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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1427 matches for " Urooj Zahra "
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Does Comorbidity Increase the Risk of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever and Dengue Shock Syndrome?
Shahid Mahmood,Saadia Hafeez,Hiba Nabeel,Urooj Zahra,Hammad Nazeer
ISRN Tropical Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/139273
Abstract: Background. Dengue fever is an emerging public health problem in Pakistan. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between comorbid conditions in individuals suffering from dengue fever and the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome. Methods. In this age- and sex-matched case control study, total of 132 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome and 249 randomly selected controls were recruited from two major teaching hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan. A semistructured questionnaire was used to collect data through interview and by reviewing clinical records. SPSS version 18 was utilized for statistical analysis including conditional logistic regression. Results. Odds of developing dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) among diabetics are higher than in controls, but this association was not found statistically significant (OR. 1.26; 95% CI. 0.78–2.03; ). Similarly, no association was observed in individuals suffering from hypertension (OR. 0.93; 95% CI. 0.57–1.49; ). Odds of developing DHF and DSS were higher for bronchial asthma (adjusted OR. 1.34) and pulmonary tuberculosis (adjusted OR. 1.41); however P values were insignificant. Conclusion. Presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, ischemic heart disease and bronchial asthma among patients contracted dengue fever will not increase the risk of dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. 1. Background Dengue fever is an emerging public health problem prevalent mostly in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is an arbovirus infection transmitted through Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquito species. Four dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4) have yet been identified and are responsible for most of the clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic disease to symptomatic dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). In majority of patients, infection is self-limiting, but in small proportions, the resultant dengue shock syndrome (DSS) may increase morbidity and mortality. Infection with one serotype does not give protection against other dengue viruses, yet sequential infections increase the risk of developing dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) [1, 2]. Dengue is endemic in many Southeast Asian countries and Western pacific region [2]. About 2.5 billion people (40% of world’s population) are at risk of dengue transmission. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 50 to 100 million infections occur yearly, including 500,000 DHF
Seroprevalence of Dengue IgG Antibodies among Healthy Adult Population in Lahore, Pakistan
Shahid Mahmood,Hiba Nabeel,Saadia Hafeez,Urooj Zahra,Hammad Nazeer
ISRN Tropical Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/521396
Abstract: Background. Dengue is a mosquito-borne flavivirus infection prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Aim of this study was to determine seroprevalence of anti-dengue IgG antibodies in healthy adult population of Lahore and also describe risk factors in relation to dengue seropositivity. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 274 healthy adult individuals aged 15 years and above were randomly selected using multistage sampling technique. These individuals were interviewed between July–September 2012, using a semistructured questionnaire, followed by drawing 3?mL of their venous blood for dengue IgG test. Nova Tech ELISA kit with sensitivity and specificity of 96.5% and 97.5%, respectively, was used for serology. Results. Out of 274 participants, 184 (67.2%) were found to be positive for dengue IgG antibodies. Seroprevalence was higher among individuals with poor awareness about potential breeding sites for dengue mosquito (63.6%), followed by the subjects who had poor knowledge about dengue signs/symptoms and complications (52.2% and 68.5%, resp.). Conclusion. About two-third of healthy population of Lahore was also seropositive for anti-dengue IgG during July–September 2012, indicating a considerable burden of subclinical dengue infection in the city. Males were predominantly affected than the females. We found no statistical association between dengue IgG seropositivity and socioeconomic status, occupation, and knowledge about the disease. 1. Background Dengue is a mosquito-borne flavivirus infection prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, and it has emerged as an important global public health challenge. In recent years, disease transmission has increased predominantly in urban and semiurban areas owing to economic reasons and migration. There are four distinct but closely related serotypes (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4) of the dengue virus known; however, DEN-2 infection is more prevalent in South Asian region including Pakistan [1, 2]. Recovery from one type of virus infection, though, provides lifelong immunity against that particular serotype, but there is a strong evidence suggesting the occurrence of severe clinical manifestations of dengue fever in subsequent infection from other serotypes [3]. Infective female Aedes aegypti mosquito species is the primary vector for dengue which transmits the virus through biting humans. On the other hand, Aedes albopictus is responsible for maintaining the endemicity in the population [4]. Absence of an effective vaccine, vector control measures, and personal
Influence of Processing on Dietary Fiber, Tannin and in Vitro Protein Digestibility of Pearl Millet  [PDF]
Florence Suma Pushparaj, Asna Urooj
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.28122
Abstract: From the nutritional point of view, data on dietary fiber content, tannin and in vitro protein digestibility of processed millet is of importance, because millets are never eaten raw. Effects of commonly used traditional methods on dietary fiber, tannin content and %IVPD of two locally available pearl millet varieties (Kalukombu and Maharashtra Rabi Bajra) were investigated. The millet was subjected to various processing methods like milling (whole flour, semi refined flour and bran rich fraction) roasting, boiling, pressure cooking & germination respectively. Processing had little effect on the total dietary fiber (TDF) content in both varieties; however the bran rich fraction showed highest TDF content of around 29%. Tannins effectively lowered upon boiling and pressure cooking respectively, but significantly increased (P ≥ 0.05) upon germination. Although the % IVPD of the millet (45.5 – 49.3 g/100g) was low, it significantly increased upon milling (bran rich fraction), roasting and germination respectively.
