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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 877 matches for " Uma Basavanna "
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Protein Domain Analysis of C. botulinum Type A Neurotoxin and Its Relationship with Other Botulinum Serotypes
Shashi K. Sharma,Uma Basavanna,Hem D. Shukla
Toxins , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/toxins2010001
Abstract: Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are highly potent poisons produced by seven serotypes of Clostridium botulinum. The mechanism of neurotoxin action is a multistep process which leads to the cleavage of one of three different SNARE proteins essential for synaptic vesicle fusion and transmission of the nerve signals to muscles: synaptobrevin, syntaxin, or SNAP-25. In order to understand the precise mechanism of neurotoxin in a host, the domain structure of the neurotoxin was analyzed among different serotypes of C. botulinum. The results indicate that neurotoxins type A, C, D, E and F contain a coiled-coil domain while types B and type G neurotoxin do not. Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis based on neurotoxin sequences has further confirmed that serotypes B and G are closely related. These results suggest that neurotoxin has multi-domain structure, and coiled-coil domain plays an important role in oligomerisation of the neurotoxin. Domain analysis may help to identify effective antibodies to treat Botulinum toxin intoxication.
Development of a Cell-Based Functional Assay for the Detection of Clostridium botulinum Neurotoxin Types A and E
Uma Basavanna,Tim Muruvanda,Eric W. Brown,Shashi K. Sharma
International Journal of Microbiology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/593219
Development of a Cell-Based Functional Assay for the Detection of Clostridium botulinum Neurotoxin Types A and E
Uma Basavanna,Tim Muruvanda,Eric W. Brown,Shashi K. Sharma
International Journal of Microbiology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/593219
Abstract: The standard procedure for definitive detection of BoNT-producing Clostridia is a culture method combined with neurotoxin detection using a standard mouse bioassay (MBA). The mouse bioassay is highly sensitive and specific, but it is expensive and time-consuming, and there are ethical concerns due to use of laboratory animals. Cell-based assays provide an alternative to the MBA in screening for BoNT-producing Clostridia. Here, we describe a cell-based assay utilizing a fluorescence reporter construct expressed in a neuronal cell model to study toxin activity in situ. Our data indicates that the assay can detect as little as 100?pM BoNT/A activity within living cells, and the assay is currently being evaluated for the analysis of BoNT in food matrices. Among available in vitro assays, we believe that cell-based assays are widely applicable in high-throughput screenings and have the potential to at least reduce and refine animal assays if not replace it. 1. Introduction Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic substance known [1]. They are primarily produced by the spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum and, in rare cases, by some strains of Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium baratii [2, 3]. Intoxication with one of the seven distinct serotypes of BoNT (A–G) causes botulism. One of 4 serotypes of BoNT (A, B, E, and F) is usually the cause of human botulism. Exposure to type A neurotoxin (BoNT/A) causes the majority of food-borne outbreaks and has been observed to cause more severe symptoms with a higher mortality [4]. BoNTs are zinc proteases that cleave and inactivate cellular proteins essential for the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. BoNT/A, -C, and -E cleave the peripheral plasma membrane protein Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor Attachment Protein of 25?kDA (SNAP-25); BoNT/B, -D, -F, and -G cleave synaptobrevin 2, also called as vesicle-associated membrane protein-2 (VAMP-2). In addition to cleaving SNAP-25, BoNT-C also cleaves the integral plasma membrane protein, syntaxin [1]. Cleavage of these substrates inhibits neuronal exocytosis [5]. The soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) superfamily has become, since its discovery, the most intensively studied element of the protein machinery involved in intracellular trafficking. Currently, the only accepted assay with which to detect active Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin is an in vivo mouse bioassay. The mouse bioassay is sensitive and robust and does not require specialized equipment. However, the mouse bioassay is slow
Unsteady Incompressible Viscoelastic Flow of a Generalised Maxwell Fluid between Two Rotating Infinite Parallel Coaxial Circular Disks  [PDF]
Dhiman Bose, Uma Basu
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics (OJFD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojfd.2013.32008

The unsteady incompressible viscous flow of a Generalised Maxwell fluid between two coaxial rotating infinite parallel circular disks is studied by using the method of integral transforms. The motion of the fluid is created by the rotation of the upper and lower circular disks with different angular velocities. A fractional calculus approach is utilized to determine the velocity profile in series form in terms of Mittag-Leffler function. The influence of the fractional as well as the material parameters on the velocity field is illustrated graphically.

Uncommon Side Effects of D-Pencillamine— 2 Case Reports  [PDF]
Uma Karjigi, Dayavathi Ashok
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2014.33040

D-Penicillamine is one of the diseases modifying medication used to treat Rheumatoid arthritis and Systemic sclerosis. In this article we have described two interesting cases of Dermatomyositis and Bullous pemphigoid secondary to D-Penicillamine. This article emphasizes the fact that D-Penicillamine remains as one of the effective and well-tolerated medications, however patients need close monitoring while on medication, so that uncommon side effects are recognized and treated promptly.

