oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Any time

2019 ( 84 )

2018 ( 173 )

2017 ( 167 )

2016 ( 279 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 130449 matches for " V. Giampietro "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /130449
Display every page Item
Sequence Conservation in Plasmodium falciparum α-Helical Coiled Coil Domains Proposed for Vaccine Development
Caroline Kulangara, Andrey V. Kajava, Giampietro Corradin, Ingrid Felger
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005419
Abstract: Background The availability of the P. falciparum genome has led to novel ways to identify potential vaccine candidates. A new approach for antigen discovery based on the bioinformatic selection of heptad repeat motifs corresponding to α-helical coiled coil structures yielded promising results. To elucidate the question about the relationship between the coiled coil motifs and their sequence conservation, we have assessed the extent of polymorphism in putative α-helical coiled coil domains in culture strains, in natural populations and in the single nucleotide polymorphism data available at PlasmoDB. Methodology/Principal Findings 14 α-helical coiled coil domains were selected based on preclinical experimental evaluation. They were tested by PCR amplification and sequencing of different P. falciparum culture strains and field isolates. We found that only 3 out of 14 α-helical coiled coils showed point mutations and/or length polymorphisms. Based on promising immunological results 5 of these peptides were selected for further analysis. Direct sequencing of field samples from Papua New Guinea and Tanzania showed that 3 out of these 5 peptides were completely conserved. An in silico analysis of polymorphism was performed for all 166 putative α-helical coiled coil domains originally identified in the P. falciparum genome. We found that 82% (137/166) of these peptides were conserved, and for one peptide only the detected SNPs decreased substantially the probability score for α-helical coiled coil formation. More SNPs were found in arrays of almost perfect tandem repeats. In summary, the coiled coil structure prediction was rarely modified by SNPs. The analysis revealed a number of peptides with strictly conserved α-helical coiled coil motifs. Conclusion/Significance We conclude that the selection of α-helical coiled coil structural motifs is a valuable approach to identify potential vaccine targets showing a high degree of conservation.
Die beste Vorgehensweise in der Forschungspraxis: Rituale und rhetorische Strategien des "Erstkontakts" bei der telefonischen Befragung Best Practices: Rituals and Rhetorical Strategies in the "Initial Telephone Contact Mejores prácticas: rituales y estrategias retóricas en el "contacto inicial telefónico
Giampietro Gobo
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2001,
Abstract: Die Notwendigkeit einer Integration qualitativer und quantitativer Ans tze wird in den Sozialwissenschaften bereits seit l ngerer Zeit anerkannt; die Forschungspraxis tr gt dieser Notwendigkeit jedoch nur selten Rechnung. Der beste Weg, um dieser Zielsetzung n her zu kommen, besteht ggf. in einer Auswahl spezifischer Aspekte empirischer Forschung, in denen die beiden Ans tze eine Zusammenarbeit erreichen k nnen. Ein solcher Aspekt betrifft das Problem des Umgangs mit Verweigerungen in der Umfrageforschung. In diesem Beitrag steht insbesondere der "telefonische Erstkontakt" im Vordergrund, ein klar definierter Schritt im Prozess der Umfrageforschung. Der Schritt ist insofern unverzichtbar, als es w hrend des Kontaktes zu den besagten Verweigerungen kommen kann. Verweigerungen sind ein zunehmendes Problem, das gerade für die Umfrageforschung eine Bedrohung darstellt – und zwar insofern, als der Versuch, den Folgen des Problems entgegenzuwirken, zu einer Verzerrung der statistischen Schlussfolgerungen und der Datenauswertung führen kann. Die Ratschl ge zur Gestaltung des Erstkontakts in Handbüchern der Umfrageforschung sind h ufig unrealistisch und widersprüchlich. In solchen Texten findet sich au erdem h ufig der Vorschlag, statistische Gewichtungen zu verwenden. Im Folgenden wird jedoch die Position vertreten, dass solche Gewichtungen künstlich und zudem h ufig v llig willkürlich sind. Aus diesem Grund ist es wichtig, soweit als m glich ein Design mit einer Zufallsstichprobe beizubehalten, indem man versucht, so viele ausgew hlte Respondent(inn)en als m glich von einer Teilnahme zu überzeugen. Zu diesem Zweck müssen Forscher(innen) vor allem die telefonischen Kommunikationsprozesse zwischen Interviewer(in) und Respondent(in) st rker beachten; ein besonderer Schwerpunkt liegt dabei auf der Identifikation und der Verbesserung geeigneter rhetorischer Strategien. Auf der Grundlage eigener Forschung macht der Autor Vorschl ge für die Handhabung des Erstkontakts und bezüglich rhetorischer Strategien, die dabei zur Anwendung kommen k nnen. Es wird weiterhin gezeigt, wie Diskurs- und Konversationsanalyse relevante Techniken bereits durch die Identifikation derjenigen Strategien verbessern kann, die ein Interviewer bei der Handhabung des Kontakts einsetzt. Dies ist ein erster wichtiger Schritt in Richtung auf die Identifikation der besten Vorgehensweise für die Kommunikation mit Respondent(inn)en. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0101177 In the social sciences the need to integrate qualitative and quantitative approaches has long been recognized, but research practice rare
