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Ochratoxicosis in White Leghorn breeder hens: Production and breeding performance
Zahoor Ul Hassan*, Muhammad Zargham Khan, Ahrar Khan, Ijaz Javed1, Umer Sadique2 and Aisha Khatoon
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2012,
Abstract: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Ochratoxin A (OTA) upon production and breeding parameters in White Leghorn (WL) breeder hens. For this purpose, 84 WL breeder hens were divided into seven groups (A-G). The hens in these groups were maintained on feed contaminated with OTA @ 0.0 (control), 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/Kg, respectively for 21 days. These hens were artificially inseminated with semen obtained from healthy roosters kept on OTA free feed. Egg production and their quality parameters were recorded. Fertile eggs obtained from each group were set for incubation on weekly basis. At the end of the experiment, hens in each group were killed to determined gross and microscopic lesions in different organs. OTA residue concentrations were determined in extracts of liver, kidneys and breast muscles by immunoaffinity column elution and HPLC-Fluorescent detection techniques. Feeing OTA contaminated diet resulted in a significant decrease in egg mass and egg quality parameters. Liver and kidneys showed characteristic lesions of ochratoxicosis. Residue concentration (ng/g) of OTA in the hens fed 10 mg/kg OTA, was the highest in liver (26.336±1.16) followed by kidney (8.223±0.85) and were least in breast muscles (1.235±0.21). Embryonic mortalites were higher, while hatachabilites of the chicks were lower in the groups fed higher doses of OTA. Feeding OTA contaminated diets to breeder hen resulted in residues accumulation in their tissues along with significantly reduced production and breeding performance.
Effect of Ochratoxin A (OTA)-Contaminated Feed on Several Health and Economic Parameters in White Leghorn Cockerels
Zahoor-ul-Hassan*§, Muhammad Zargham Khan, Ahrar Khan, Ijaz Javed1, Umer Sadique2 and Muhammad Raza Hameed
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2012,
Abstract: This study was designed to evaluate some pathological responses of male White Leghorn (WL) chicks, kept on low level of ochratoxin A (OTA) contaminated feed. For this purpose, 350 a-day old male WL chicks were divided into five groups (A-E). Group A, was kept as control, while Groups B, C, D, and E were fed OTA-contaminated diet at 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/Kg feed, respectively, for 21 days. Feed intake on daily basis and body weight gain of the chicks was recorded on weekly basis. A subjective scoring of clinical signs and gross pathological lesions on visceral organs was performed. Relative weights of liver, kidneys and gizzard were recorded at the end of experiment. Serum biochemical profile and histological alteration in liver and kidneys of chicks was determined to assess the OTA mediated damage. A significant decrease in the feed intake and body weight gain of the chicks was observed in OTA treated groups. Clinical signs exhibited by the chicks included severe diarrhea, dullness, depression, increase water intake and ruffled feathers. Gross pathological lesions on liver and kidneys included lighter in coloration, friable and hemorrhagic. A significant increase in the weight of liver, kidney and gizzard was observed in OTA fed chicks. Histologically, liver and kidneys of chicks showed degenerative and necrotic changes. Serum biochemical profile indicated a severe damage to liver and kidneys in OTA fed chicks. The finding of this study suggested that there were pathological effects from OTA in male WL chicks kept on low doses of OTA-contaminated diet.
Effect of Administration of Withania somnifera on Some Hematological and Immunological Profile of Broiler Chicks
Muhammad Mushtaq*, F. R. Durrani, N. Imtiaz, Umer Sadique1, A. Hafeez, S. Akhtar2 and S. Ahmad3
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2012,
Abstract: This study was conducted to assess the performance of broiler chickens based on some hematological and immunological profile, upon inclusion of aqueous extract of Withania somnifera (W. somnifera) in their drinking water. For this purpose, 240 a-day-old broiler chicks were purchased from a local hatchery and divided into four groups i.e. WST-0, WST-I, WST-II and WST-III. Group WST-0 was kept as control, while chicks in group WST-I, WST-II and WST-III were offered in their drinking water with an extract of W. somnifera at 10, 20 and 30g/L for 35 days, starting from day 1 of age. Feed intake and body weight were recorded on regular basis and hematological and immunological profile of the birds was analyzed at the end of experiment. Administration of W. somnifera extract resulted in significantly higher feed intake and body weight of birds in all treated groups. An increase in the values of Hb, PCV and TLC was noted in the treatment groups. A non significant difference was noted in the counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and monocytes in all treatment groups as compared to control. Antibodies titers against IB and IBD were significantly higher in all treatment groups as compare to the values shown by the chicks in control group. Findings of this study indicated that administration of W. somnifera extract to broiler chicks improve their feed intake, body weight gain, hematological profile and immunological status.
