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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 327208 matches for " Ukwe C. V. "
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ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF ROOTS OF ZAPOTECA PORTORICENSIS (FAM. FABIACEAE)
Ukwe C. V.,Ubaka C. M.,Adibe M. O.,Okonkwo C. J.
Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: Background:The roots of Zapoteca portricensis is a common remedy in the treatment gastrointestinal disorders used by tradomedical practitioners in Eastern Nigeria.Aim:This study was aimed at evaluating the possible antiulcer activity of the root of this plant in experimental rats.Methods:A methanolic root extract was prepared by cold maceration. Antiulcer activity was tested using absolute ethanol and indomethacin induced ulcer models. Sucralfate (100 mg/kg oral) was used as the reference drug. Different groups of albino rats of male sex were given three doses (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) of the extract. Phytochemical analysis of the freshly dried roots was also done.Results:Phytochemical results revealed presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, glycosides and flavonoids. The ethanol model produced an average ulceration in rats with reduction of ulcer (50%, 75% and 90%) seen in all the extract treatment. A dose dependent inhibition of ulcer was seen in all doses of the extract with doses 100 and 200 mg/kg produced a significant reduction compared with control. In the indomethacin model, an absolute ulceration was produced in all the animals. Inhibition of ulcer (57.1%, 65.7% and 80.0%) was seen in the treatments with the extracts in a dose dependent manner. All the three doses of the extracts produced significant ulcer protection compared with control.Conclusion:This study has shown that roots of this plant (Zapoteca portoricensis) possess potent antiulcer activity.
A Comparative Study of Quinine and Artemether in the Treatment of Severe Malaria in Nigerian Children
C Aguwa, C Ukwe, M Adibe
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2010,
Abstract: Purpose: Nigeria has adopted quinine as the drug of first choice in the treatment of severe malaria and artemether as an alternative therapy. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether artemether is a comparable alternative to quinine in the management of severe malaria in Nigerian children. Methods: We conducted a randomized prospective study comparing quinine and artemether therapies in 90 Nigerian children with severe malaria. Results: Mortality was lower in quinine group (13.0 %) than artemether (15.9 %), Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.446 (95 % Confidence Interval (CI), 0.124 to 1.603, p = 0.249 ). The parasitaemia clearance on day 3 by quinine and artemether was 96.8 and 99.0 % (p = 0.422), respectively, while on day 14 it was 100 % for both medicines. Fever clearance by quinine and artemether was 87.7 and 90 % (p = 0.753), respectively, on day 3 but it increased to 100 and 96.42 % (p = 0.072), respectively, on day 14. For the quinine group, 71.74 % of the patients spent less than one week in the hospital versus 61.76 % for the artemether group (p = 0.829, OR = 0.883, 95 %CI = 0.284 to 2.742). Conclusion: Artemether is a comparable alternative to quinine in the treatment of severe paediatric malaria.
OUTPATIENT UTILIZATION OF ANTI-DIABETIC DRUGS IN THE SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA
ADIBE M.O. (M.PHARM), PROF. AGUWA C.N. (PHARM D), UKWE C.V. (PH.D), OKONTA J.M. (PH.D), PHARM. UDEOGARANYA P.O (M.PHARM)
International Journal of Drug Development & Research , 2009,
Abstract: Background Recent study in the tertiary hospitals in Nigeria showed that prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is on theincrease. With this increase, the prescription volume of anti diabetic drugs, morbidity and ultimately mortality rates areexpected to assume an upward trend especially in regions of the world like Nigeria where healthcare services are suboptimalfor the rapidly expanding populations.Aim To determine the outpatient utilization of anti diabetic drugs in south-eastern Nigeria.Methods This prospective cross-sectional study was undertaken for 20 weeks between July 2008 and November, 2008 in thethree tertiary hospitals which were randomly selected. All prescriptions issued to patients attending endocrinology clinicduring this period following each day s consultation were copied out from the case files and recorded in case record forms.Cost of the prescribed drugs was obtained from drug price list of the hospital pharmacies.Results Oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHAs) ((15.21 DDDs/1000 diabetic patients) /day) were 4.5 times more utilized thaninsulin (3.4 DDDs/1000 diabetic patients /day). Among OHAs, Biguanide (Metformin) was the most utilized (11.3DDDs/1000 diabetic patients /day), it was likely to be prescribed to diabetic patient daily compared to Sulphonylureas(Glibenclamide, Chlorpropamide) and Thiazolidinediones (Rosiglitazone) with 3.8 DDDs/1000 diabetic patients /day and0.09 DDDs/1000 diabetic patients) /day respectively.Conclusion Metformin was the most utilized anti-diabetic drugs and the costs of anti-diabetic drugs were high in the southeasternNigeria. Government should come up with appropriate policies such as free health care for diabetic patients,subsidies for anti-diabetic drugs and finally low import tariff for anti-diabetic drugs. All these measures will reduce theprovocative high cost of anti-diabetic drugs in the zone.
