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Reducing Radiation Dose in Emergency CT Scans While Maintaining Equal Image Quality: Just a Promise or Reality for Severely Injured Patients?
Ulrich Grupp,Max-Ludwig Sch?fer,Henning Meyer,Alexander Lembcke,Alexander P?llinger,Gero Wieners,Diane Renz,Philipp Schwabe,Florian Streitparth
Emergency Medicine International , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/984645
Abstract: Objective. This study aims to assess the impact of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) on CT imaging quality, diagnostic interpretability, and radiation dose reduction for a proven CT acquisition protocol for total body trauma. Methods. 18 patients with multiple trauma ( ) were examined either with a routine protocol ( ), 30% ( ), or 40% ( ) of iterative reconstruction (IR) modification in the raw data domain of the routine protocol (140?kV, collimation: 40, noise index: 15). Study groups were matched by scan range and maximal abdominal diameter. Image noise was quantitatively measured. Image contrast, image noise, and overall interpretability were evaluated by two experienced and blinded readers. The amount of radiation dose reductions was evaluated. Results. No statistically significant differences between routine and IR protocols regarding image noise, contrast, and interpretability were present. Mean effective dose for the routine protocol was ?mSv, ?mSv for the IR 30, and ?mSv for the IR 40 protocol, that is, 22.1% effective dose reduction for IR 30 ( ) and 30.8% effective dose reduction for IR 40 ( ). Conclusions. IR does not reduce study interpretability in total body trauma protocols while providing a significant reduction in effective radiation dose. 1. Introduction The use of computed tomography (CT) brought enormous benefits to modern medicine and diagnostic CT examinations are increasingly used in recent years because of their speed, availability, and diagnostical power. In particular, for patients with polytrauma during the early resuscitation phase, whole-body CT is recommended as the standard diagnostic modality [1]. However, the common utilization of CT is accompanied by a steady increase in the population’s cumulative exposure to ionizing radiation [2, 3]. As X-rays have been classified as “carcinogen,” new efforts to minimize radiation exposure were undertaken to meet rising concerns of possible long-term cancer, especially regarding pediatric and young patients as well as patients undergoing several follow-up CT examinations [4]. A plurality of approaches, from “AEC” (automated exposure control) to “X-ray beam collimation,” led to a significant reduction in radiation dose [5, 6]. With the fast advancement of computational power, the technique of iterative reconstruction (IR), well known from SPECT and PET imaging, became the center of attention for CT adaption in recent years [7–10]. The group of severely injured patients is of great concern for dose reduction as these patients may be of a young age and standard
New extended atomic data in cool star model atmospheres - Using Kurucz's new iron data in MAFAGS-OS models
F. Grupp,R. L. Kurucz,K. Tan
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200912302
Abstract: Context. Cool star model atmospheres are a common tool for the investigation of stellar masses, ages and elemental abundance composition. Theoretical atmospheric models strongly depend on the atomic data used when calculating them. Aims. We present the changes in flux and temperature stratification when changing from iron data computed by R.L. Kurucz in the mid 90s to the Kurucz 2009 iron computations. Methods. MAFAGS-OS opacity sampling atmospheres were recomputed with Kurucz 2009 iron atomic data as implemented in the VALD database by Ryabchikova. Temperature stratification and emergent flux distribution of the new version, called MAFAGS-OS9, is compared to the former version and to solar flux measurements. Results. Using the Kurucz line lists converted into the VALD format and new bound-free opacities for Mg i and Al i leads to changes in the solar temperature stratification by not more than 28 K. At the same time, the calculated solar flux distribution shows significantly better agreement between observations and theoretical solar models. These changes in the temperature stratification of the corresponding models are small, but nevertheless of a magnitude that affects stellar parameter determinations and abundance analysis.