Die Renaissance qualitativer Methoden The Renaissance of Qualitative Methods El renacimiento de los métodos cualitativos
Giampietro Gobo
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2005,
Abstract: Obwohl die Geschichte der qualitativen Forschung schon mehr als ein Jahrhundert umfasst, erschienen die ersten Texte zur Bestimmung ihrer Methodologie erst in den 1960er Jahren. Der Aufsatz erforscht die Gründe für diese lange Verz gerung und fragt danach, warum die Soziologie, die sich so lange mit qualitativen Methoden und Techniken besch ftigt hatte, sich so wenig um die Ausbildung der Methodologie kümmerte. Nachdem er die Entwicklung der qualitativen Methoden und ihres Einsatzes in den gegenw rtigen Sozialwissenschaften skizziert hat, entwirft der Autor ein Bild der Zukunft qualitativer Forschung. Bei aller Vorsicht, mit der man solche Zukunftsszenarien betrachten sollte, kann man doch fünf m gliche Richtungen identifizieren: (a) die Formulierung zentraler Methoden; (b) die Entwicklung der Datenanalyse; (c) die Verbindung zwischen Computer und qualitativer Forschung; (d) die Notwendigkeit qualitativen Forschung in der multikulturellen Gesellschaft und (e) Folgen für die angewandte Forschung. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503420 Even though qualitative research was first done more than a century ago, the first texts that tried to define its methodology appeared only eighty years later, in the late sixties. This article explores the reasons why there was such a long delay and why many sociologists who worked using qualitative methods and techniques for a long time did not care about the need for methodological training. After having seen how qualitative methods and their use in contemporary social science developed, the author outlines the future prospects for qualitative research. With the freedom usually given to those that construct scenarios, we can identify at least five directions: (a) the major formalization of the methods; (b) the development of data analysis; (c) the marriage between computers and qualitative research; (d) the necessity of qualitative methods in a multicultural society; and (e) the implications for applied research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503420 Aún cuando la investigación cualitativa se hizo por primera vez hace más de cien a os, los primeros textos que trataron de definir su metodología aparecieron ochenta a os después, al final de los sesentas. Este artículo explora las razones de tal retraso y porque muchos sociólogos que usaron métodos y técnicas cualitativas durante mucho tiempo no se preocuparon de la necesidad de entrenamiento metodológico. Después de mirar el desarrollo y uso de los métodos cualitativos en la ciencia social contemporánea, el autor traza escenarios futuros para la investigación cualitativa. Con la libert
La valutazione del danno ambientale: i primi passi dell'art.18 della legge n.349/1986
F. Giampietro
Aestimum , 1989,
Abstract:
Anti-Interleukin-1 Agents in Adult Onset Still's Disease
Cecilia Giampietro,Bruno Fautrel
International Journal of Inflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/317820
Abstract: Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) is emerging as a master mediator of adult onset Still’s disease (AOSD) pathogenesis. This pleiotropic cytokine, whose expression is under the control of the inflammasome pathway, has a wide type of effects. As a key mediator of innate immunity is a potent pyrogen and facilitates neutrophilic proliferation and diapedesis into the inflamed tissues, which are key AOSD manifestations. The study of proinflammatory cytokines profiles in sera and pathological tissues of AOSD patients has shown elevated levels of IL-1β, these levels being highly correlated with disease activity and severity. These experimental evidences and the analogy with other autoinflammatory diseases that share with AOSD clinical and biological characteristics have suggested the blockade of IL-1β as a possible new therapeutic option for the AOSD, especially in conventional therapy resistant cases. Anakinra, the first anti-IL-1 agent put on the market, has demonstrated capable to induce a rapid response sustained over time, especially in systemic forms, where anti-TNFα failed to control symptoms. While a growing number of evidences supports the utilisation of anakinra in AOSD, a new generation of anti-IL1β antagonists is developing. Canakinumab and rilonacept, thanks to their higher affinity and longer half-life, could improve the management of this invalidating disease. 