Pathogenesis and Immunohistochemical Studies of Caprine Pleuropneumonia in Experimentally Infected Goats
Umer Sadique*, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry1, Muhammad Younus Rana2, Aftab Ahmad Anjum3, Zahoor-Ul-Hassan, Abdul Sajid and Muhammad Mushtaq
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2012,
Abstract: This study was designed to evaluate the pathogenesis of caprine pleuropneumonia (CPP) in the experimentally inoculated goats with Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies Capri (Mmc). For this purpose, 12 goats (Group B) were inoculated with bacterial isolates of Mmc while four goats were kept as untreated control (Group A). Clinical signs of the disease were recorded twice daily. Two goats from group B were sacrificed on weekly basis to demonstrate gross pathological lesions in different organs. Tissue samples from lungs, trachea, liver, heart, kidney, spleen, and small intestines were preserved for histopathological studies. The lungs and lymph nodes were preserved to demonstrate the antigen in tissue by using immuno- histochemical technique. The disease was successfully reproduced in all infected goats with severe manifestation. The clinical signs and gross lesions of the disease were mild at the beginning and became severe at the third and fourth weeks and then progressed to moderate and chronic forms. The histopathological lesions characteristic of CPP were found in all the organs. Antigen of Mmc was detected in tissue sections of lungs and lymph nodes. In conclusion, the disease was efficiently reproduced in experimental animals that showed acute septicemic form with lethal outcome.
Individual freedom versus collective responsibility: an economic epidemiology perspective
M Zia Sadique
Emerging Themes in Epidemiology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1742-7622-3-12
Abstract: Immunisation represents a classic case of social dilemma: a conflict of interest between the private gains of individuals and the collective gains of a society. An individual's self-interest and choice often leads to a vaccination uptake rate less than the social optimum as individuals do not take into account the benefit to others [1]. Conventional wisdom generally favours public intervention in order to produce a socially warranted level of vaccination. This line of argument is primarily based on the externality associated with individual decisions, since individuals are presumed to make choices on the basis of their own welfare gains, without considering the full social impact of their decisions. As the benefits to society are larger than the sum of those to individuals, public policy measures aim to increase demand closer to the social optimum by subsidising the vaccine (many countries provide vaccines free of charge) or through compulsory vaccination, although such a policy is almost always partial. Individuals with religious, medical or social reasons are often exempted. There is, however, controversy over the effectiveness of public intervention compared to the free choice outcome [1-3], and it is the intention of this article to address this issue.Vaccination decisions are made under imperfect information, which means an individual's assessment of the risks and benefits of vaccination is often inaccurate. But even if individuals had perfect information regarding the cost and benefits of vaccination, the free choice outcome would still be different from the social outcome due to the 'free rider' problem associated with vaccination. The changes in risk of infection tend to induce changes in activities that put the individual at risk, which in turn alter the dynamics of disease transmission. There is a feedback mechanism between infection rate and rational response, but the classic models of infectious disease have not incorporated such endogenous behavioural r
Expanding public health professionals’ roles in promoting and supporting breastfeeding as optimal infant feeding: A pilot study with online tutorial implications  [PDF]
Amna Umer, Roger A. Edwards
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.32025

Background: Their knowledge of preventive health, coupled with their dynamic roles in the community, puts public health professionals in a key position to expand their roles in the health promotion and support of breastfeeding as optimal infant feeding. This online tutorial was created to increase public health professionals’ knowledge about breastfeeding and to assess their attitudes in supporting healthy behaviors related to infant feeding as a health promotion strategy. Method: The study utilized an online breastfeeding tutorial based on the US Breast-feeding Committee recommendations for minimum breastfeeding knowledge for health professionals. Pre- and post-tutorial questionnaires assessed breastfeeding knowledge, and an attitudinal survey evaluated attitudes of public health professionals after the tutorial. Exposing public health students to this information can facilitate the early shaping of their attitudes and understanding about the importance of breastfeeding. Results: Fifty-two Northeastern University MPH students and alumni (62% response rate) completed the study. There was an overall gain in participants’ fundamental knowledge regarding breastfeeding as assessed by pre- (77%) to post-tutorial (97%) correct responses (p = 0.00001). The post-tutorial attitudinal survey showed that 92% of participants were comfortable in answering questions about breastfeeding as part of their professional responsibilities. Conclusion: This pilot study highlights the important role that a short online tutorial can play in expanding public health professionals’ knowledge about breastfeeding. Greater use of online methods can enhance awareness of critical health behaviors, such as breastfeeding, that have not received adequate attention in public health curricula. This pilot study provides the foundation for a larger study. Integration of breastfeeding into public health professionals’ core training could support broader social change.