Mathematical Rotordynamic Model Regarding Excitation Due to Elliptical Shaft Journals in Electrical Motors Considering the Gyroscopic Effect  [PDF]
Ulrich Werner
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.48A009

The paper presents a mathematical rotordynamic model regarding excitation due to elliptical shaft journals in sleeve bearings of electrical motors also considering the gyroscopic effect. For this kind of excitation, a mathematical rotordynamic model was developed considering the influence of the oil film stiffness and damping of the sleeve bearings, the stiffness of the end-shields and bearing housings, the stiffness of the rotor, the electromagnetic stiffness in the air gap of the electrical motor and the mass moment of inertia of the rotor and therefore also considering the gyroscopic effect. The solution of the linear differential equation system leads to the mathematical description of the absolute orbits of the shaft centre, the shaft journals and the bearing housings and to the relative orbits between the shaft journals and the bearing housings. Additionally, the bearing housing velocities can also be derived with this mathematical rotordynamic model.

Mathematical Multibody Model of a Soft Mounted Induction Motor Regarding Forced Vibrations Due to Dynamic Rotor Eccentricities Considering Electromagnetic Field Damping  [PDF]
Ulrich Werner
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2017.52032
Abstract: The paper presents a mathematical multibody model of a soft mounted induction motor with sleeve bearings regarding forced vibrations caused by dynamic rotor eccentricities considering electromagnetic field damping. The multibody model contains the mass of the stator, rotor, shaft journals and bearing housings, the electromagnetic forces with respect of electromagnetic field damping, stiffness and internal (rotating) damping of the rotor, different kinds of dynamic rotor eccentricity, stiffness and damping of the bearing housings and end shields, stiffness and damping of the oil film of the sleeve bearings and stiffness and damping of the foundation. With this multibody model, the bearing housing vibrations and the relative shaft vibrations in the sleeve bearings can be derived.
Influence of the Foundation on the Threshold of Stability for Rotating Machines with Roller Bearings—A Theoretical Analysis  [PDF]
Ulrich Werner
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2017.56114
Abstract: The paper presents a mathematical model for analyzing the threshold of stability for rotating machines, where the rotor is linked to the stator by roller bearings, bearing housings and end-shields and where the stator feet are mounted on a soft foundation. The internal (rotating) damping of the rotor is the only source of instability, which is considered in the paper. After the mathematical coherences of the multibody model are described, a procedure is presented for deriving the threshold of stability. Additionally, a numerical example is shown, where the threshold of stability is calculated for different boundary conditions. It could be demonstrated, that the stiffness of the foundation—even if the foundation stiffness is isotropic—can help stabilizing this kind of vibration system in the same way as orthotropic bearing stiffness or orthotropic bearing housing and end-shield stiffness for a rigid foundation.
Analysis of Different Vibration Control Strategies for Soft Mounted Induction Motors with Sleeve Bearings Using Active Motor Foot Mounts  [PDF]
Ulrich Werner
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2019.73045
Abstract: The paper presents a theoretical analysis of different vibration control strategies of soft mounted induction motors with sleeve bearings, using active motor foot mounts. After the vibration model is presented, different controllers in combination with different feedback strategies are mathematically investigated. The focus is here on the forced vibrations, caused by dynamic rotor eccentricityrotor mass eccentricity, magnetic eccentricity and bent rotor deflection. After the mathematically coherences are described, a numerical example is shown, where the forced vibrations caused by bent rotor deflection are investigated, for different control strategies, where the mass matrix, the stiffness matrix and the damping matrix are influenced by different control parameters. The aim of the paper is to show the mathematically coherences and the possibility to influence the vibration behaviour, by different control strategies to optimize the vibration behaviour of soft mounted induction motors.
