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Religious violence in Nigeria: Causal diagnoses and strategic recommendations to the state and religious communities
IT Sampson
African Journal on Conflict Resolution , 2012,
Abstract: The literature on religious violence in Nigeria largely implicates socio-economic, political and governance deficits as the major causes of such violence. This article, however, departing from the underlying causes approach, undertakes an analytical inquiry into the immediate and visible factors that trigger religious conflicts in the country. It also evaluates the nature of state management of religious conflicts in Nigeria and posits that government’s haphazard approach to these conflicts as well as the absence of a long-term strategy for its management account for their persistent manifestation. Drawing from the findings made, recommendations on the appropriate approach to curbing religious violence in the country are proffered.
Depression Increases Stroke Hospitalization Cost: An Analysis of 17,010 Stroke Patients in 2008 by Race and Gender
Baqar Husaini,Robert Levine,Linda Sharp,Van Cain,Meggan Novotny,Pamela Hull,Gail Orum,Zahid Samad,Uchechukwu Sampson,Majaz Moonis
Stroke Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/846732
Abstract: Objective. This analysis focuses on the effect of depression on the cost of hospitalization of stroke patients. Methods. Data on 17,010 stroke patients (primary diagnosis) were extracted from 2008 Tennessee Hospital Discharge Data System. Three groups of patients were compared: (1) stroke only ( , ), (2) stroke + depression ( , ), and (3) stroke + other mental health diagnoses ( , ). Results. Of all adult patients, 4.3% were diagnosed with stroke. Stroke was more prevalent among blacks than whites (4.5% versus 4.2%, ) and among males than females (5.1% versus 3.7%, ). Nearly one-quarter of stroke patients (23.3%) were diagnosed with depression/anxiety. Hospital stroke cost was higher among depressed stroke patients ( ) compared to stroke only ( ) patients ($77,864 versus $47,790, ), and among , cost was higher for black males compared to white depressed males ($97,196 versus $88,115, ). Similar racial trends in cost emerged among females. Conclusion. Depression in stroke patients is associated with increased hospitalization costs. Higher stroke cost among blacks may reflect the impact of comorbidities and the delay in care of serious health conditions. Attention to early detection of depression in stroke patients might reduce inpatient healthcare costs. 1. Background Between 20% and 60% of stroke patients are diagnosed with depression/anxiety [1], and these are often newly diagnosed in stroke patients both during hospitalization and up to 3 years after discharge [1–20]. Depression is associated with longer institutionalization and poorer rehabilitation outcomes [21, 22]. Further, depression is more often diagnosed for females and white stroke patients [23, 24], and it is correlated with higher rates of suicidal ideation and stroke mortality [25–27]. Depression increases the risk of stroke [28] as well as increased healthcare costs [29–34]. As these and other stroke related factors are evaluated, understanding their impact on healthcare cost is necessary for better management, improved therapeutic outcomes, and reduced healthcare cost. 2. Depression and Healthcare Cost Several studies have reported the effect of depression/anxiety on healthcare costs. For example, while female Medicare patients had a higher prevalence of depression and higher use of outpatient services, inpatient hospital costs for male patients were 47% higher compared to females ($15,060 versus $10,240, ) [30]. In another study, the medical cost of depressed patients was 54% higher compared to nondepressed patients [34]. While higher cost among stroke patients is associated with
Angiotensin-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in Hypercholesterolemic Mice: Role of Serum Cholesterol and Temporal Effects of Exposure
Petra A. Prins, Michael F. Hill, David Airey, Sam Nwosu, Prudhvidhar R. Perati, Hagai Tavori, MacRae F. Linton, Valentina Kon, Sergio Fazio, Uchechukwu K. Sampson
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084517
Abstract: Objective Understanding variations in size and pattern of development of angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) may inform translational research strategies. Thus, we sought insight into the temporal evolution of AAA in apolipoprotein (apo)E?/? mice. Approach A cohort of mice underwent a 4-week pump-mediated infusion of saline (n = 23) or 1500 ng/kg/min of Ang II (n = 85) and AAA development was tracked via in vivo ultrasound imaging. We adjusted for hemodynamic covariates in the regression models for AAA occurrence in relation to time. Results The overall effect of time was statistically significant (p<0.001). Compared to day 7 of AngII infusion, there was no decrease in the log odds of AAA occurrence by day 14 (?0.234, p = 0.65), but compared to day 21 and 28, the log odds decreased by 9.07 (p<0.001) and 2.35 (p = 0.04), respectively. Hemodynamic parameters were not predictive of change in aortic diameter (Δ) (SBP, p = 0.66; DBP, p = 0.66). Mean total cholesterol (TC) was higher among mice with large versus small AAA (601 vs. 422 mg/ml, p<0.0001), and the difference was due to LDL. AngII exposure was associated with 0.43 mm (95% CI, 0.27 to 0.61, p<0.0001) increase in aortic diameter; and a 100 mg/dl increase in mean final cholesterol level was associated with a 12% (95% CI, 5.68 to 18.23, p<0.0001) increase in aortic diameter. Baseline cholesterol was not associated with change in aortic diameter (p = 0.86). Conclusions These are the first formal estimates of a consistent pattern of Ang II-induced AAA development. The odds of AAA occurrence diminish after the second week of Ang II infusion, and TC is independently associated with AAA size.
