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Formulation and Characterization of Transdermal Patches of Losartan
Ujjawal Nautiyal*1, Devendra Singh2
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research , 2013,
Abstract: Administration of drugs through skin has received great attention through the last decade. Hence this study aims to formulate an anti-hypertensive drug losartan as transdermal patch using different bioadhesive polymers such as ethyl cellulose, cellulose acetate, and polyvinyl pyrrolidon,hydroxyl propylemethylcellulose with plasticizers propylene glycol (PG). Patches were prepared though solvent evaporation method, The backing membrane was a non permeable aluminium foil laminated with polyethylene and evaluated for thickness uniformity, Uniformity of weight, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Surface pH, Swelling studies, Drug content uniformity Effect on agingn, skin irritation potential, and In vitro release study.Patches exhibited controlled release over more than 2 hr.It was concluded that patches containing 30 mg of losartane with HPMC (formulation F2) ,showed moderate swelling, surface pH and controlled drug release, thus can be selected for the development of transdermal patches for effective uses.
Macro to Micro Viewpoint of Climate Change - Linking Karnataka to Global Issue  [PDF]
Sunil Nautiyal
Natural Resources (NR) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2011.21004
Abstract: A numerous studies have been done on climate change at regional, national and global levels. Several climate models have predicted the global scenarios for climate in different parts of the world. However, the significance and practical implementation of such models at local level yet to be validated. This is because those national or global models do not consider micro variables such as such as environmental resources for example ‘land availability, local climatic conditions, socioeconomic factors such as ‘labour and capital’, policy aspects such as ‘subsidies, nature conservation strategies’ and competition for labor and capital in relation of ‘national economy’. India, with a huge diversity in land, topography, climate and socioeconomic conditions, divided into 15 agro-ecological zones. Further, to help develop location specific research and development strategies at the micro level, a total of 127 sub-zones (agro-climatic sub regions) have been identified in India. Therefore, research on climate change and its impact only at the regional or national level may not be a sound approach to provide solutions for adaptation to climate change at micro level. Thus the micro-level research needs to be undertaken that might help us understand climate change impacts on the landscape i.e. biodiversity, health, natural resource management, land use and land cover development, adaptation and the development of socio-ecological systems. The concepts presented in this article should provide the basis for a discussion on decision-making issues among multidisciplinary experts with regard to climate change and sustainable development within complex environments.
From Thaer and Thünen until Today: Past and Future of Agricultural Landscape Use in Germany  [PDF]
Harald Kaechele, Sunil Nautiyal
Natural Resources (NR) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2010.12006
Abstract: This article intends to present the historical development of German agriculture sector in last two centuries and underlined the benefit of the advancement in agriculture sector to fulfil the growing food demand. At the same time the article discussed the ecological and socio-economic perspectives of rapid technological development of agriculture sector in Germany. This article would facilitate the debate on technological development in agriculture sector, which rapidly growing throughout the world, in view point of sustainable socio-ecological development.
REVIEW OF DRESSING AND TRUING OPERATIONS FOR GRINDING WHEELS
UJJAWAL MAYANK SRIVASTAVA
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: Grinding is an operation applied in almost every type of manufacturing process. It aims to produce high surface finish and to maintain close tolerances in the manufactured product. To make the grinding operation more productive and efficient, dressing and truing operations are performed on the grinding wheels. Various techniques are available and are used for the same. Since many permutations and combinations exists among the factors like economics, efficiency, accuracy, complexity, etc. of the dressing process, so continuous efforts are made to develop or adopt a technique that gives the best result while fulfilling the maximum number of factors. This can be accomplished by comparing the present techniques on the same ground. With this aim, the unconventional techniques with in-process configuration were developed that have several advantages over theirconventional counterparts.
Anisotropic non-gaussianity with noncommutative spacetime
Akhilesh Nautiyal
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1016/j.physletb.2013.12.007
Abstract: We study single field inflation in noncommutative spacetime and compute two-point and three-point correlation functions for the curvature perturbation. We find that both power spectrum and bispectrum for comoving curvature perturbation are statistically anisotropic and the bispectrum is also modified by a phase factor depending upon the noncommutative parameters. The non-linearity parameter $f_{NL}$ is small for small statistical anisotropic corrections to the bispectrum coming from the noncommutative geometry and is consistent with the recent PLANCK bounds. There is a scale dependence of $f_{NL}$ due to the noncommutative spacetime which is different from the standard single field inflation models and statistically anisotropic vector field inflation models. Deviations from statistical isotropy of CMB, observed by PLANCK can tightly constraint the effects due to noncommutative geometry on power spectrum and bispectrum.