1. Introduction Adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD) is a systemic autoinflammatory disorder characterized by daily high-spiking fevers, evanescent maculopapular rash, sore throat, polyarthritis, myalgia, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly [1, 2]. The etiology of AOSD is currently unknown. However, a growing number of experimental evidences supports the hypothesis that a disregulation of inflammasome complex and a related overproduction of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β) is a pivotal event in the pathogenesis of this disorder, in analogy with other autoinflammatory diseases that share with AOSD clinical and biological characteristics [3]. In this paper, we discuss the biology and the role of IL-1 in AOSD pathogenesis and we review the current literature about the utilization of anti-IL-1 agents in clinical practice. 2. IL-1 Biology 2.1. IL-1 Expression: The Inflammasome Pathway of Activation IL-1β is a pleiotropic mediator of the response to infection and injury, which affects nearly all cell types, either alone or in combination with other cytokines. The main source of IL-1β is the monocytic-macrophagic system. The components of the latter do not express constitutively this
Thiol Signalling Network with an Eye to Diabetes
Elena Matteucci,Ottavio Giampietro
Molecules , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/molecules15128890
Abstract: Redox regulatory system controls normal cellular functions. Controlled changes in redox couples potential serve as components for signal transduction, similarly to the phosphorylation cascade. Cellular redox biology requires both compartimentalisation and communication of redox systems: the thermodynamic disequilibrium of the major redox switches allows rapid and sensitive responses to perturbations in redox environments. The many oxidation states of sulphur are found in numerous sulphur species with distinct functional groups (thiols, disulphides, polysulphides, sulphenic, sulphinic and sulphonic acids, etc.), which participate in a complicated network of sulphur-based redox events. Human diseases such as diabetes mellitus and its cardiovascular complications have been associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species and perturbations of thiol redox homeostasis. The review surveys literature related to some etiopathogenic aspects and therapeutic perspectives. The dual toxic-protective property of sulphydryl-donor molecules in experimental settings proposes the general problem of designing antioxidants for therapeutic use.
Qualitative Forschung in Italien Qualitative Research in Italy Investigación cualitativa en Italia
Attila Bruni,Giampietro Gobo
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2005,
Abstract: Die qualitative Forschung in Italien hat schwere Zeiten durchgemacht. Einerseits wurde sie lange von der Vorherrschaft des Idealismus in der Tradition CROCEs behindert. Andererseits wurde sie auch von den Umfrageforschern sehr gering geachtet. Seit den 1980er Jahren aber gewinnt sie eine immer wichtiger werdende Rolle in der italienischen Soziologie, und seit den 1990er Jahren hat sie einen festen Platz in der Methodologie in Italien erobert, auch wenn sie noch immer hinter der Umfrageforschung zurücksteht. Zum Beginn des neuen Jahrtausends wurde die qualitative Methodologie in vielen Ausbildungsprogrammen und Methodologiekursen institutionalisiert. Der Aufsatz rekonstruiert die Geschichte der qualitativen Forschung und Methodologie in Italien Schritt für Schritt. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503410 Qualitative research in Italy has gone through hard times. On the one hand it has long been hampered by the hegemony of Crocean idealism. On the other hand survey researchers have also undervalued it. Despite, this from the 1980s qualitative research gained an important role in Italian sociology and at the end of the 1990s it conquered a space in Italian method-ology, still ruled by the survey approach. At the be-ginning of the new millennium qualitative method-ology has become institutionalized in teaching programs and courses of methodology. The article reconstructs, step by step, a history of qualitative research and methodology in Italy. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503410 La investigación cualitativa en Italia ha tenido tiempos difíciles. Por una lado, ha estado debilitada por la hegemonía del idealismo Croceano. Por el otro, los investigadores de encuestas la han infravalorado. A pesar de ello, desde la década de los 80's la investigación cualitativa ha adquirido un importante papel en la sociología italiana y al final de los 90's conquistó un espacio en la metodología italiana, aún dominada por el enfoque de encuestas. Al inicio del nuevo milenio la metodología cualitativa se ha institucionalizado en programas de ense anza y cursos de metodología. Este artículo reconstruye, paso a paso, la historia de la investigación y metodología cualitativas en Italia. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503410
Electron Pathways through Erythrocyte Plasma Membrane in Human Physiology and Pathology: Potential Redox Biomarker?
