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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 18501 matches for " U. Abdulhafiz "
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Cephalic Tetanus: A Case Report
M. A. Alhaji,U. Abdulhafiz,C. I. Atuanya,F. L. Bukar
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/780209
Abstract: A case report of cephalic tetanus in a 2-year-old girl who was not immunized against tetanus following suppurative otitis media (SOM) is presented. This case is reported because of the rarity of cephalic tetanus associated with high mortality, to highlight the risk of cephalic tetanus as sequelae of SOM and the need for proper aural care and prompt treatment of SOM. Primary immunization of all eligible children as well as booster vaccination at appropriate time as an effective management strategy for tetanus is emphasized.
Handling Data Uncertainty and Inconsistency Using Multisensor Data Fusion
Waleed A. Abdulhafiz,Alaa Khamis
Advances in Artificial Intelligence , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/241260
Abstract: Data provided by sensors is always subjected to some level of uncertainty and inconsistency. Multisensor data fusion algorithms reduce the uncertainty by combining data from several sources. However, if these several sources provide inconsistent data, catastrophic fusion may occur where the performance of multisensor data fusion is significantly lower than the performance of each of the individual sensor. This paper presents an approach to multisensor data fusion in order to decrease data uncertainty with ability to identify and handle inconsistency. The proposed approach relies on combining a modified Bayesian fusion algorithm with Kalman filtering. Three different approaches, namely, prefiltering, postfiltering and pre-postfiltering are described based on how filtering is applied to the sensor data, to the fused data or both. A case study to find the position of a mobile robot by estimating its x and y coordinates using four sensors is presented. The simulations show that combining fusion with filtering helps in handling the problem of uncertainty and inconsistency of the data. 1. Introduction Multisensor data fusion is a multidisciplinary research area borrowing ideas from many diverse fields such as signal processing, information theory, statistical estimation and inference, and artificial intelligence. This is indeed reflected in the variety of the techniques reported in the literature [1]. Several definitions for data fusion exist in the literature. Klein [2] defines it by stating that data can be provided either by a single source or by multiple sources. Data fusion is defined by Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) [3] as a “multilevel, multifaceted process handling the automatic detection, association, correlation, estimation, and combination of data and information from several sources.” Both definitions are general and can be applied in different fields including remote sensing. In [4], the authors present a review and discussion of many data fusion definitions. Based on the identified strengths and weaknesses of previous work, a principled definition of data fusion is proposed as the study of efficient methods for automatically or semiautomatically transforming data from different sources and different points in time into a representation that provides effective support for human or automated decision making. Data fusion is applied in many areas of autonomous systems. Autonomous systems must be able to perceive the physical world and physically interact with it through computer-controlled mechanical devices. A critical problem of autonomous
An Epidemiological Study on Influenza A(H1N1) in Makkah  [PDF]
Nezar H. Khdary, Muhammed A. Alalem, Abdulhafiz M. Turkistan, Saad S. Alghamdi
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2014.44028
Abstract: The flu pandemic is a global outbreak of a new strain of influenza A virus subtype H1N1, termed Pandemic H1N1/09 virus by the World Health Organization (WHO), which was first identified in April 2009. The disease has also been termed novel Influenza A(H1N1) and 2009 H1N1 flu by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and is commonly known as swine flu. The main strain of the virus has been termed A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) by scientists. This study was conducted to describe the epidemiology of influenza A(H1N1) infections in KSA during 2009. A descriptive study was carried out among attendants at hospitals and primary health care centers in Makkah during 2009, irrespective of age and sex. The data were collected by interviewing suspected persons using a pre-designed questionnaire, clinical examination, and specific laboratory investigation. A total of 1138 subjects were included in the study. Among the study population, 25% of the cases between 15 and 24 years old were found positive for influenza A(H1N1) by PCR technique. Although a significant population was affected by influenza A(H1N1) during 2009 in Makkah, the efforts and steps taken by health authorities at all levels―especially those in Directorate of Health Affairs of Makkah—helped to avert the mortality associated with the H1N1 influenza among the residents and those coming for Umrah and Hajj to Makkah by providing and timely diagnosis.
