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Precessing ball solitons (PBS) in a ferromagnet during the first order phase transition is induced by a magnetic field directed along the axis of anisotropy, while the action of the periodic field perpendicular to the main magnetic field has been analyzed. Under these conditions, the characteristics of arising equilibrium PBS are uniquely determined by the frequency of the periodic field, but the solitons with other frequencies are impossible. For such structure, the entropy increase connected with dissipation is compensated by the decrease of the entropy due to the external periodic field. It is shown that the equilibrium PBS are essentially the “self-organizing systems” that can arise spotaneously in a metastable state of ferromagnet.
In this study, the characterization of the depth of the Mohorovicic discontinuity under the crust of Funafuti island was determined by analyzing the 3 component seismograms from 54 different earthquake events recorded by the station between 2008 and 2012. These seismograms were from teleseismic earthquakes whose epicenter lay at distances greater than 3000 km from the station. The seismograms were iteratively deconvolved in the time domain to remove the unwanted noise and then stacked to obtain better receiver functions. For analysis of the receiver functions, it was assumed that the range in which the Vp/Vs ratio would lie for the given region would be between 1.60 - 1.85 and the depth of the discontinuity was assumed to lie between 5 - 20 km. Analysis of the receiver functions showed that the Mohorovicic discontinuity was at a depth of 11 km and the Vp/Vs ratio was 1.75 for the region.
Cooperative communication is going to play a vital role in the next generation wireless networks. In this paper we derive the expression for symbol error probability (SEP) of a two-user cooperative diversity system, where two users cooperate through the decode-and-forward (DF) relaying with binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation in a flat Rayleigh fading environment. We compare the computational results obtained by the SEP expression with the simulation results using maximal-ratio combining (MRC), equal-gain combining (EGC) and selection combining (SC) techniques. Numerical results show the performance of a cooperative diversity system with maximal-ratio combining is giving better results compared to SC and EGC techniques.