Elena Matteucci,Ottavio Giampietro
Biomarker Insights , 2007,
Abstract: Erythrocytes are involved in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body. Since pH is the influential factor in the Bohr-Haldane effect, pHi is actively maintained via secondary active transports Na+/H+ exchange and HC3 -/Cl- anion exchanger. Because of the redox properties of the iron, hemoglobin generates reactive oxygen species and thus, the human erythrocyte is constantly exposed to oxidative damage. Although the adult erythrocyte lacks protein synthesis and cannot restore damaged proteins, it is equipped with high activity of protective enzymes. Redox changes in the cell initiate various signalling pathways. Plasma membrane oxido-reductases (PMORs) are transmembrane electron transport systems that have been found in the membranes of all cells and have been extensively characterized in the human erythrocyte. Erythrocyte PMORs transfer reducing equivalents from intracellular reductants to extracellular oxidants, thus their most important role seems to be to enable the cell respond to changes in intra- and extra-cellular redox environments.So far the activity of erythrocyte PMORs in disease states has not been systematically investigated. This review summarizes present knowledge on erythrocyte electron transfer activity in humans (health, type 1 diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, and chronic uremia) and hypothesizes an integrated model of the functional organization of erythrocyte plasma membrane where electron pathways work in parallel with transport metabolons to maintain redox homeostasis.
Genetic Aspects of Congenital and Idiopathic Scoliosis
Philip F. Giampietro
Scientifica , 2012, DOI: 10.6064/2012/152365
Abstract:
Genetic Aspects of Congenital and Idiopathic Scoliosis
Philip F. Giampietro
Scientifica , 2012, DOI: 10.6064/2012/152365
Abstract: Congenital and idiopathic scoliosis represent disabling conditions of the spine. While congenital scoliosis (CS) is caused by morphogenic abnormalities in vertebral development, the cause(s) for idiopathic scoliosis is (are) likely to be varied, representing alterations in skeletal growth, neuromuscular imbalances, disturbances involving communication between the brain and spine, and others. Both conditions are characterized by phenotypic and genetic heterogeneities, which contribute to the difficulties in understanding their genetic basis that investigators face. Despite the differences between these two conditions there is observational and experimental evidence supporting common genetic mechanisms. This paper focuses on the clinical features of both CS and IS and highlights genetic and environmental factors which contribute to their occurrence. It is anticipated that emerging genetic technologies and improvements in phenotypic stratification of both conditions will facilitate improved understanding of the genetic basis for these conditions and enable targeted prevention and treatment strategies. 1. Introduction Advances in developmental biology have enabled improvements in the understanding of spine development and have provided contributions that enhance our understanding of genetic and environmental factors that are associated with congenital and idiopathic scoliosis. This paper will focus on salient features of both forms of scoliosis and highlight research focusing on genetic and environmental mechanisms for their occurrence. 2. Definitions and Epidemiology of Scoliosis Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is defined by the Scoliosis Research Society (http://www.srs.org/) as a lateral curvature of the spine of 10° or greater for which no cause can be determined. There is evidence that genetic and environmental factors are likely to play a role in the occurrence of both as described herin, although the mechanism responsible for this is uncertain at the present time. This rotational deformity is measured in the forward bending position by an inclinometer, and the scoliometer as an angle of trunk rotation (ATR). The incidence of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) in the general population ranges from 2% to 3%, varying with the definition of the magnitude of the curve. Population studies indicate that 11.1% of 1st degree relatives are affected, compared to 2.4% of 2nd degree, and 1.1% of 3rd degree relatives [1]. By age 16, 0.6% of affected people will have required active treatment with a full-time thoracolumbar-sacral orthosis (TLSO) or surgical correction with
Page 1 /130449
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.