Assessment of attitudes of University of Nigeria pharmacy students toward pharmaceutical care
Udeogaranya,Patrick O.; Ukwe,Chinwe V.; Ekwunife,Obinna I.;
Pharmacy Practice (Internet) , 2009, DOI: 10.4321/S1886-36552009000300003
Abstract: objective: the purpose of this study was to describe the attitude of university of nigeria pharmacy students towards pharmaceutical care. method: a survey of pharmacy students in their second to fifth year was conducted. a modified 13-item standard pharmaceutical care attitudes survey (pcas) was used for the study. reliability and factorial validity of the modified instrument were assessed. results: modification of the instrument did not alter its validity. students of the university of nigeria had a positive attitude towards pharmaceutical care as attitude score of all the items were above the midpoint score of 2.5. the mean scale score of second and third year students were significantly lower than that of the fifth year's (oneway anova, p<0.001). females had a higher positive attitude score compared to male students (students t-test, p=0.005). there was no significant difference in the mean scale score among those that had work experience and those without work experience. marital status did not influence attitude score. conclusion: university of nigeria pharmacy students had a positive attitude towards pharmaceutical care. however, it is necessary to provide sites were students could acquire practice experience and these sites should be designed to enable students observe the integration of pharmaceutical care activities into pharmacy practice.
Increasing use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for treatment of malaria infection in Nigerian hospitals
Igboeli,Nneka U.; Ukwe,Chinwe V.; Ekwunife,Obinna I.;
Pharmacy Practice (Internet) , 2010, DOI: 10.4321/S1886-36552010000400007
Abstract: objectives: this study aimed at describing the pattern of outpatient antimalarial drug prescribing in a secondary and a tertiary hospital, and to assess adherence to the national antimalarial treatment guideline (atg). methods: an audit of antimalarial prescription files from the two health facilities for a period of six months in 2008 was conducted. semi structured questionnaires were used to collect information from the doctors and pharmacists on their awareness and knowledge of the national antimalarial treatment guideline. results: artemisinin-based combination therapies (acts) were the most prescribed antimalarials. overall, 81.4% of the total prescriptions contained acts, out of which 56.8% were artemether-lumefantrine. however, adherence to the drugs indicated by national guideline within the du90% was 38.5% for the tertiary and 66.7 % for the secondary hospital. the standard practice of prescribing with generic name was still not adhered to as evidenced in the understudied hospitals. the percentage of health care providers that were aware of the atg was 88.2% for doctors and 85.1% for pharmacists. however, 13.3% and 52.2% of doctors and pharmacists respectively could not properly list the drugs specified in the guideline. amodiaquine was the most commonly preferred option for managing children aged 0 - 3 months with malaria infection against the indicated oral quinine. conclusion: this study showed an increased use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria compared previous reports in nigeria. this study also highlights the need for periodic in-service quality assurance among health professionals with monitoring of adherence to and assessment of knowledge of clinical guidelines to ensure the practice of evidence based medicine.