Spanish in the United States as an Example of the Interaction between Language, Politics and Ethnicity
PA Uchechukwu
UJAH: Unizik Journal of Arts and Humanities , 2011,
Abstract: The continuous influx of immigrants from Spanish-speaking countries and the concentration of Hispanics/Latinos in certain areas in the United States, all contribute to the use and expansion of the Spanish language in America. Nevertheless, Spanish appears not to be making much impact as would be expected. The reasons for this can be traced to the language politics of the United States, strongly represented in the efforts of the Anti-bilingual Education proponents who, through Pro-English Organisations, have secured to a large extent, the marginalisation of the language of this ethnic group. In addition, the Americanization of the country is a cultural factor which upholds the hegemony of the English language as a standard of American culture and identity. This paper looks at the politics behind the linguistic situation in the United States with particular focus on the interaction of language, politics and ethnicity and its effects on Hispanic identity.
Expressing Efficiency as a Function of Key Performance Control Parameters: A Case Study of Hydrocyclone Unit Process at Josay Goldfields Limited, Tarkwa, Ghana  [PDF]
Obiri Yeboah, Sampson Arthur
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2017.53041
Abstract: Optimization of gold liberation is a function of hydrocyclone (cyclone) classi-fication efficiency with regard to a given target of 80% passing 75 μm at Josay Goldfields Limited. Key performance parameters that control the classification efficiency are hydrocyclone feed density, hydrocyclone feed pressure and throughput under fairly constant grinding process conditions. The hydrocyclone feed density related linearly to overflow product of percentage passing 75 μm and showed statistical linearity at even 1% critical level of significance. The paper provides a relation between cyclone feed density and cyclone overflow product size fraction as a function of cyclone efficiency. Gradient of the relation establishes the standard unit of performance which depicts the classification efficiency as percentage passing 75 μm per percentage solids of cyclone feed density. This measurement provides a timely corrective action of key performance control parameters. The selected seven days samples space used in the assessment was due to the effect of a daily production deficiency on the overall profit margin of Josay Goldfields as company.
Analysis of Extreme Rainfall Events (Drought and Flood) over Tordzie Watershed in the Volta Region of Ghana  [PDF]
Mexoese Nyatuame, Sampson Agodzo
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2017.59019
Abstract: In regional water resources management and disaster preparedness, the analysis of extreme rainfall events is essential. The need to investigate drought and flood conditions is now heightened within the context of climate change and variability. The Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) was employed to assess the extreme rainfall event on Tordzie watershed using precipitation data from 1984-2014. The SPI on the time scale of 3, 6, 9 and 12 months were determined using “DrinC” software. The drought was characterised into magnitude, duration, intensity, frequency, commencement and termination at the time scales of SPI-3, SPI-6, SPI-9 and SPI-12. Results indicated that the middle reaches (Kpetoe) of the watershed experienced less severe drought condition compared to the lower reaches (Tordzinu). Mann-Kendall (MK) test and Sen’s slope (SS) revealed general increasing drought trend but insignificant at 95% confidence interval. The SS indicated change in magnitude of 0.016 mm/year, 0.012 mm/year, 0.026 mm/year and 0.016 mm/year respectively at the mentioned time scales at 95% confidence interval at the Tordzinu and that of Kpetoe were 0.006 mm/year, 0.009 mm/year, 0.014 mm/year and 0.003 mm/year. These changes could have implication for agriculture and water resources management and engender food insecurity among smallholder farmers.
An Accurate and Computationally Efficient Explicit Friction Factor Model  [PDF]
Uchechukwu Herbert Offor, Sunday Boladale Alabi
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2016.63024
Abstract: The implicit Colebrook equation has been the standard for estimating pipe friction factor in a fully developed turbulent regime. Several alternative explicit models to the Colebrook equation have been proposed. To date, most of the accurate explicit models have been those with three logarithmic functions, but they require more computational time than the Colebrook equation. In this study, a new explicit non-linear regression model which has only two logarithmic functions is developed. The new model, when compared with the existing extremely accurate models, gives rise to the least average and maximum relative errors of 0.0025% and 0.0664%, respectively. Moreover, it requires far less computational time than the Colebrook equation. It is therefore concluded that the new explicit model provides a good trade-off between accuracy and relative computational efficiency for pipe friction factor estimation in the fully developed turbulent flow regime.