Conservation and Management of Forest Resources in India: Ancient and Current Perspectives  [PDF]
M. S. Umesh Babu, Sunil Nautiyal
Natural Resources (NR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2015.64023
Abstract: This paper brings out the issues related to natural resource exists, management and erosion right from the ancient to modern era. The natural resource such as forests and forest products were found as a basic source of survival for living organisms during the initial period. Later, the natural resources started degrading slowly and steadily due to increased human activities. In the beginning, natural resources were the primary assets for the growth of agriculture, industry, urbanization etc. Subsequently, increased anthropogenic activities started degrading the forest cover on a large scale through extending the agricultural land scape and other developmental activities in the country. The importance of traditional knowledge regarding resource conservation, protection of sacred grooves, endangered species etc. started declining in modern India. Innovativeness and policy framework for resource conservation and utilization became unfriendly in addition to gradual decline of community management. The key findings of the study point to major gaps existing such as between line departments and institutions in the promotion and management of forests, human welfare, agriculture, animal husbandry etc. Moreover, people tend to be more inclined towards the utilization of natural resources rather than conservation. From an observational and practical point of view, the natural resource has been declining rapidly in India. Therefore, this study strongly suggests that a due attention be directed towards developing people-friendly and environment friendly conservation strategies.
Natural inflation at the GUT scale
Mohanty, Subhendra;Nautiyal, Akhilesh
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.78.123515
Abstract: Natural inflation driven by Pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons have a problem that the nearly scale invariant spectrum of density perturbations is attained only when the symmetry breaking scale is of the order of Planck scale. We show here that if one couples the PNGB to a thermal bath as in warm inflation models, the amplitude and spectral index which agrees with the WMAP data is obtained with the symmetry breaking in the GUT scale. We give a GUT model of PNGB arising out of spontaneously broken lepton number at the GUT scale which gives rise to heavy Majorana masses for the right handed neutrinos which is needed in see-saw models. This model also generates a lepton asymmetry because of the derivative coupling of the PNGB to the lepton current. A characteristic feature of this model is the prediction of large non-gaussianity which may be observed in the forthcoming PLANCK experiment.
Study on molding of various articles of PVC soles with Methocells
Omprakash H. Nautiyal
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Various articles of PVC namely Surfer (size 8); Angola (size 8); Stiff (size 8); Angola (size 8); Stiff 9size 8) and Celery (size 8) were studied for their lustiness, softness, compatibility, weight, sole length, hardness Shore A, cup depth, sole thickness, heal thickness and cell structures. Methocell of cellulosic nature was employed for improving these quality parameters for regular production at the shop floor. The methocell was used in the dosages of 0.150 Kg of overall batch size of 58 Kg. The results were quite interesting when the soles were evaluated in the quality control laboratory. Methocell F 50 specifically imparted the best quality to the soles. Since it was of cellulosic nature hence the soles were quite flexible and most competent at the European and Foreign wearing conditions. The 20 station machine operation with this formulation was found to give satisfactory yield of the soles. These articles are basically cheap in their selling price and hence manufactured inlarge volume.
Molding of EVA Soles Using Expanding and Reducing Agents
Omprakash H. Nautiyal
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Selected polymers and polymer blends suitable for shoe sole manufacturing were processed by means of compression and the shrinkage of standard square specimens was measured. The experimental work of which was performed according to design of experiments techniques, aims to understand the influence of composition and process factors, with the ultimate objective of mastering shrinkage control to a satisfactory degree. In the case of compression molding, the polymer of choice was a reducing agent additive. Process conditions were fixed and shrinkage control was obtained by subjecting the molded parts to thermal treatment at an appropriatetemperature. For the compression molding process, expanding and reducing agents and its blends with EVA (ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer) were used. Here also, the process conditions were fixed; shrinkage was controlled by an appropriate formulation of polymer compound and allowing shrinkage to be predicted. As all this work was based on shop floor polymer specimens, setting up rules for real-world shoe sole manufacture is beyond its scope. Nevertheless, the results obtained so far represent a sound experimental background for evaluating the feasibility of further process developments.
Molding of PVC Air Soles with Modified Formulation
Omprakash H. Nautiyal
International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications , 2012,
Abstract: Molding of PVC Air soles are currently produced with the formulations of Resin (25 Kg), DOP/DBP ( 8+8 Kg), CPW (3 Kg), R9 (0.750 Kg), Ivamol (0.500 Kg), Stearic acid (0.500 Kg), Foaming ADC (0.350 Kg), MBR (8kg) and CaCO3). Quality parameters investigated for such products have shown that internal microcellular structures were not uniform and durability was also weak. Hence the invention was undertaken eliminating CPW and Stearic acid. Instead of this Naphthenic oil was employed for molding the soles. Quality evaluations have shown the internal microcellular structures were quite uniform and had great impact on durability. The formulation was also found to be feasible for the regular production. High resolution pictures of the soles have exhibited the uniform polymeric network.
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