Unsteady Incompressible Flow of a Generalized Oldroyd-B Fluid between Two Oscillating Infinite Parallel Plates in Presence of a Transverse Magnetic Field  [PDF]
Dhiman Bose, Uma Basu
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.61011
Abstract: In this paper an attempt has been made to study the unsteady incompressible flow of a generalized Oldroyd-B fluid between two oscillating parallel plates in presence of a transverse magnetic field. An exact solution for the velocity field has been obtained by means of Laplace and finite Fourier sine transformations in series form in terms of Mittage-Leffler function. The dependence of the velocity field on fractional as well as material parameters has been illustrated graphically. The velocity fields for the classical Newtonian, generalized Maxwell, generalized second grade and ordinary Oldroyd-B fluids are recovered as limiting cases of the flow considered for the generalized Oldroyd-B fluid.
MHD Fluctuating Flow of Non-Newtonian Fluid through a Porous Medium Bounded by an Infinite Porous Plate  [PDF]
Dhiman Bose, Uma Basu
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.612176
Abstract: In present paper, an investigation has been made on the fluctuating flow of a non-Newtonian second grade fluid through a porous medium over a semi-infinite porous plate in presence of a transverse magnetic field B0. The governing equations have been solved analytically and the expressions for the velocity and stress fields are obtained. The free stream velocity U(t) fluctuates in time about a non-zero constant mean. The effects of the permeability parameter K and magnetic field parameter M on velocity field have been analyzed quantitatively with the help of figures. It is noticed that the velocity field asymptotically approaches free stream velocity as it goes far away from the plate.
Optimization of Lab-Scale Preparation of Biodiesel from Rubber Seed Oil Using Modified Calcium Oxide as Catalyst  [PDF]
Uma Krishnakumar, V. Sivasubramanian
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems (JSBS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2016.63006
Abstract: Statistical analysis of product yield for biodiesel preparation by transesterification process was performed using the Minitab software. A standard RSM Design tool known as CCD was applied to study the transesterification reaction variables. The obtained parameters were verified experimentally for the transesterification reaction of rubber seed oil using solid metal oxide catalyst. The factors affecting the methyl ester yield during transesterification reaction were identified as the catalyst content, molar ratio of oil to alcohol and reaction time. High methyl ester yield and fast reaction rate could be obtained even if reaction temperature was relatively low, which is quite favorable to the industrial production of biodiesel from the rubber seed oil. 98.54% of methyl ester was formed from the transesterification of RSO with methanol. R-squared is a statistical measure of how close the data are to the fitted regression line. It is also known as the coefficient of determination, or the coefficient of multiple determination for multiple regression. In this study, an R2 value of 0.98 is obtained.
International Journal of Machine Intelligence , 2011,
Abstract: The detection and extraction of scene text from document images is one of the challenging research areas. Many researchers have detected and extracted the text from plain text background. But the multi-oriented scene text detection is one of the complex problems due to multi-oriented texts which have different orientation, font size, colors etc. In this work, we have proposed a new algorithm to detect and extract the multi-oriented scene text. Experiments have been carried out to find the robustness on the proposed method, by conducting various experiments on heterogeneous datasets. The proposed method achieves selectively high detection rate of 88.43% on the multi-oriented scene text.
Governance and Human Development in Gulu District: A Case Study of Gulu Municipality  [PDF]
Biryomumeisho Justus, Akena Denis Uma
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2016.42039
Abstract: The study aims at examining governance in the promotion of human development in Gulu District with particular reference to Gulu Municipality. The research was conducted using 387 participants in Gulu Municipality and adopted quantitative design with random stratified sampling technique. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient, regression and descriptive statistics. The study indicated that 200 (51.7%) were male and 187 (48.3%) were female. The study finds that greater levels of accountability, participation and absence of corruption are associated with greater levels of human development. Correlation analysis results showed that there is a significant positive relationship between accountability and human development (r = 0.351, p = 0.000). There is a significant positive relationship between government efficiency, participation and control of corruption and human development (r = 0.317, p = 0.000; r = 0.378, p = 0.000; and r = 0.416, p = 0.000) respectively. The relationship between bribery and human development is very low and insignificant. Overall, there is a significant positive relationship between good governance and human development (r = 0.477, p = 0.000). The regression analysis shows that good governance explains 24.4% of the variations in human development (Adjusted R2 = 0.244, Sig. F change = 0.000). The study findings indicate that the best predictors of human development were accountability, participation and control of corruption. The worst predictor was government efficiency. The study concludes that bribery is neither associated with human development nor any attributes of good governance.
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