Artificial Neural Network Model for Friction Factor Prediction  [PDF]
Uchechukwu Herbert Offor, Sunday Boladale Alabi
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering (MSCE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/msce.2016.47011
Abstract: Friction factor estimation is essential in fluid flow in pipes calculations. The Colebrook equation, which is a referential standard for its estimation, is implicit in friction factor, f. This implies that f can only be obtained via iterative solution. Sequel to this, explicit approximations of the Colebrook equation developed using analytical approaches have been proposed. A shift in paradigm is the application of artificial intelligence in the area of fluid flow. The use of artificial neural network, an artificial intelligence technique for prediction of friction factor was investigated in this study. The network having a 2-30-30-1 topology was trained using the Levenberg-Marquardt back propagation algorithm. The inputs to the network consisted of 60,000 dataset of Reynolds number and relative roughness which were transformed to logarithmic scales. The performance evaluation of the model gives rise to a mean square error value of 2.456 × 1015 and a relative error of not more than 0.004%. The error indices are less than those of previously developed neural network models and a vast majority of the non neural networks are based on explicit analytical approximations of the Colebrook equation.
Numerical Simulation of Varied Buffer Layer of Solar Cells Based on Cigs  [PDF]
Sampson Oladapo Oyedele, Boko Aka
Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Material Science (MNSMS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/mnsms.2017.73003
Abstract: Numerical simulation has been used to investigate the effect of different buffer?layer components on the performance of CuInGaSe2?solar cellswith SCAPS-1D?software. The main photovoltaic parameters of simulated devices: open-circuit?voltage (Voc), short-circuit current (Jsc), fill factor (FF), and conversion efficiency (h),areanalysed as a function of thickness and temperature in the different buffer layers used. According to numerical simulation the highest conversion?efficiency (23%) of CIGS solar cell is reached for the CdS buffer layer. This?result is validated by experimental results(20%). At 300 K, when the thickness?of?the buffer layer (CdS, ZnS, ZnSe,InSe2) increases from 100 nm to 500nm,?with the other parameters maintained constant, the efficiency decreases. When the temperature increases from 300 K to 400 K,?with the other parameters maintained?constant, both open circuit voltage and conversion efficiency also decrease.?The?effect of dual buffer layers of ZnS/CdS has also been analysed and his efficiency increases?of 3% than a single buffer CdS.
Statistical analysis of the maternal death rate at the Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, for the year ending 31 December 2007
Uchechukwu M. Okeh
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.4102/phcfm.v1i1.84
Abstract: Background: The maternal mortality rate in developing countries, such as Nigeria, remains relatively high, with the causes being multidimensional. The unbooked primigravidae with severe pre-eclampsia/eclampsia constitute a high risk group. Method: The data from the case notes of all the maternal deaths that occurred at the Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, between 1 January and 31 December 2007 form the basis of this study. The case notes relating to all such deaths were stored in the office of the Head of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology when the deaths occurred. Information was extracted from the case files at the end of 2007. Data relating to the total number of deliveries were obtained from the registers kept in the labour and isolation wards. Results: Of the 45 maternal deaths recorded, 40 (88.9%) were found to have occurred among the unbooked and 5 (11%) among the booked mothers, constituting a maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 23 121.4 and 339.7 per 100 000 deliveries respectively. The combined mortality ratio was 2 735.6 per 100 000 deliveries. Fifteen (37.5%) unbooked primigravidae were found to have died of severe pre-eclampsia/eclampsia. A total of 1 645 mothers were noted to have delivered babies, of whom 1 472(89.5%) were booked, and 173 (10.5%) unbooked, with the hospital. Conclusion: Severe pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, haemorrhaging and sepsis were the major causes of death. A high maternal mortality rate was found to be common among the unbooked primigravidae, who are known usually to present late with pre-eclampsia/eclampsia. More research into the causes and management of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia is needed to reduce the high maternal death rate associated with it. The lack of antenatal care is also a high risk factor for maternal death. How to cite this article: Okeh UM. Statistical analysis of the maternal death rate at the Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki for the year ending 31 December 2007. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2009;1(1), Art. #84, 3 pages. DOI: 10.4102/phcfm.v1i1.84
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