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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 215239 matches for " U. P?schl "
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Kinetic model framework for aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions: Part 2 – exemplary practical applications and numerical simulations
M. Ammann,U. Pschl
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2005,
Abstract: A kinetic model framework with consistent and unambiguous terminology and universally applicable rate equations and parameters for aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions has been presented in the preceding companion paper by P schl, Rudich and Ammann (P schl et al., 2005), abbreviated PRA. It allows to describe mass transport and chemical reaction at the gas-particle interface and to link aerosol and cloud surface processes with gas phase and particle bulk processes. Here we present multiple exemplary model systems and calculations illustrating how the general mass balance and rate equations of the PRA framework can be easily reduced to compact sets of equations which enable a mechanistic description of time and concentration dependencies of trace gas uptake and particle composition in systems with one or more chemical components and physicochemical processes. Time-dependent model scenarios show the effects of reversible adsorption, surface-bulk transport, and chemical aging on the temporal evolution of trace gas uptake by solid particles and solubility saturation of liquid particles. They demonstrate, how the transformation of particles and the variation of trace gas accommodation and uptake coefficients by orders of magnitude over time scales of microseconds to days can be explained and predicted from the initial composition and basic kinetic parameters of model systems by iterative calculations using standard spreadsheet programs. Moreover, they show how apparently inconsistent experimental data sets obtained with different techniques and on different time scales can be efficiently linked and mechanistically explained by application of consistent model formalisms and terminologies within the PRA framework. Steady-state model scenarios illustrate characteristic effects of gas phase composition and basic kinetic parameters on the rates of mass transport and chemical reactions. They demonstrate how adsorption and surface saturation effects can explain non-linear gas phase concentration dependencies of surface and bulk accommodation coefficients, uptake coefficients, and bulk solubilities (deviations from Henry's law). Such effects are expected to play an important role in many real atmospheric aerosol and cloud systems involving a wide range of organic and inorganic components of concentrated aqueous and organic solution droplets, ice crystals, and other crystalline or amorphous solid particles. We hope that the presented model systems and simulations clearly demonstrate the universal applicability and consistency of the PRA f
Kinetic model framework for aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions ─ Part 2: Exemplary practical applications and numerical simulations
M. Ammann,U. Pschl
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2007,
Abstract: A kinetic model framework with consistent and unambiguous terminology and universally applicable rate equations and parameters for aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions has been presented in the preceding companion paper by P schl, Rudich and Ammann (P schl et al., 2007), abbreviated PRA. It allows to describe mass transport and chemical reaction at the gas-particle interface and to link aerosol and cloud surface processes with gas phase and particle bulk processes. Here we present multiple exemplary model systems and calculations illustrating how the general mass balance and rate equations of the PRA framework can be easily reduced to compact sets of equations which enable a mechanistic description of time and concentration dependencies of trace gas uptake and particle composition in systems with one or more chemical components and physicochemical processes. Time-dependent model scenarios show the effects of reversible adsorption, surface-bulk transport, and chemical aging on the temporal evolution of trace gas uptake by solid particles and solubility saturation of liquid particles. They demonstrate how the transformation of particles and the variation of trace gas accommodation and uptake coefficients by orders of magnitude over time scales of microseconds to days can be explained and predicted from the initial composition and basic kinetic parameters of model systems by iterative calculations using standard spreadsheet programs. Moreover, they show how apparently inconsistent experimental data sets obtained with different techniques and on different time scales can be efficiently linked and mechanistically explained by application of consistent model formalisms and terminologies within the PRA framework. Steady-state model scenarios illustrate characteristic effects of gas phase composition and basic kinetic parameters on the rates of mass transport and chemical reactions. They demonstrate how adsorption and surface saturation effects can explain non-linear gas phase concentration dependencies of surface and bulk accommodation coefficients, uptake coefficients, and bulk solubilities (deviations from Henry's law). Such effects are expected to play an important role in many real atmospheric aerosol and cloud systems involving a wide range of organic and inorganic components of concentrated aqueous and organic solution droplets, ice crystals, and other crystalline or amorphous solid particles.