Recent Advances in Heat Transfer Enhancements: A Review Report
M. Siddique,A.-R. A. Khaled,N. I. Abdulhafiz,A. Y. Boukhary
International Journal of Chemical Engineering , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/106461
Abstract: Different heat transfer enhancers are reviewed. They are (a) fins and microfins, (b) porous media, (c) large particles suspensions, (d) nanofluids, (e) phase-change devices, (f) flexible seals, (g) flexible complex seals, (h) vortex generators, (i) protrusions, and (j) ultra high thermal conductivity composite materials. Most of heat transfer augmentation methods presented in the literature that assists fins and microfins in enhancing heat transfer are reviewed. Among these are using joint-fins, fin roots, fin networks, biconvections, permeable fins, porous fins, capsulated liquid metal fins, and helical microfins. It is found that not much agreement exists between works of the different authors regarding single phase heat transfer augmented with microfins. However, too many works having sufficient agreements have been done in the case of two phase heat transfer augmented with microfins. With respect to nanofluids, there are still many conflicts among the published works about both heat transfer enhancement levels and the corresponding mechanisms of augmentations. The reasons beyond these conflicts are reviewed. In addition, this paper describes flow and heat transfer in porous media as a well-modeled passive enhancement method. It is found that there are very few works which dealt with heat transfer enhancements using systems supported with flexible/flexible-complex seals. Eventually, many recent works related to passive augmentations of heat transfer using vortex generators, protrusions, and ultra high thermal conductivity composite material are reviewed. Finally, theoretical enhancement factors along with many heat transfer correlations are presented in this paper for each enhancer. 1. Introduction The way to improve heat transfer performance is referred to as heat transfer enhancement (or augmentation or intensification). Nowadays, a significant number of thermal engineering researchers are seeking for new enhancing heat transfer methods between surfaces and the surrounding fluid. Due to this fact, Bergles [1, 2] classified the mechanisms of enhancing heat transfer as active or passive methods. Those which require external power to maintain the enhancement mechanism are named active methods. Examples of active enhancement methods are well stirring the fluid or vibrating the surface [3]. Hagge and Junkhan [4] described various active mechanical enhancing methods that can be used to enhance heat transfer. On the other hand, the passive enhancement methods are those which do not require external power to sustain the enhancements’ characteristics.
Use of Kostiakov’s Infiltration Model on Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike Soils, Southeastern, Nigeria  [PDF]
Magnus U. Igboekwe, Ruth U. Adindu
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.610083
Abstract:

The main purpose of this study is to obtain the water infiltration parameters of the soils of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike. This could be used in simulating infiltration for these soils when designing irrigation projects, thereby saving time and cost of field measurement. Field measurements of infiltration were first made using a double ring infiltrometer. The test lasted for 180 mins in each location. Infiltration values ranged from 0.03 cm/min to 0.1 cm/min. The highest value was obtained in the Forest Block. Kostiakov’s infiltration model was then applied on the field data in order to determine the soils’ infiltration parameters and equations. The model empirical constants or parameters obtained were “m” and “n”. For “m” the values were: 0.53 for the soil of Forest Block, 0.42 for Poultry block, 0.50 for P.G. block, 0.41 for the soils of Staff School and Guest House. The corresponding “n” values were: 1.37, 1.12, 0.37, 1.79, and 1.38. Infiltration equations: 0.4It1.38, 0.4lt1.79, 0.42t1.12, and 0.53t1.37 were determined for the locations. These were used to simulate data which were evaluated by comparing them with the field data. The two data sets showed closed relationships. This implied that the model could be used to simulate water infiltration during irrigation projects in the farms of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike.

Effects of Kolaviron, the Major Constituent of Garcinia kola, on the Histology of the Hypothalamus, Pituitary, and Testes Using Adult Male Wistar Rats as a Model Organism  [PDF]
A. U. Obi, P. U. Nwoha
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research (FMAR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fmar.2014.23014
Abstract: This study determined the effects of kolaviron on the histology of organs of the hypothalamic-pi- tuitary-gonadal axis, mainly the hypothalamus, pituitary and testis. The aim was to ascertain if its consumption has deleterious effects on these organs. Thirty six adult Wistar rats divided into six groups of six animals each were used and kolaviron administered at 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight. The results showed that gross cellular depletion and desquamation of cells of testis significantly reduced number of cells in the hypothalamus and pituitary (P < 0.05). It significantly reduced the relative brain weight (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that kolaviron can alter the histology of the axis which may impair its reproductive function.
