-oscillations of resistance are found on graphene samples that contain a single nanohole. The effect is explained by the conductivity of the massless Dirac fermions in the edge states cycling around the nanohole. The results demonstrate the deep connection between topological and non-topological edge states in 2D systems of massless Dirac fermions.

Abstract:
Mathematical statement of elastodynamic contact problem for cracked body with considering unilateral restrictions and friction of the crack faces is done in classical and weak forms. Different variational formulations of unilateral contact problems with friction based on boundary variational principle are considered. Nonsmooth optimization algorithms of Udzawa’s type for solution of unilateral contact problem with friction have been developed. Convergence of the proposed algorithms has been studied numerically.

Precessing ball solitons (PBS) in a ferromagnet during the first order phase transition is induced by a magnetic field directed along the axis of anisotropy, while the action of the periodic field perpendicular to the main magnetic field has been analyzed. Under these conditions, the characteristics of arising equilibrium PBS are uniquely determined by the frequency of the periodic field, but the solitons with other frequencies are impossible. For such structure, the entropy increase connected with dissipation is compensated by the decrease of the entropy due to the external periodic field. It is shown that the equilibrium PBS are essentially the “self-organizing systems” that can arise spotaneously in a metastable state of ferromagnet.

Abstract:
Precessing ball solitons (PBS) in a ferromagnet during the first order phase transition induced by a magnetic field directed along the axis of anisotropy, while the additional action of high-frequency field perpendicular to the main magnetic field, are analyzed. It is shown that the spatial motion of solitons, associated with thermal fluctuations in the crystal, does not destroy the equilibrium of self-organized PBS.

Abstract:
An attempt to predict the new atomic dark matter lines is done on the example of a dark lepton atom-positronium. Its Layman-alpha line with the energy near 3 GeV may be observable if the appropriate conditions are realized. For this we have studied a γ-ray excess in the center of our galaxy. In principle, this excess may be produced by the L_{α} line of a dark positronium in the medium with Compton scattering. The possibility of observations of an annihilation line (E~300 TeV) of dark positronium is also predicted. Other proposals to observe the atomic dark matter are shortly described. Besides, H_{α} line (1.3μ) of usual positronum must be observable in the direction on the center of our galaxy.