Coupling aerosol surface and bulk chemistry with a kinetic double layer model (K2-SUB): oxidation of oleic acid by ozone
C. Pfrang, M. Shiraiwa,U. P schl
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2010,
Abstract: We present a kinetic double layer model coupling aerosol surface and bulk chemistry (K2-SUB) based on the PRA framework of gas-particle interactions (P schl-Rudich-Ammann, 2007). K2-SUB is applied to a popular model system of atmospheric heterogeneous chemistry: the interaction of ozone with oleic acid. We show that our modelling approach allows de-convoluting surface and bulk processes, which has been a controversial topic and remains an important challenge for the understanding and description of atmospheric aerosol transformation. In particular, we demonstrate how a detailed treatment of adsorption and reaction at the surface can be coupled to a description of bulk reaction and transport that is consistent with traditional resistor model formulations. From literature data we have derived a consistent set of kinetic parameters that characterise mass transport and chemical reaction of ozone at the surface and in the bulk of oleic acid droplets. Due to the wide range of rate coefficients reported from different experimental studies, the exact proportions between surface and bulk reaction rates remain uncertain. Nevertheless, the model results suggest an important role of chemical reaction in the bulk and an approximate upper limit of ~10 11 cm2 s 1 for the surface reaction rate coefficient. Sensitivity studies show that the surface accommodation coefficient of the gas-phase reactant has a strong non-linear influence on both surface and bulk chemical reactions. We suggest that K2-SUB may be used to design, interpret and analyse future experiments for better discrimination between surface and bulk processes in the oleic acid-ozone system as well as in other heterogeneous reaction systems of atmospheric relevance.
Kinetic multi-layer model of aerosol surface and bulk chemistry (KM-SUB): the influence of interfacial transport and bulk diffusion on the oxidation of oleic acid by ozone
M. Shiraiwa, C. Pfrang,U. P schl
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2010,
Abstract: We present a novel kinetic multi-layer model that explicitly resolves mass transport and chemical reaction at the surface and in the bulk of aerosol particles (KM-SUB). The model is based on the PRA framework of gas-particle interactions (P schl-Rudich-Ammann, 2007), and it includes reversible adsorption, surface reactions and surface-bulk exchange as well as bulk diffusion and reaction. Unlike earlier models, KM-SUB does not require simplifying assumptions about steady-state conditions and radial mixing. The temporal evolution and concentration profiles of volatile and non-volatile species at the gas-particle interface and in the particle bulk can be modeled along with surface concentrations and gas uptake coefficients. In this study we explore and exemplify the effects of bulk diffusion on the rate of reactive gas uptake for a simple reference system, the ozonolysis of oleic acid particles, in comparison to experimental data and earlier model studies. We demonstrate how KM-SUB can be used to interpret and analyze experimental data from laboratory studies, and how the results can be extrapolated to atmospheric conditions. In particular, we show how interfacial and bulk transport, i.e., surface accommodation, bulk accommodation and bulk diffusion, influence the kinetics of the chemical reaction. Sensitivity studies suggest that in fine air particulate matter oleic acid and compounds with similar reactivity against ozone (carbon-carbon double bonds) can reach chemical lifetimes of many hours only if they are embedded in a (semi-)solid matrix with very low diffusion coefficients (≤10 10 cm2 s 1). Depending on the complexity of the investigated system, unlimited numbers of volatile and non-volatile species and chemical reactions can be flexibly added and treated with KM-SUB. We propose and intend to pursue the application of KM-SUB as a basis for the development of a detailed master mechanism of aerosol chemistry as well as for the derivation of simplified but realistic parameterizations for large-scale atmospheric and climate models.
Chemical ageing and transformation of diffusivity in semi-solid multi-component organic aerosol particles
C. Pfrang, M. Shiraiwa,U. P schl
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2011,
Abstract: Recent experimental evidence underlines the importance of reduced diffusivity in amorphous semi-solid or glassy atmospheric aerosols. This paper investigates the impact of diffusivity on the ageing of multi-component reactive organic particles approximating atmospheric cooking aerosols. We apply and extend the recently developed KM-SUB model in a study of a 12-component mixture containing oleic and palmitoleic acids. We demonstrate that changes in the diffusivity may explain the evolution of chemical loss rates in ageing semi-solid particles, and we resolve surface and bulk processes under transient reaction conditions considering diffusivities altered by oligomerisation. This new model treatment allows prediction of the ageing of mixed organic multi-component aerosols over atmospherically relevant timescales and conditions. We illustrate the impact of changing diffusivity on the chemical half-life of reactive components in semi-solid particles, and we demonstrate how solidification and crust formation at the particle surface can affect the chemical transformation of organic aerosols.
