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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 154648 matches for " V. Lee "
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Location, location, location: regulation of breast cancer progression by the microenvironment
Adrian V Lee
Breast Cancer Research , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/bcr957
Abstract: Global gene expression patterns have revealed distinct subtypes of breast cancer, and can predict metastasis and survival. The development of gene array technology has quickly evolved to allow analysis of very small specimens derived by laser capture microdissection or cell fractionation. This has given an invaluable view of the gene expression changes within specific cell types during breast cancer progression. In this regard, Allinen and colleagues [1] performed an exhaustive analysis of gene expression changes using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) on specific cell types (luminal epithelial, myoepithelial, endothelial, leukocytes, and myofibroblasts) during breast cancer progression. While luminal epithelial cells showed gene abnormalities (loss of heterozygosity) and expression changes during progression, the most dramatic changes in gene expression occurred in the myoepithelial cells. This was despite the fact that the myoepithelial cells showed no genomic alterations. Interestingly, the gene expression changes in the myoepithelial cells often included secreted proteins and receptors, suggesting a paracrine regulation of breast epithelial cells. To support this, Allinen and colleagues showed that chemokines that are highly upregulated in myoepithelial cells (CXCL12 and CXCL14) can bind breast tumor epithelial cells and regulate their proliferation, migration and invasion. Inhibition of CXCR4, the receptor for CXCL12, has been shown to prevent breast cancer metastasis [2], providing the opportunity for therapeutic targeting of the microenvironment with potentially less chance of acquired resistance.Mammary gland biologists have long believed in the usefulness of their models for understanding breast cancer progression, but new, sophisticated genetic and molecular approaches are really bringing these models to the forefront.Integrin receptors transmit signals from the microenvironment and extracellular matrix to breast epithelial cells. They have long be
A letter from the United States: The fox in our backyard - Science, Serendipity and Surprise
Lee,Richard V;
Revista médica de Chile , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0034-98872009001100015
Abstract: the story of how charles darwin composed the origin of species, published in november of 1859, has been told many times during the bicentennial of darwin s birth and the sesquicentennial of the publication of the book. it is a history well known to biologists and historians of science. the heated debate that accompanied the demonstration of natural selection as a mechanism of speciation and continues to the present is surprising. human beings do not welcome surprise: "the emotion aroused by something unexpected." the history of science and human intellect, however, illustrate the creative stimulus of surprise and serendipity in the development of human knowledge and the evolution of culture. the lives of homo sapiens would not change if our intellect was unable or unwilling to respond to the unexpected and to make connections between surprising and commonplace events. the rich diversity of south american life was surprising to the european travelers of the 18th and 19th centuries: surprising by its beauty and profusion, but also by its similarities to the creatures of europe and africa. darwin s curiosity sought and welcomed surprise).
Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: An evolutionary hypothesis
Lee,Richard V;
Revista médica de Chile , 2002, DOI: 10.4067/S0034-98872002000500014
Abstract: nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, "morning sickness", is a common contemporary complaint. many pregnant patients note alterations in smell and taste which can precipitate "morning sickness", symptoms that characterize early gestation. epidemiologic studies suggest that pregnancies accompanied by "morning sickness" have better outcomes than asymptomatic pregnancies. the intimate connection between immunogenetic identity, chemoidentity, and chemocommunication by olfactory mechanisms suggests a relationship between maternal symptoms and maternal accommodation of paternal antigens contained in the fetoplacental unit. most mammalian species utilize olfaction to reduce inbreeding and thus do not require an intimate placental connection between mother and fetus. the evolution of homo sapiens included prolonged periods of small, genetically homogeneous foraging groups which limited selection of genetically heterogeneous mates. adaptation to this circumstance included a reduction of olfactory precision in mate selection and a more intimate association between mother and fetus, the hemochorial placenta (rev med chile 2002; 130: 580-84)
