Abstract:
An amylopullulanase of the thermophilic Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4 (ApuASK) was purified to homogeneity and characterized. Though amylopullulanases larger than 200 kDa are rare, the molecular mass of purified ApuASK appears to be approximately 225 kDa, on both SDS-PAGE analyses and native-PAGE analyses. ApuASK was stable between pH 6.0 and pH 8.0 and exhibited optimal activity at pH 7.5. The optimal temperature for ApuASK enzyme activity was 60 °C, and it retained 54% of its total activity for 240 min at 65 °C. ApuASK reacts with pullulan, starch, glycogen, and dextrin, yielding glucose, maltose, and maltotriose. Interestingly, most of the previously described amylopullulanases are unable to produce glucose and maltose from these substrates. Thus, ApuASK is a novel, high molecular-mass amylopullulanase able to produce glucose, maltose, and maltotriose from pullulan and starch. Based on whole genome sequencing data, ApuASK appeared to be the largest protein present in Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4. The α-amylase catalytic domain present in all of the amylase superfamily members is present in ApuASK, located between the cyclodextrin (CD)-pullulan-degrading N-terminus and the α-amylase catalytic C-terminus (amyC) domains. In addition, the existence of a S-layer homology (SLH) domain indicates that ApuASK might function as a cell-anchoring enzyme and be important for carbohydrate utilization in a streaming hot spring.

Abstract:
Species of Anoxybacillus are widespread in geothermal springs, manure, and milk-processing plants. The genus is composed of 22 species and two subspecies, but the relationship between its lifestyle and genome is little understood. In this study, two high-quality draft genomes were generated from Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1, isolated from Malaysian hot springs. De novo assembly and annotation were performed, followed by comparative genome analysis with the complete genome of Anoxybacillus flavithermus WK1 and two additional draft genomes, of A. flavithermus TNO-09.006 and A. kamchatkensis G10. The genomes of Anoxybacillus spp. are among the smaller of the family Bacillaceae. Despite having smaller genomes, their essential genes related to lifestyle adaptations at elevated temperature, extreme pH, and protection against ultraviolet are complete. Due to the presence of various competence proteins, Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1 are able to take up foreign DNA fragments, and some of these transferred genes are important for the survival of the cells. The analysis of intact putative prophage genomes shows that they are highly diversified. Based on the genome analysis using SEED, many of the annotated sequences are involved in carbohydrate metabolism. The presence of glycosyl hydrolases among the Anoxybacillus spp. was compared, and the potential applications of these unexplored enzymes are suggested here. This is the first study that compares Anoxybacillus genomes from the aspect of lifestyle adaptations, the capacity for horizontal gene transfer, and carbohydrate metabolism.

Abstract:
A field trial was conducted to study the impact of various potato germplasm against aphids, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Aphididae: Hemiptera) during rabi season from November to March in 2012-2013 and 2013-2014, respectively at Adisaptagram Block Seed Farm, Hooghly, West Bengal. The population of aphids was started on potato crop in between third week of December and first week of January irrespective of various germplasms, except K. Chipsona-2, where its infestation was initiated during second and third week of January. Then, their population was gradually increased to reach its critical level (ETL) during first and second week of January in most of the potato germplasm, except in K. Anand, K. Chipsona-1, K. Chipsona-2 and Sailaja, where it was crossed in between fourth week of January and first week of February. The peak population of aphids was observed during third and fourth week of February in most of the potato germplasm. It was observed that K. Ashoka, K. Badshah, K. Chandramukhi, K. Jawahar, K. Jyoti and K. Pukhraj were highly susceptible to the pests, while K. Anand and K. Sutlez were moderately susceptible but K. Chipsona-1 , K. Chipsona-2 and K. Sailaja were less susceptible or tolerant to the pests. Maximum tuber yield (t/ha) of potato was recorded in K. Badshah (36.58 - 43.92) while it was lowest in K. Chandramukhi (22.08 - 22.12).

Abstract:
In this paper, we consider the Poincare group (space time). In mathematics, the Poincar\'e group of spacetime, named after Henri Poincar\'e, is the group of isometries of Minkowski spacetime, introduced by Hermann Minkowski. It is a non-abelian Lie group with ten generators. Spacetime, in physical science, single concept that recognizes the union of space and time, posited by Albert Einstein in the theories of relativity. One of the interesting problems for Mathematicians and Physicists is. Can we do the Fourier analysis on space time. The purpose of this paper is to define the Fourier transform the Poincar\'e group, and then we establish the Plancherel theorem for spacetime

Abstract:
Consider the Iwasawa decomposition of the real semisimple Lie group. The purpose of this paper is to define the Fourier transform in order to obtain the Plancherel theorem on its maxima solvable Lie group. Besides, we prove the existence theorems for the invariant differential operators on this solvable. To this end, we give a classification of all left ideals of its group algebra

Abstract:
Consider the general linear group, which is not connected but rather has two connected components, the matrices with positive determinant and the ones with negative determinant. Consider the Iwasawa decomposition of its special linear group. We adopt the technique of the paper [12] to generalize the definition of the Fourier transform and to obtain the Plancherel theorem for the special linear group. Besides we prove that the component with negative determinant has a structure of group, which is isomorphic onto the group of the component with positive determinant in order to obtain the Plancherel theorem the general linear group

Abstract:
The general linear group has two components and its the identity component, which consists of the real matrices with positive determinant and the set of all matrices with negative determinant. Since the general linear group is a two copies of the group of the identity component, so the general affine group. Consider the affine group, which is the semidirect product of the identity component with the real group of dimension. In this paper we generalize the Fourier transform to obtain the Plancherel theorem on this group and then, we establish the Plancherel theorem for the general affine group

Abstract:
A frequency selective surface (FSS) comprising of a two dimensional array of dipole apertures, resonant at two frequencies, within a metallic screen is proposed. A computationally efficient method for analyzing this FSS is used. The formulation is carried out in the spectral domain where the convolution form of the integral equation for the induced current reduces to an algebraic one and the Spectral-Galerkin technique is used to solve the resulting equation. Entire- domain basis function that satisfies the edge condition is introduced to expand the unknown induced current on the complementary structure i.e. an array of printed dipoles. Using Babinet’s principle for complementary screen, the transmitted electric field for the structure of an array of aperture dipoles has been calculated. The theoretical practical data indicate that this structure can be used as a highly selective tuned bandpass filter for GPS and Wi-Max applications which is very resistant to variations of RF incidence angle of 90° (degree) rotations about any vertical axis, perpendicular to the FSS plane and passing through its centre.

Abstract:
Blood flow analysis is a study of measuring the blood pressure and finding its equivalent flow rate, velocity profile and wall shear stress. In this article, we determined the relationship between blood pressure gradient, velocity profile, centerline velocity, volumetric flow rate and wall shear stress analytically through a Graphical User Interface (GUI). If one of these time-dependent blood flow properties is known, i.e. pressure gradient, velocity profile, volumetric flow rate or wall shear stress, then the remaining properties can be calculated. We developed a code to solve these blood flow properties. Any time-dependent blood properties can be used as input data. These data are then digitized and saved in our code. Subsequently, these data are curve-fitted using the Fourier series. The corresponding coefficients of Fourier series are then used to calculate the blood property. Once this is obtained, the remaining three other flow properties can be subsequently calculated. This GUI serves as a learning tool for students who wish to pursue his/her knowledge in understanding the relationship of various blood flow properties of pulsatile blood flow as well as the mathematics governing pulsatile flows.