Failure of psychiatric referrals from the pediatric emergency department
Jacqueline Grupp-Phelan, Sergio V Delgado, Kelly J Kelleher
BMC Emergency Medicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-227x-7-12
Abstract: A prospective randomized control trial comparing an enhanced referral vs. simple referral in 56 families of children who were screened for mental health symptoms was performed in a large tertiary care PED. Children presenting to the PED with stable medical problems were approached every fourth evening for enrollment. After consent/assent was obtained, children were screened for a mental health problem using both child and parent reports of the DISC Predictive Scales. Those meeting cutoffs for a mental health problem by either parent or child report were randomized to 1) simple referral (phone number for mental health evaluation by study psychiatrist) or 2) enhanced referral (short informational interview, appointment made for child, reminder 2 days before and day of interview for an evaluation by study psychiatrist). Data analysis included descriptive statistics and Chi-Square test to calculate the proportion of children with mental health problems who completed mental health follow-up with and without the enhanced referral.A total of 69 families were enrolled. Overall 56 (81%) children screened positive for a mental health problem as reported by either the child (self report) or mother (maternal report of child mental health problem). Of these, 33 children were randomized into the enhanced referral arm and 23 into the simple referral arm. Overall, only 6 families with children screening positive for a mental health problem completed the psychiatric follow up evaluation, 2 in the enhanced referral arm and 4 in the simple referral arm (p = .13).Children screened in the ED for unrecognized mental health problems are very unlikely to follow-up for a mental health evaluation with or without an enhanced referral. Understanding the role of ED based mental health screening and the timing of an intervention is key in developing ED based mental health interventions.Mental health problems in children presenting for medical care are increasing [1,2]. Despite poor health outcom
Collective Feshbach scattering of a superfluid droplet from a mesoscopic two-component Bose-Einstein condensate
M. Grupp,G. Nandi,R. Walser,W. P. Schleich
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.73.050701
Abstract: We examine the collective scattering of a superfluid droplet impinging on a mesoscopic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) as a target. The BEC consists of an atomic gas with two internal electronic states, each of which is trapped by a finite-depth external potential. An off-resonant optical laser field provides a localized coupling between the BEC components in the trapping region. This mesoscopic scenario matches the microscopic setup for Feshbach scattering of two particles, when a bound state of one sub-manifold is embedded in the scattering continuum of the other sub-manifold. Within the mean-field picture, we obtain resonant scattering phase shifts from a linear response theory in agreement with an exact numerical solution of the real time scattering process and simple analytical approximations thereof. We find an energy-dependent transmission coefficient that is controllable via the optical field between 0 and 100%.
Fe I/Fe II ionization equilibrium in cool stars: NLTE versus LTE
Lyudmila Mashonkina,Thomas Gehren,Jianrong Shi,Andreas Korn,Frank Grupp
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1017/S1743921310000530
Abstract: Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) line formation for neutral and singly-ionized iron is considered through a range of stellar parameters characteristic of cool stars. A comprehensive model atom for Fe I and Fe II is presented. Our NLTE calculations support the earlier conclusions that the statistical equilibrium (SE) of Fe I shows an underpopulation of Fe I terms. However, the inclusion of the predicted high-excitation levels of Fe I in our model atom leads to a substantial decrease in the departures from LTE. As a test and first application of the Fe I/II model atom, iron abundances are determined for the Sun and four selected stars with well determined stellar parameters and high-quality observed spectra. Within the error bars, lines of Fe I and Fe II give consistent abundances for the Sun and two metal-poor stars when inelastic collisions with hydrogen atoms are taken into account in the SE calculations. For the close-to-solar metallicity stars Procyon and $\beta$ Vir, the difference (Fe II - Fe I) is about 0.1 dex independent of the line formation model, either NLTE or LTE. We evaluate the influence of departures from LTE on Fe abundance and surface gravity determination for cool stars.
Palladium and silver abundances in stars with [Fe/H] > -2.6
Xiaoshu Wu,Liang Wang,Jianrong Shi,Gang Zhao,Frank Grupp
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201525679
Abstract: Palladium (Pd) and silver (Ag) are the key elements for probing the weak component in the rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) of stellar nucleosynthesis. We performed a detailed analysis of the high-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio near-UV spectra from the archive of HIRES on the Keck telescope, UVES on the VLT, and HDS on the Subaru Telescope, to determine the Pd and Ag abundances of 95 stars. This sample covers a wide metallicity range with -2.6 $\lesssim$ [Fe/H] $\lesssim$ +0.1, and most of them are dwarfs. The plane-parallel LTE MAFAGS-OS model atmosphere was adopted, and the spectral synthesis method was used to derive the Pd and Ag abundances from Pd I {\lambda} 3404 {\AA} and Ag I {\lambda} 3280/3382 {\AA} lines. We found that both elements are enhanced in metal-poor stars, and their ratios to iron show flat trends at -0.6 < [Fe/H] < +0.1. The abundance ratios of [Ag/H] and [Pd/H] are well correlated over the whole abundance range. This implies that Pd and Ag have similar formation mechanisms during the Galactic evolution.
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