Abstract:
A stochastic model for nondemolition continuous measurement in a quantum system is given. It is shown that the posterior dynamics, including a continuous collapse of the wave function, is described by a nonlinear stochastic wave equation. For a particle in an electromagnetic field it reduces the Schroedinger equation with extra imaginary stochastic potentials.

Abstract:
Time-continuous non-anticipating quantum processes of nondemolition measurements are introduced as the dynamical realizations of the causal quasi-measurements, which are described in this paper by the adapted operator-valued probability measures on the trajectory spaces of the generalized temporal observations in quantum open systems. In particular, the notion of physically realizable quantum filter is defined and the problem of its optimization to obtain the best a posteriori quantum state is considered. It is proved that the optimal filtering of a quantum Markovian Gaussian signal with the Gaussian white quantum noise is described as a coherent Markovian linear filter generalizing the classical Kalman filter. As an example, the problem of optimal measurement of complex amplitude for a quantum Markovian open oscillator, loaded to a quantum wave communication line, is considered and solved.

Abstract:
It is shown that many dissipative phenomena of "old" quantum mechanics which appeared 100 years ago in the form of the statistics of quantum thermal noise and quantum spontaneous jumps, have never been explained by the "new" conservative quantum mechanics discovered 75 years ago by Heisenberg and Schroedinger. This led to numerous quantum paradoxes which are reconsidered in this paper. The development of quantum measurement theory, initiated by von Neumann, indicated a possibility for resolution of this interpretational crisis by divorcing the algebra of the dynamical generators from the algebra of the actual observables. It is shown that within this approach quantum causality can be rehabilitated in the form of a superselection rule for compatibility of past observables with the potential future. This rule, together with the self-compatibility of measurements insuring the consistency of histories, is called the nondemolition principle. The application of this causality condition in the form of the dynamical commutation relations leads to the derivation of the generalized von Neumann reductions, usharp, instantaneous, spontaneous, and even continuous in time. This gives a quantum probabilistic solution, in the form of the dynamical filtering equations, of the notorious measurement problem which was tackled unsuccessfully by many famous physicists starting with Schroedinger and Bohr. The simplest Markovian quantum stochastic model for the continuous in time measurements involves a boundary-value problem in second quantization for input "offer" waves in one extra dimension, and a reduction of the algebra of "actual" observables to an Abelian subalgebra for the output waves.

Abstract:
A characterisation of the stochastic bounded generators of quantum irreversible Master equations is given. This suggests the general form of quantum stochastic evolution with respect to the Poisson (jumps), Wiener (diffusion) or general Quantum Noise. The corresponding irreversible Heisenberg evolution in terms of stochastic completely positive (CP) maps is found and the general form of the stochastic completely dissipative (CD) operator equation is discovered.

Abstract:
The development of quantum measurement theory, initiated by von Neumann, only indicated a possibility for resolution of the interpretational crisis of quantum mechanics. We do this by divorcing the algebra of the dynamical generators and the algebra of the actual observables, or beables. It is shown that within this approach quantum causality can be rehabilitated in the form of a superselection rule for compatibility of the past beables with the potential future. This rule, together with the self-compatibility of the measurements insuring the consistency of the histories, is called the nondemolition, or causality principle in modern quantum theory. The application of this rule in the form of the dynamical commutation relations leads in particular to the derivation of the von Neumann projection postulate. This gives a quantum stochastic solution, in the form of the dynamical filtering equations, of the notorious measurement problem which was tackled unsuccessfully by many famous physicists starting with Schroedinger and Bohr.

Abstract:
We give an explicit axiomatic formulation of the quantum measurement theory which is free of the projection postulate. It is based on the generalized nondemolition principle applicable also to the unsharp, continuous-spectrum and continuous-in-time observations. The "collapsed state-vector" after the "objectification" is simply treated as a random vector of the a posteriori state given by the quantum filtering, i.e., the conditioning of the a priori induced state on the corresponding reduced algebra. The nonlinear phenomenological equation of "continuous spontaneous localization" has been derived from the Schroedinger equation as a case of the quantum filtering equation for the diffusive nondemolition measurement. The quantum theory of measurement and filtering suggests also another type of the stochastic equation for the dynamical theory of continuous reduction, corresponding to the counting nondemolition measurement, which is more relevant for the quantum experiments.

Abstract:
The pure quantum entanglement is generalized to the case of mixed compound states on an operator algebra to include the classical and quantum encodings as particular cases. The true quantum entanglements are characterized by quantum couplings which are described as transpose-CP, but not Completely Positive (CP), trace-normalized linear positive maps of the algebra. The entangled (total) information is defined in this paper as a relative entropy of the conditional (the derivative of the compound state with respect to the input) and the unconditional output states. Thus defined the total information of the entangled states leads to two different types of the entropy for a given quantum state: the von Neumann entropy, or c-entropy, which is achieved as the supremum of the information over all c-entanglements and thus is semi-classical, and the true quantum entropy, or q-entropy, which is achieved at the standard entanglement. The q-capacity, defined as the supremum over all entanglements, coincides with the topological entropy. In the case of the simple algebra it doubles the c-capacity, coinciding with the rank-entropy. The conditional q-entropy based on the q-entropy, is positive, unlike the von Neumann conditional entropy, and the q-information of a quantum channel is proved to be additive.

Abstract:
Introducing contravariant trace-densities for quantum states, we restore one to one correspondence between quantum operations described by normal CP maps and their trace densities as Hermitian positive operator-valued contravariant kernels. The CB-norm distance between two quantum operations with type one input algebras is explicitly expressed in terms of these densities, and this formula is also extended to a generalized CB-distances between quantum operations with type two inputs. A larger C-distance is given as the natural norm-distance for the channel densities, and another, Helinger type distance, related to minimax mean square optimization problem for purification of quantum channels, is also introduced and evaluated in terms of their contravariant trace-densities. It is proved that the Helinger type complete fidelity distance between two channels is equivalent to the CB distance at least for type one inputs, and this equivalence is also extended to type two for the generalized CB distance. An operational meaning for these distances and relative complete fidelity for quantum channels is given in terms of quantum encodings as generalized entanglements of quantum states opposite to the inputs and the output states.

Abstract:
We consider two variants of a quantum-statistical generalization of the Cramer-Rao inequality that establishes an invariant lower bound on the mean square error of a generalized quantum measurement. The proposed complex variant of this inequality leads to a precise formulation of a generalized uncertainty principle for arbitrary states, in contrast to Helstrom's symmetric variant in which these relations are obtained only for pure states. A notion of canonical states is introduced and the lower mean square error bound is found for estimating of the parameters of canonical states, in particular, the canonical parameters of a Lie group. It is shown that these bounds are globally attainable only for canonical states for which there exist efficient measurements or quasimeasurements.

Abstract:
An operational description of the controlled Markov dynamics of quantum-mechanical system is introduced. The feedback control strategies with regard to the dynamical reduction of quantum states in the course of quantum real-time measurements are discribed in terms of quantum filtering of these states. The concept of sufficient coordinates for the description of the a posteriori quantum states from a given class is introduced, and it is proved that they form a classical Markov process with values in either state operators or state vector space. The general problem of optimal control of a quantum-mechanical system is discussed and the corresponding Bellman equation in the space of sufficient coordinates is derived. The results are illustrated in the example of control of the semigroup dynamics of a quantum system that is instantaneously observed at discrete times and evolves between measurement times according to the Schroedinger equation.