Medical journals: Old, not senescent. A tribute to Revista Médica de Chile on its 135th Anniversary
Lee,Richard V;
Revista médica de Chile , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0034-98872007000700001
Abstract: medical journals, like the revista médica de chile, are the product of a long history of printing, literary styles, and scientific inquiry. they would not have developed without the craft of paper making, the invention of movable type, the need to communicate ideas and observations in a timely and digestible format, and the growth of "natural philosophy" during the european renaissance and enlightenment. the proliferation of scientific and medical periodical literature during europe's industrialization in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries followed the emergence of medical science and care as a separate discipline and the creation of common and worldwide professional expectations and credentials. medical journals continue to evolve with the advent of digital paperless publishing. prognostication remains uncertain but it seems to me unlikely that printed paper, so called "hard copy, "journals will become extinct any time soon
Darwin?s Earthquake
LEE,RICHARD V;
Revista médica de Chile , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0034-98872010000700016
Abstract: charles darwin experienced a major earthquake in the concepción-valdivia region of chile 175 years ago, in february 1835. his observations dramatically illustrated the geologic principles of james hutton and charles lyell which maintained that the surface of the earth was subject to alterations by natural events, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and the erosive action of wind and water, operating over very long periods of time. changes in the land created new environments and fostered adaptations in life forms that could lead to the formation of new species. without the demonstration of the accumulation of multiple crustal events over time in chile, the biologic implications of the specifc species of birds and tortoises found in the galapagos islands and the formulation of the concept of natural selection might have remained dormant. hace 175 a?os (febrero de 1835) charles darwin presenció un gran terremoto en concepción y valdivia, en chile. sus observaciones ilustraron dramáticamente los principios geológicos de james hutton y charles lyell, quienes sostenían que la superfcie de la tierra estaba expuesta a alteraciones por eventos naturales, tales como terremotos, erupciones volcánicas y la acción erosiva del viento y el agua, operando durante largos períodos de tiempo. cambios en la tierra crearon nuevos ambientes y fomentaron adaptaciones en las formas de vida que pudieron conducir a la formación de nuevas especies. sin la demostración de múltiples eventos acumulados en la corteza terrestre a través del tiempo, en chile, las implicaciones biológicas de las especies de aves y tortugas descubiertas en las islas galápagos y la formulación del concepto de selección natural habrían permanecido latentes.
A letter from the United States: The romance of medicine -voyages and heroes
Richard V,Lee;
Revista médica de Chile , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0034-98872009000300018
Abstract: becoming a physician is a lifelong journey, not merely the completion of medical school and postgraduate training. for those pedagogues that wish to train doctors as technicians the notion that there is something heroic and romantic in a physician's life is quaint, old fashioned, and out of date! in today's teaching hospitals virtual patients come via digital technology in computed x-ray and magnetic resonance images, automated laboratory test panels, electrophysiologic studies, and algorhythmic histories. doctors have no need to leave their computer and increasingly doctors do not leave their computers for the bedside, the home, the neighborhood, or the country of their "patients". contemporary doctors are in danger of losing their bedside clinical skills and with them go the role of physician as a wise, widely traveled human being knowledgeable about the rigors of inhospitable environs, the hardiness of the species, the despair of poverty, and the seductive dangers of wealth. there is similarity of this kind of physician to mythic heroes, and they still have stories to tell.