Coupling aerosol surface and bulk chemistry with a kinetic double layer model (K2-SUB): oxidation of oleic acid by ozone
C. Pfrang,M. Shiraiwa,U. Pschl
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: We present a kinetic double layer model coupling aerosol surface and bulk chemistry (K2-SUB) based on the PRA framework of gas-particle interactions (P schl et al., 2007). K2-SUB is applied to a popular model system of atmospheric heterogeneous chemistry: the interaction of ozone with oleic acid. We show that our modelling approach allows de-convoluting surface and bulk processes, which has been a controversial topic and remains an important challenge for the understanding and description of atmospheric aerosol transformation. In particular, we demonstrate how a detailed treatment of adsorption and reaction at the surface can be coupled to a description of bulk reaction and transport that is consistent with traditional resistor model formulations. From literature data we have derived a consistent set of kinetic parameters that characterise mass transport and chemical reaction of ozone at the surface and in the bulk of oleic acid droplets. Due to the wide range of rate coefficients reported from different experimental studies, the exact proportions between surface and bulk reaction rates remain uncertain. Nevertheless, the model results suggest an important role of chemical reaction in the bulk and an upper limit of ~1×10 11 cm2 s 1 for the surface reaction rate coefficient. Sensitivity studies show that the surface accommodation coefficient of the gas-phase reactant has a strong non-linear influence on both surface and bulk chemical reactions. We suggest that K2-SUB may be used to design, interpret and analyse future experiments for better discrimination between surface and bulk processes in the oleic acid-ozone system as well as in other heterogeneous reaction systems of atmospheric relevance.
Kinetic multi-layer model of aerosol surface and bulk chemistry (KM-SUB): the influence of interfacial transport and bulk diffusion on the oxidation of oleic acid by ozone
M. Shiraiwa,C. Pfrang,U. Pschl
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2010,
Abstract: We present a novel kinetic multi-layer model that explicitly resolves mass transport and chemical reaction at the surface and in the bulk of aerosol particles (KM-SUB). The model is based on the PRA framework of gas-particle interactions (P schl et al., 2007), and it includes reversible adsorption, surface reactions and surface-bulk exchange as well as bulk diffusion and reaction. Unlike earlier models, KM-SUB does not require simplifying assumptions about steady-state conditions and radial mixing. The temporal evolution and concentration profiles of volatile and non-volatile species at the gas-particle interface and in the particle bulk can be modeled along with surface concentrations and gas uptake coefficients. In this study we explore and exemplify the effects of bulk diffusion on the rate of reactive gas uptake for a simple reference system, the ozonolysis of oleic acid particles, in comparison to experimental data and earlier model studies. We demonstrate how KM-SUB can be used to interpret and analyze experimental data from laboratory studies, and how the results can be extrapolated to atmospheric conditions. In particular, we show how interfacial transport and bulk transport, i.e., surface accommodation, bulk accommodation and bulk diffusion, influence the kinetics of the chemical reaction. Sensitivity studies suggest that in fine air particulate matter oleic acid and compounds with similar reactivity against ozone (C=C double bonds) can reach chemical lifetimes of multiple hours only if they are embedded in a (semi-)solid matrix with very low diffusion coefficients (≤10 10 cm2 s 1). Depending on the complexity of the investigated system, unlimited numbers of volatile and non-volatile species and chemical reactions can be flexibly added and treated with KM-SUB. We propose and intend to pursue the application of KM-SUB as a basis for the development of a detailed master mechanism of aerosol chemistry as well as for the derivation of simplified but realistic parameterizations for large-scale atmospheric and climate models.