A Multi-Objective Obnoxious Facility Location Modelon a Plane  [PDF]
U. K. Bhattacharya
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2011.12006
Abstract: In this paper a Vertex Covering Obnoxious Facility Location model on a Plane has been designed with a combination of three interacting criteria as follows: 1) Minimize the overall importance of the various exist-ing facility points; 2) Maximize the minimum distance from the facility to be located to the existing facility points; 3) Maximize the number of existing facility points covered. Area restriction concept has been incor-porated so that the facility to be located should be within certain restricted area. The model developed here is a class of maximal covering problem, that is covering maximum number of points where the facility is within the upper bounds of the corresponding mth feasible region Two types of compromise solution methods have been designed to get a satisfactory solution of the multi-objective problem. A transformed non- linear programming algorithm has been designed for the proposed non-linear model. Rectilinear dis-tance norm has been considered as the distance measure as it is more appropriate to various realistic situa-tions. A numerical example has been presented to illustrate the solution algorithm.
Role of HLA-A, HLA- B, HLA-DRB1 and HLADQB1 Alleles in HIV-1 Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis Co-Infection from Western India  [PDF]
U. Shankarkumar, A. Shankarkumar
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2011.14019
Abstract: We attempted to study the role of HLA HLA-A, B, DRB1 and DQB1 in HIV-1 patient’s co infected with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). A total of 102 HIV-1 + patients co-infected with pulmonary tuberculosis and 200 healthy controls were included in HLA analysis. HLA-A*, HLA-B* HLA-DRB1* and DQB1* typing was done molecularly by PCR- SSOP (Polymerase Chain reaction-Sequence Specific Oligonucleotide Probing) method using kit (Dynal Kit – Invitrogen). The frequencies of the HLA-A, B HLA-DRB,1 and DQB1 alleles were determined using standard software. The HLA alleles identified among HIV + ve/PTB + ve co-infected patients as compared with healthy controls showed a significantly increased frequency of HLA-B*08:01:01 in HIV + ve/PTB + ve co-infected patients when compared with healthy controls (p = 0.011, OR 3.335, 95% CI 1.35-8.18), Likewise HLA-DQB1*03:01:03 was significantly increased in HIV + ve/PTB + ve co-infected patients as against healthy controls (p < 0.0001, OR 107.5, 95% CI 6.195 - 1865.3). Similarly HLA-DQB*06:01:02 allele frequency was observed in HIV + ve/PTB + ve co-infected patients as against healthy controls (p = 0.003, OR 4.808, 95% CI 1.72-13.39), HLA-DQB1*03:01:01 (p = 0.045, OR 0.219, 95% CI 0.051 - 0.940), HLA-DQB1*06:01:01:01 (p = 0.012, OR 0.334, 95% CI 0.145 - 0.770), alleles in HIV + ve/PTB + ve co-infected patients when compared with healthy controls. We can be concluded that different HLA alleles may render susceptibility or protection to in different ethnic population.
Unsteady Incompressible Flow of a Generalised Oldroyed-B Fluid between Two Infinite Parallel Plates  [PDF]
D. Bose, U. Basu
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2013.32012
Abstract:

This paper presents a study of visco-elastic flow of an incompressible generalized Oldroyd-B fluid between two infinite parallel plates in which the constitutive equation involves fractional order time derivative. The solutions of field equations are being obtained for the motion of the said fluid between two parallel plates where the lower plate starts to move with steady velocity and the upper plate remains fixed in the first problem and the upper plate oscillates with constant frequency and the other being at rest in the second problem. The exact solutions for the velocity field are obtained by using the Laplace transform and finite Fourier Sine transform technique in terms of Mittag Leffler and generalised functions. The analytical expression for the velocity fields are derived and the effect of fractional parameters upon the velocity field is depicted graphically.

The Density of Energy States for Nonparabolic Dispersion Law in a Strong Magnetic Field  [PDF]
U. I. Erkaboev
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2016.411208
Abstract:
For nonparabolic dispersion law is determined by the density of the energy states (Ns) in a quantizing magnetic field. The effect of temperature on the expansion of the Lan-dau levels of electrons semiconductors with the nonquadratic dispersion is studied. The density of states at low temperatures is calculated from data on high-tem- perature Ns.
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