Antihypertensive Drug Prescribing in a Tertiary Hospital in Eastern Nigeria
CV Ukwe, CM Ubaka
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2012,
Abstract: Purpose: To determine the pattern of antihypertensive medication prescription in a referral hospital in Nigeria and its use by patients. Methods: By method of convenience sampling, 4954 prescriptions were collected from 376 files of hypertensive patients (> 18 years) visiting a referral hospital in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria between June and July 2009, were retrospectively surveyed. Data on visits, antihypertensive medication, nonantihypertensive medication and drug adverse effects were extracted, coded and analyzed. Results: The mean age of hypertensive patients was 61 years, and an almost equal number of females (49 %) and males (51 %) visited the hospital. The average number of antihypertensive drug per patient was 2.63 ± 0.92 and 90 % of the patients were prescribed more than one drug in their last visit. For individual antihypertensive drugs, hydrochlorothiazide (29.7 %) and lisinopril (20.3 %) were the most prescribed with low-dose aspirin (39.7 %) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (16.7 %) occurring as most co-prescribed medication. Adverse effects were reported by 11 % of the patients while 18 % of the patients were non-adherent. Conclusion: The study showed a high use of more than one drug as supported by applicable guidelines hypertension, with diuretics and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors ACEIs the being most prescribed probably due to their low-cost and observed efficacy in this setting.
DIABETES SELF-CARE KNOWLEDGE AMONG TYPE 2 DIABETIC OUTPATIENTS IN SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA
*PHARM. ADIBE MAXWELL O., PROF. AGUWA CLETUS N., DR. UKWE CHINWE V., DR. OKONTA JEGBERIME M, PHARM UDEOGARANYA OBINNA P.
International Journal of Drug Development & Research , 2009,
Abstract: Background Isolated reports from some regions of Nigeria have found prevalence rates to range from 0.9 8.3%. In Nigeria, where healthcareservices and accessibility are poor, diabetes mellitus is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Diabetes is also a major riskfactor for cardiovascular disease, stroke, and kidney failure. It is believed that appropriate patients knowledge of self care is the key toachieving therapeutic goals in ambulatory care.Objective This study aimed to assess type 2 diabetic patients knowledge of self-care practices.Methods A 28-item questionnaire consisting of 5 point response scale was developed for the survey. Factor analysis was performed usingprincipal axis factoring extraction with varimax rotation. Validity and reliability were established. This survey was conducted in five states ofsouth-eastern Nigeria. Health care facilities included four tertiary hospitals and six secondary hospitals.Results Knowledge of diabetes self-care was associated with sex, age, educational status, and years with diabetes. Female patients, youngerpatients (18-35 years), patients who were attending or stopped at secondary school and patients who had lived many years with diabetes (>10years) were more likely to be knowledgeable. When extracted knowledge factor 2 (self care), factor 3 (cardiovascular complications), andfactor 4 (non-cardiovascular complications) were correlated with factor 1 (diabetes) their correlation coefficients were 0.90, 0.94, and 0.71respectively. This implies that knowledge of diabetes self care and knowledge of cardiovascular complications increase as the knowledge ofdiabetes increases but the increase about knowledge of non-cardiovascular complications is slower with increase about knowledge of diabetes.Following communalities determination, the mean total score was 98.50±21.87.Conclusion This study has shown that type 2 diabetic outpatients in south-eastern Nigeria were knowledgeable about diabetes self carepractices and that knowledge of diabetes self care is dependent on the knowledge of diabetes
The Construct Validity of an Instrument for Measuring Type 2 Diabetes Self-Care Knowledge in Nigeria
MO Adibe, CN Aguwa, CV Ukwe
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2011,
Abstract: Purpose: To develop an instrument (DSCKQ-30) for measuring type 2 diabetic patients’ knowledge of self-care practices. Methods: A 30-item questionnaire (DSCKQ-30) consisting of close ended questions was developed for this study. DSCKQ-30 was self administered to a cross-section of randomly selected 400 ambulatory adult diabetic patients (≥ 18 years), who were attending endocrinology clinics at the hospitals included in this study. The sex distribution for female and male was 56.7 and 43.3% respectively. Factor analysis and item analysis were performed to test the construct validity and reliability of the instrument. Item performance was measured by item discrimination (item-to-total correlation) and percent correctness (%C). Results: The response rate was 78.5%. Factor analysis identified three scales of knowledge of self-care management. Chronbach’s alpha of the 30 questionnaire items was found to be 0.89. The item-to-total correlation coefficients and ranges for component 1 - 3 were 0.36 (0.25 - 0.48), 0.28 (0.23 - 0.35), and 0.34 (0.23 - 0.41), respectively, with overall average of 0.33 (0.23 - 0.48). Items percent correctness (% C) ranged from 16.7 to 86.7 % with an overall average of 55.6 %. Item factor loadings averaged 0.62 for the total items; averages of the three scales ranged from 0.59 to 0.68. Conclusion: The DSCKQ-30 provided a quantitative measure of patient's knowledge of self-care practices.