Spatial Planning in Ghana: Antecedents and the Role of Local Artisans  [PDF]
Devine Hedidor, Francis Kwesi Bondinuba, Mohammed Abdulai Sadique
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research (JBCPR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbcpr.2016.43013
Abstract: This paper explored the antecedents and the role of local artisans in Spatial Planning (SP) activities in Ghana. The paper was based on the results of an inspection of 5896 already built houses at Mepe in the Volta Region of Ghana. A mixed method research approach was used to gather the data through snowball non-probability sampling technique. It enabled the researchers to identify 100 local artisans. Survey questionnaires were used, which was followed by structured interviews with five (5) elders who lived in the town for over 65 years. The results showed that the early houses were built on community lands with mud and thatch clustered with narrow and unnamed alleys. Property owners heavily depended on local artisans for professional guidance, although some artisans were ill-trained and unaware of existing government SP regulations. The study was limited to artisans who practiced at the local community level. The findings showed that many local artisans were poorly trained, resulting in poor workmanship and non-compliance with local planning regulations. The paper recommends the integration of SP into the artisanal curricula at both local and national levels to improve their skills.
Amazon : competència o complement dels OPAC
umer, Maja
BiD : Textos Universitaris de Biblioteconomia i Documentació , 2007,
Abstract: Els estudis (com ara, Borgman, 1996; Bates, 2003; etc.) confirmen repetidament que els usuaris finals troben els OPAC complicats d'utilitzar. Recentment, sorgeix sovint una observació interessant quan es discuteix sobre aquest assumpte: alguns usuaris utilitzen Amazon com a interfície dels OPAC. Hi busquen el llibre que volen demanar prestat i després utilitzen l'ISBN per trobar la signatura en el catàleg de la biblioteca (vegeu https://intranet.lib.byu.edu/wwg/?p=13). Aquesta potser no és la pràctica més freqüent, però assenyala certament un problema: sembla que l'ús de les interfícies estàndard dels OPAC no és tan fàcil com Amazon, almenys per a alguns usuaris. Amazon no substituirà les biblioteques, però els bibliotecaris han de tenir un interès constant en aquest assumpte i entendre què és el que els usuaris necessiten i què volen, com també com busquen la informació. Necessitem, per tant, analitzar altres serveis que ho facin millor i intentar dur a terme els canvis més apropiats en els nostres serveis. Alguns sistemes bibliotecaris han fet ja els primers passos en aquesta direcció.Los estudios (como por ejemplo, Borgman, 1996; Bates, 2003; etc.) confirman repetidamente que los usuarios finales consideran que los OPAC son complicados de utilizar. Recientemente y con cierta frecuencia, ha surgido una observación interesante cuando se discute sobre este asunto: algunos usuarios utilizan Amazon como interfaz de los OPAC. Buscan el libro que quieren pedir prestado y después utilizan el ISBN para encontrar la signatura en el catálogo de la biblioteca (veáse https://intranet.lib.byu.edu/wwg/?p=13). ésta tal vez no sea la práctica más frecuente, pero indica ciertamente la existencia de un problema: parece que el uso de las interfaces estándar de los OPAC no es tan fácil como Amazon, al menos para algunos usuarios. Amazon no sustituirá las bibliotecas, pero los bibliotecarios tienen que tener un interés constante en este asunto y en entender qué es lo que los usuarios necesitan y qué quieren, como también de que modo buscan la información. Necesitamos, por lo tanto, analizar otros servicios que lo hagan mejor e intentar llevar a cabo los cambios más apropiados en nuestros servicios. Algunos sistemas bibliotecarios han hecho ya los primeros pasos en esta dirección.Research (e.g. Borgman 1996, Bates 2003 etc.) repeatedly confirms that end-users find OPACs difficult to use. And recently an interesting observation was often mentioned when discussing OPACs: some users use Amazon as front-end to OPACs. They find a book they want to borrow in Amazon and then use
National bibliographies – their history
Maja ?umer
Knji?nica : Revija za Podro?je Bibliotekarstva in Informacijske Znanosti , 2000,
Abstract: The role and purpose of national bibliographies in the modem sense and their history are described. Particular emphasis is given to types of materials, specific problems of electronic publications, and selection criteria in general. Complete translations of guidelines of International congress on national bibliographies in Paris (1977) and International conference on national bibliographic services in Copenhagen (1998) are included.
Employment, training and career of school librarians
Francka ?umer
Knji?nica : Revija za Podro?je Bibliotekarstva in Informacijske Znanosti , 1998,
Abstract: The article describes the legal basis for the employment, professional training and promotion of librarians working in school libraries. The author calls attention to the deficiencies of legislation and to the need for cooperative efforts of the representatives of the Faculty of Arts, Department of Librarianship, Association of Library Societies, Advisory Committee on School Libraries and other organizations in the planning of training and career development of school librarians.The existing legislation should be complemented, an analysis of the necessary professional training for elementary and high school librarians carried out, and their training in librarianship, information sciences, pedagogy, didactics, and cognitive psychology should be planned in harmonization.
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