Erinnerungsskizzen A Sketchbook of Memories Un cuaderno de memorias
Karen V. Lee
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2008,
Abstract: Im Zentrum der im Folgenden pr sentierten Autoethnografie (BARONE 2003; SLATTERY 2001) steht ein emotionaler Umbruch, der einem einw chigen Campingurlaub meiner Tochter mit deren Vater und einem damit einhergehenden pers nlichen und sozialen Verlusterleben folgte. In meiner Autobiografie versuche ich zu reflektieren, wie ich zugleich in einer Kultur der Unabh ngigkeit und der Abh ngigkeit lebte. Wichtig in diesem Prozess waren die Skizzenmappen meiner Tochter: ihre Zeichnungen wiederanzusehen und zu reflektieren bedeutete Trost und Einsicht zugleich. Am Ende dieses Prozesses sind ein "Bilderbuch" mit Erinnerungen und ein Video (http://www.youtube.com/v/WFGTUP6PdKY&hl=en) entstanden, die auch für das Anliegen performativer Sozialwissenschaft stehen, n mlich "[to] look towards means of (re)presentation that embrace the humanness of social science pursuits" (JONES 2006, S.67). Es ist diese kunstbasierte Autoethnografie, die mir geholfen hat, die Abwesenheit meiner Tochter zu ertragen durch erinnerte und erinnerbare Einsichten und "Triumphe" über Verlusterleben. Und mir wurde im Prozess des Zusammenstellens der Skizzen und des Videos klar, in welcher Weise diese Produkte zum transformativen Charakter autoethnografischer Forschung beitragen. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802400 The following arts-based autoethnography (BARONE, 2003; SLATTERY, 2001) reveals the author's emotional upheaval when her daughter leaves for a one-week camping trip with her father. The experience causes an ethnographic shift inward and outward on the personal and social aspects shaping her loss. She reflects on how she lives simultaneously in a culture of independence and a culture of dependence. Multiple layers of consciousness cause her to revisit her daughter's sketching albums. In doing so, she finds enormous peace and comfort by reflecting on the drawings. In the end, she creates both a picture book of memories and a movie (http://www.youtube.com/v/WFGTUP6PdKY&hl=en) that becomes a manifestation of performative social science in order to "look towards means of (re)presentation that embrace the humanness of social science pursuits" (JONES, 2006, p.67). By creating the art-based autoethnography, she is able to cope with missing her daughter as she resonates with memorable insights and triumphs. Overall, the author discovers how creating both the sketchbook and movie heightens the transformative nature of autoethnographic research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802400 La siguiente autoetnografía basada en el arte (BARONE 2003; SLATTERY 2001) revela el trastorno emocional de la autora cuando s
Sichtbarkeit erfordert Mut Confessing Takes Courage Confesar requiere coraje
Karen V. Lee
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2007,
Abstract: In diesem Beitrag wird eine autoethnographische Reflexion von Komplikationen geleistet, die aus der Sichtbarkeit der Autorin im Text erwachsen. Diese Komplikationen resultieren aus der Tatsache, dass die Autorin zugleich einer Kultur des Sichtbarmachens und des Verbergens der eigenen Involviertheit als Forscherin angeh rt. Ihre Annahmen über m gliche Gefahren, die mit dem Sichtbarmachen pers nlicher Gedanken im Prozess des Arbeitens verbunden sein k nnten, ver ndern sich in diesem Prozess; Einsichten im Verlauf des eigenen Schreibens gewinnen eine grundlegend neue Gestalt. Zuletzt verhilft Autoethnographie zu einem besseren Verst ndnis der pers nlichen und kulturellen Einflüsse, die ihren Wunsch, sich "zu bekennen", rahmen. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs070163 The author writes an autoethnography reflecting on the inherent complications of confessions. She reveals the irony of living in both a culture of disclosure and a culture of secrecy. Her assumptions of the perils and pitfalls of rendering intimate thoughts shift as she reflects upon her own confessions. The impact and insight from her writings become revolutionary as she moves inward and outward through interrogations of personal disclosure. In the end, autoethnography helps her gain a deeper understanding about the personal and cultural influences shaping her desire to confess. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs070163 La autora escribe una autobiografía reflexionando sobre las complicaciones inherentes de las confesiones. Revela la ironía de vivir tanto en una cultura de revelación y una cultura del secreto. Sus supuestos de los peligros y dificultades de desplegar los pensamientos íntimos cambian en tanto reflexiona acerca de sus propias confesiones. El impacto y penetración de su escrito son revolucionarios en tanto va hacia adentro y hacia afuera a través de interrogaciones acerca de la revelación personal. Al final, la autobiografía le ayuda a ganar un conocimiento más profundo de las influencias culturales y personales que forman su deseo de confesión. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs070163
Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: An evolutionary hypothesis La náusea y el vómito gravídicos: una hipótesis evolutiva
Richard V Lee
Revista médica de Chile , 2002,
Abstract: Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, "morning sickness", is a common contemporary complaint. Many pregnant patients note alterations in smell and taste which can precipitate "morning sickness", symptoms that characterize early gestation. Epidemiologic studies suggest that pregnancies accompanied by "morning sickness" have better outcomes than asymptomatic pregnancies. The intimate connection between immunogenetic identity, chemoidentity, and chemocommunication by olfactory mechanisms suggests a relationship between maternal symptoms and maternal accommodation of paternal antigens contained in the fetoplacental unit. Most mammalian species utilize olfaction to reduce inbreeding and thus do not require an intimate placental connection between mother and fetus. The evolution of Homo sapiens included prolonged periods of small, genetically homogeneous foraging groups which limited selection of genetically heterogeneous mates. Adaptation to this circumstance included a reduction of olfactory precision in mate selection and a more intimate association between mother and fetus, the hemochorial placenta (Rev Med Chile 2002; 130: 580-84) Las náuseas y vómitos al comienzo del embarazo, o "emesis gravídica", son síntomas muy frecuentes. Muchas embarazadas reconocen este estado porque perciben desde los primeros días de un embarazo alteraciones en el olfato y en el sabor que pueden precipitar una emesis gravídica. Hay estudios epidemiológicos que sugieren que los embarazos acompa ados por emesis gravídica tienen una mejor evolución que los embarazos asintomáticos. La conexión íntima entre la identidad inmunogenética, la quimioidentidad y la quimiocomunicación mediante mecanismos olfatorios sugieren que existe una relación entre estos síntomas maternos y la adaptación materna a antígenos paternos contenidos en la unidad fetoplacentaria. La mayoría de las especies de mamíferos utilizan el olfato para reducir la consanguinidad y de este modo no necesitan una íntima conexión placentaria entre la madre y el feto. Durante períodos prolongados en la evolución del Homo sapiens hubo grupos peque os de pastores genéticamente homogéneos, con una limitada posibilidad de seleccionar apareamientos heterogéneos. Su adaptación a esta circunstancia incluyó una disminución de la precisión olfatoria en la selección de apareamientos y una asociación más íntima entre la madre y el feto: la placenta hemocorial
Medical journals: Old, not senescent. A tribute to Revista Médica de Chile on its 135th Anniversary Revistas médicas: Antiguas, pero no senescentes. Homenaje a la Revista Médica de Chile en su aniversario 135
Richard V Lee
Revista médica de Chile , 2007,
Abstract: Medical journals, like the Revista Médica de Chile, are the product of a long history of printing, literary styles, and scientific inquiry. They would not have developed without the craft of paper making, the invention of movable type, the need to communicate ideas and observations in a timely and digestible format, and the growth of "natural philosophy" during the European Renaissance and Enlightenment. The proliferation of scientific and medical periodical literature during Europe's industrialization in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries followed the emergence of medical science and care as a separate discipline and the creation of common and worldwide professional expectations and credentials. Medical journals continue to evolve with the advent of digital paperless publishing. Prognostication remains uncertain but it seems to me unlikely that printed paper, so called "hard copy, "journals will become extinct any time soon Las revistas médicas, como Revista Médica de Chile, son el producto de una larga historia de impresores, estilos literarios e investigación científica. No se habrían desarrollado sin la pericia de fabricar papel, la invención de los tipos mecánicos en la imprenta, la necesidad de comunicar ideas y observaciones en un formato oportuno y digerible, y el desarrollo de una "filosofía de la naturaleza" durante el Renacimiento y la Ilustración en Europa. La proliferación de publicaciones periódicas científicas y médicas durante la industrialización de Europa en los siglos 19 y 20 siguió a la emergencia de la ciencia médica y la atención de salud como disciplina aparte, y a la creación de expectativas y credenciales profesionales comunes y universales. Las revistas médicas siguen evolucionando con el advenimiento de las publicaciones digitales electrónicas, sin papel. Pronosticar es incierto pero al autor de este artículo le parece improbable que las revistas impresas en papel vayan a desaparecer en un futuro próximo
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