Assessment of attitudes of University of Nigeria pharmacy students toward pharmaceutical care
Udeogaranya PO,Ukwe CV,Ekwunife OI
Pharmacy Practice (Granada) , 2009,
Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the attitude of University of Nigeria pharmacy students towards pharmaceutical care.Method: A survey of pharmacy students in their second to fifth year was conducted. A modified 13-item standard Pharmaceutical Care Attitudes Survey (PCAS) was used for the study. Reliability and factorial validity of the modified instrument were assessed. Results: Modification of the instrument did not alter its validity. Students of the University of Nigeria had a positive attitude towards pharmaceutical care as attitude score of all the items were above the midpoint score of 2.5. The mean scale score of second and third year students were significantly lower than that of the fifth year’s (Oneway ANOVA, p<0.001). Females had a higher positive attitude score compared to male students (Students t-test, p=0.005). There was no significant difference in the mean scale score among those that had work experience and those without work experience. Marital status did not influence attitude score. Conclusion: University of Nigeria pharmacy students had a positive attitude towards pharmaceutical care. However, it is necessary to provide sites were students could acquire practice experience and these sites should be designed to enable students observe the integration of pharmaceutical care activities into pharmacy practice.
Increasing use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for treatment of malaria infection in Nigerian hospitals
Igboeli NU,Ukwe CV,Ekwunife OI
Pharmacy Practice (Granada) , 2010,
Abstract: Objectives: This study aimed at describing the pattern of outpatient antimalarial drug prescribing in a secondary and a tertiary hospital, and to assess adherence to the National Antimalarial Treatment Guideline (ATG). Methods: An audit of antimalarial prescription files from the two health facilities for a period of six months in 2008 was conducted. Semi structured questionnaires were used to collect information from the doctors and pharmacists on their awareness and knowledge of the National Antimalarial Treatment Guideline. Results: Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) were the most prescribed antimalarials. Overall, 81.4% of the total prescriptions contained ACTs, out of which 56.8% were artemether-lumefantrine. However, adherence to the drugs indicated by national guideline within the DU90% was 38.5% for the tertiary and 66.7 % for the secondary hospital. The standard practice of prescribing with generic name was still not adhered to as evidenced in the understudied hospitals. The percentage of health care providers that were aware of the ATG was 88.2% for doctors and 85.1% for pharmacists. However, 13.3% and 52.2% of doctors and pharmacists respectively could not properly list the drugs specified in the guideline. Amodiaquine was the most commonly preferred option for managing children aged 0 – 3 months with malaria infection against the indicated oral quinine.Conclusion: This study showed an increased use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria compared previous reports in Nigeria. This study also highlights the need for periodic in-service quality assurance among health professionals with monitoring of adherence to and assessment of knowledge of clinical guidelines to ensure the practice of evidence based medicine.
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