Abstract:
It is shown that for a $N$-boson system the parity of $N$ can be responsible for a qualitative difference in the system response to variation of a parameter. The nonlinear boson model is considered, which describes tunneling of boson pairs between two distinct modes $X_{1,2}$ of the same energy and applies to a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice. By varying the lattice depth one induces the parity-dependent quantum switching, i.e. $X_1\to X_2$ for even $N$ and $X_1\to X_1$ for odd $N$, for arbitrarily large $N$. A simple scheme is proposed for observation of the parity effect on the \textit{mesoscopic scale} by using the bounce switching regime, which is insensitive to the initial state preparation (as long as only one of the two $X_l$ modes is significantly populated), stable under small perturbations and requires an experimentally accessible coherence time.

Abstract:
A light pulse propagating in a suddenly switched on photonic lattice, when the central frequency lies in the photonic band gap, is an analog of the Rabi model where the two-level system is the two resonant (i.e. Bragg-coupled) Fourier modes of the pulse, while the photonic lattice serves as a monochromatic external field. A simple theory of these Rabi oscillations is given and confirmed by the numerical solution of the corresponding Maxwell equations. This is a direct, i.e. temporal, analog of the Rabi effect, additionally to the spatial analog in optical beam propagation described in Opt. Lett. 32, 1920 (2007). An additional high-frequency modulation of the Rabi oscillations reflects the lattice-induced energy transfer between the electric and magnetic fields of the pulse.

Abstract:
We generalize an approach for description of multi-photon experiments with multi-port unitary linear optical devices, initiated in \textit{Phys. Rev. A \textbf{89}, 022333 (2014)} for the case of single photons in mixed spectral states, to arbitrary (multi-photon) input and arbitrary photon detectors. We give a physical interpretation of a non-negative definite Hermitian matrix, the matrix of a quadratic form giving output probabilities, as the partial indistinguishability matrix. We show that output probabilities are \textit{always} given in terms of the matrix permanents of the Hadamard product of network matrix and matrices depending on spectral state of photons and spectral sensitivities of detectors. Moreover, in case of input with up to one photon per mode, the output probabilities are given by a sum (or integral) with each term being the absolute value squared of such a matrix permanent. We conjecture that, for an arbitrary multi-photon input, zero output probability of an output configuration is \textit{always} the result of an exact cancellation of quantum transition amplitudes of completely indistinguishable photons (a subset of all input photons) and, moreover, \textit{does not depend} on coherence between only partially indistinguishable photons. The conjecture is supported by examples. Furthermore, we propose a measure of partial indistinguishability of photons which generalizes Mandel's observation, and find the law of degradation of quantum coherence in a realistic Boson-Sampling device with increase of the total number of photons and/or their "classicality parameter".

Abstract:
Collision of two solitons of the Manakov system is analytically studied. Existence of a complete polarization mode switching regime is proved and the parameters of solitons prepared for polarization switching are found.

Abstract:
The Riemann-Hilbert problem associated with the integrable PDE is used as a nonlinear transformation of the nearly integrable PDE to the spectral space. The temporal evolution of the spectral data is derived with account for arbitrary perturbations and is given in the form of exact equations, which generate the sequence of approximate ODEs in successive orders with respect to the perturbation. For vector nearly integrable PDEs, embracing the vector NLS and complex modified KdV equations, the main result is formulated in a theorem. For a single vector soliton the evolution equations for the soliton parameters and first-order radiation are given in explicit form

Abstract:
We give a set of sufficient conditions on the experimental Boson-Sampling computer to satisfy Theorem 1.3 of Aaronson & Arkhipov (Theory of Computing \textbf{9}, 143 (2013)) stating a computational problem whose simulation on a classical computer would collapse the polynomial hierarchy of the computational complexity to the third level. This implies that such an experimental device is in conflict with the Extended Church-Turing thesis. In practical terms, we give a set of sufficient conditions for the scalability of the experimental Boson-Sampling computer beyond the power of the classical computers. The derived conditions can be also used for devising efficient verification tests of the Boson-Sampling computer.

Abstract:
An analytical solution for the posterior estimate in Bayesian tomography of the unknown quantum state of an arbitrary quantum system (with a finite-dimensional Hilbert space) is found. First, we derive the Bayesian estimate for a pure quantum state measured by a set of arbitrary rank-1 POVMs under the uninformative (i.e. the unitary invariant or Haar) prior. The expression for the estimate involves the matrix permanents of the Gram matrices with repeated rows and columns, with the matrix elements being the scalar products of vectors giving the measurement outcomes. Second, an unknown mixed state is treated by the Hilbert-Schmidt purification. In this case, under the uninformative prior for the combined pure state, the posterior estimate of the mixed state of the system is expressed through the matrix $\alpha$-permanents of the Gram matrices of scalar products of vectors giving the measurement outcomes. In the mixed case, there is also a free integer parameter -- the Schmidt number -- which can be used to optimise the Bayesian reconstruction (for instance, in case of Schimdt number being equal to 1, the mixed state estimates reduces to the pure state estimate). We also discuss the perspectives of approximate numerical computation and asymptotic analytical evaluation of the Bayesian estimate using the derived formula.

Abstract:
It is shown that, in a reasonable approximation, the quantum state of $p$-bosons in a bi-partite square two-dimensional optical lattice is governed by the nonlinear boson model describing tunneling of \textit{boson pairs} between two orthogonal degenerate quasi momenta on the edge of the first Brillouin zone. The interplay between the lattice anisotropy and the atomic interactions leads to the second-order phase transition between the number-squeezed and coherent phase states of the $p$-bosons. In the isotropic case of the recent experiment, Nature Physicis 7, 147 (2011), the $p$-bosons are in the coherent phase state, where the relative global phase between the two quasi momenta is defined only up to mod($\pi$): $\phi=\pm\pi/2$. The quantum phase diagram of the nonlinear boson model is given.