Kinetic model framework for aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions: Part 1 – general equations, parameters, and terminology
U. Pschl,Y. Rudich,M. Ammann
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2005,
Abstract: Aerosols and clouds play central roles in atmospheric chemistry and physics, climate, air pollution, and public health. The mechanistic understanding and predictability of aerosol and cloud properties, interactions, transformations, and effects are, however, still very limited. This is due not only to the limited availability of measurement data, but also to the limited applicability and compatibility of model formalisms used for the analysis, interpretation, and description of heterogeneous and multiphase processes. To support the investigation and elucidation of atmospheric aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions, we present a comprehensive kinetic model framework with consistent and unambiguous terminology and universally applicable rate equations and parameters. It allows to describe mass transport and chemical reactions at the gas-particle interface and to link aerosol and cloud surface processes with gas phase and particle bulk processes in systems with multiple chemical components and competing physicochemical processes. The key elements and essential aspects of the presented framework are: a simple and descriptive double-layer surface model (sorption layer and quasi-static layer); straightforward flux-based mass balance and rate equations; clear separation of mass transport and chemical reactions; well-defined rate parameters (uptake and accommodation coefficients, reaction and transport rate coefficients); clear distinction between gas phase, gas-surface, and surface-bulk transport (gas phase diffusion correction, surface and bulk accommodation); clear distinction between gas-surface, surface layer, and surface-bulk reactions (Langmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal mechanisms); mechanistic description of concentration and time dependencies; flexible inclusion/omission of chemical species and physicochemical processes; flexible convolution/deconvolution of species and processes; and full compatibility with traditional resistor model formulations. Exemplary practical applications and model calculations illustrating the relevance of the above aspects will be presented in a companion paper (Ammann and P schl, 2005). We expect that the presented model framework will serve as a useful tool and basis for experimental and theoretical studies investigating and describing atmospheric aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions. In particular, it is meant to support the planning and design of laboratory experiments for the elucidation and determination of kinetic parameters; the establishment, evaluation, and
Kinetic model framework for aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions ─ Part 1: General equations, parameters, and terminology
U. Pschl,Y. Rudich,M. Ammann
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2007,
Abstract: Aerosols and clouds play central roles in atmospheric chemistry and physics, climate, air pollution, and public health. The mechanistic understanding and predictability of aerosol and cloud properties, interactions, transformations, and effects are, however, still very limited. This is due not only to the limited availability of measurement data, but also to the limited applicability and compatibility of model formalisms used for the analysis, interpretation, and description of heterogeneous and multiphase processes. To support the investigation and elucidation of atmospheric aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions, we present a comprehensive kinetic model framework with consistent and unambiguous terminology and universally applicable rate equations and parameters. It enables a detailed description of mass transport and chemical reactions at the gas-particle interface, and it allows linking aerosol and cloud surface processes with gas phase and particle bulk processes in systems with multiple chemical components and competing physicochemical processes. The key elements and essential aspects of the presented framework are: a simple and descriptive double-layer surface model (sorption layer and quasi-static layer); straightforward flux-based mass balance and rate equations; clear separation of mass transport and chemical reactions; well-defined and consistent rate parameters (uptake and accommodation coefficients, reaction and transport rate coefficients); clear distinction between gas phase, gas-surface, and surface-bulk transport (gas phase diffusion, surface and bulk accommodation); clear distinction between gas-surface, surface layer, and surface-bulk reactions (Langmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal mechanisms); mechanistic description of concentration and time dependences (transient and steady-state conditions); flexible addition of unlimited numbers of chemical species and physicochemical processes; optional aggregation or resolution of intermediate species, sequential processes, and surface layers; and full compatibility with traditional resistor model formulations. The outlined double-layer surface concept and formalisms represent a minimum of model complexity required for a consistent description of the non-linear concentration and time dependences observed in experimental studies of atmospheric multiphase processes (competitive co-adsorption and surface saturation effects, etc.). Exemplary practical applications and model calculations illustrating the relevance of the above aspects are presented in a companion paper (Amm
Chemical ageing and transformation of diffusivity in semi-solid multi-component organic aerosol particles
C. Pfrang,M. Shiraiwa,U. Pschl
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/acp-11-7343-2011
Abstract: Recent experimental evidence underlines the importance of reduced diffusivity in amorphous semi-solid or glassy atmospheric aerosols. This paper investigates the impact of diffusivity on the ageing of multi-component reactive organic particles approximating atmospheric cooking aerosols. We apply and extend the recently developed KM-SUB model in a study of a 12-component mixture containing oleic and palmitoleic acids. We demonstrate that changes in the diffusivity may explain the evolution of chemical loss rates in ageing semi-solid particles, and we resolve surface and bulk processes under transient reaction conditions considering diffusivities altered by oligomerisation. This new model treatment allows prediction of the ageing of mixed organic multi-component aerosols over atmospherically relevant timescales and conditions. We illustrate the impact of changing diffusivity on the chemical half-life of reactive components in semi-solid particles, and we demonstrate how solidification and crust formation at the particle surface can affect the chemical transformation of organic aerosols.
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