Comparison of the Stress, Sexual Disfunction, and Mental Happiness Coping Strategies in Two Groups of Normal Married Women and Women with Marital Conflicts  [PDF]
Zahra Zanbagh, Zahra Chabokinezhad
Creative Education (CE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.92020
Abstract: In the era that rapid and unpredictable changes have happened in human life, the family is still one of the sources that have a prominent role in protecting people, their social and emotional support, but data from past decades indicate an increase in divorce rates both in the world and in Iran. The present research aimed to compare coping strategies with stress, sexual disfunction, mental happiness in two groups of normal married women and women with marital conflicts. The research employed a causal-comparative method. The statistical population included all normal married women and women with marital conflicts who referred to counseling centers in Yazd city in 2016-2017. To this end, 150 women (75 normal married women and 75 women with marital conflicts) were selected using available sampling method. They completed the Lazarus and Fulkman (1985), Female Sexual Function Index (ROS) (2000), Panas Mental Happiness (1988) questionnaires. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Independent T-test in SPSS software. The findings showed that there is a difference between strategies for coping with stress, sexual disfunction, and mental happiness in both married women and women with marital conflicts.
Inevitability of an Enhanced Monitoring Strategy to Reduce Water Borne Illness Combining Indicators of Sanitary Protection and Measuring Water Quality  [PDF]
Nain Taara Bukhari, Ghulam Fatima, Urooj Zafar, Anum Muneer, Shahana Urooj Kazmi
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2016.711081
Abstract: Background: Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of childhood mortality in children under five years old. Water is a major contributing risk factor for this disease that is a common illness and a global killer. Material and Methods: Water samples from different areas of Karachi were collected and were processed by MPN technique to evaluate the presence of microbiological substances. Results: Out of the processed samples, 64% were positive for the presence of mix enteric pathogen from different areas of Karachi; from Bhens colony, 74% were positive for the presence of fecal coli forms, among which 4% were positive for EHEC isolated from storage tank and water tank. Conclusion: The abovementioned results reflect the presence of organisms of public health importance in different sources of drinking water. According to WHO guidelines, there should be zero tolerance of these organisms in water.
Structural Breaks, Automatic Model Selection and Forecasting Wheat and Rice Prices for Pakistan
Zahid Asghar,Amena Urooj
Pakistan Journal of Statistics and Operation Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1234/pjsor.v8i1.332
Abstract: Structural breaks and existence of outliers in time series variables results in misleading forecasts. We forecast wheat and rice prices by capturing the exogenous breaks and outliers using Automatic modeling. The procedure identifies the outliers as the observations with large residuals. The suggested model is compared on the basis of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) with the usual ARIMA model selected ignoring the possible breaks. Our results strongly support that forecasting with breaks by using General to Specific (Gets through Autometric) model performs better in forecasting than that of traditional model. We have used wheat and rice price data (two main staple foods) for Pakistan.
Anticholinesterase activities of cold and hot aqueous extracts of F. racemosa stem bark
Ahmed Faiyaz,Urooj Asna
Pharmacognosy Magazine , 2010,
Abstract: The present study evaluated the anticholinesterase activity of cold and hot aqueous extracts of Ficus racemosa stem bark against rat brain acetylcholinesterase in vitro. Both the cold aqueous extract (FRC) and the hot aqueous extract (FRH) exhibited a dose dependent inhibition of rat brain acetylcholinesterase. FRH showed significantly higher ( p ≤ 0.001) cholinesterase inhibitory activity compared to FRC; however, both the extracts did not show 50% inhibition of AChE at the doses tested (200-1000 μg ml -1 ). The IC 50 values of 1813 and 1331 μg ml -1 were deduced for FRC and FRH, respectively (calculated by extrapolation using Boltzmann′s dose response analysis).
Asna Urooj et al
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2012,
Abstract: Phytochemicals are the bioactive components present at micro level in our daily diet, especially the phenolic antioxidants, contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular and other degenerative diseases. Moringa oleifera (MO) leaves polyphenols effect on the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase was studied using a spectrophotometric assay based on the stoichiometric formation of coenzyme A (SH) during the reduction of microsomal HMG CoA to mevalonate at different concentrations (200- 400 μg). Activity of HMG- CoA reductase was inhibited by MO polyphenols significantly (p<0.05) at the concentrations studied. The Coenzyme A released at the end of assay in the control was higher (18.87±0.12 n Moles) significantly than the MO polyphenol extract, which was dose dependent (14.69±0.07 to 10.26±0.33 n Moles). The results reveal the potency of the MO polyphenols in inhibiting the HMG- CoA reductase. Hence, the MO polyphenols can be explored for its role as a cholesterol lowering agent.
Misleading Communication VS. Effective Aviation Management  [PDF]
Keshavarzi Zahra
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2011.36029
Abstract: In this paper some of the important problems and issues such as human and communication errors in safety and civil aviation management are presented. The problems arise from misleading information from different sources. To avoid the above problems, a centralization of the information is proposed here. To centralize the information for Air Traffic Management (ATM), a mining data routing system called SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system is suggested in this study. The utilization of SCADA system will helps to capture air traffic information and aircraft data via satellite technology and transfer it to data mining center and then to central organization. The stored digital data will exchange the information between different organizations and will be used by management systems. The stored reliable information helps to make an appropriate decision in the Air Traffic Management system.
Epidemiology of hodgkin’s lymphoma  [PDF]
Zahra Mozaheb
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.55A003

The epidemiology of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (HL) varies with age at clinical onset. In developing countries, the disorder appears predominantly during childhood and its incidence decreases with age, while in industrialized countries, the incidence rate increase with age. There has long been a view that the differences in descriptive epidemiology of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma around the world, and also between children, young adults and older adults may reflect differences in etiology between them. Hodgkin’s Lymphoma has long been suspected to have an infectious precursor, and indirect evidence has implicated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), as a causal agent. The etiology of EBV-negative cases remains obscure. Epidemiological investigation of the etiology of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma is making steady progress, and it leads to a better understanding and hence prevention. This review considers in detail the descriptive and the etiological epidemiology of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.

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