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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 224498 matches for " Tyler R. Schleicher "
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Characterizing the Host and Symbiont Proteomes in the Association between the Bobtail Squid, Euprymna scolopes, and the Bacterium, Vibrio fischeri
Tyler R. Schleicher, Spencer V. Nyholm
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025649
Abstract: The beneficial symbiosis between the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, and the bioluminescent bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, provides a unique opportunity to study host/microbe interactions within a natural microenvironment. Colonization of the squid light organ by V. fischeri begins a lifelong association with a regulated daily rhythm. Each morning the host expels an exudate from the light organ consisting of 95% of the symbiont population in addition to host hemocytes and shed epithelial cells. We analyzed the host and symbiont proteomes of adult squid exudate and surrounding light organ epithelial tissue using 1D- and 2D-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) in an effort to understand the contribution of both partners to the maintenance of this association. These proteomic analyses putatively identified 1581 unique proteins, 870 proteins originating from the symbiont and 711 from the host. Identified host proteins indicate a role of the innate immune system and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in regulating the symbiosis. Symbiont proteins detected enhance our understanding of the role of quorum sensing, two-component signaling, motility, and detoxification of ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) inside the light organ. This study offers the first proteomic analysis of the symbiotic microenvironment of the adult light organ and provides the identification of proteins important to the regulation of this beneficial association.
Impairment-Factor-Based Audiovisual Quality Model for IPTV: Influence of Video Resolution, Degradation Type, and Content Type
Garcia MN,Schleicher R,Raake A
EURASIP Journal on Image and Video Processing , 2011,
Abstract: This paper presents an audiovisual quality model for IPTV services. The model estimates the audiovisual quality of standard and high definition video as perceived by the user. The model is developed for applications such as network planning and packet-layer quality monitoring. It mainly covers audio and video compression artifacts and impairments due to packet loss. The quality tests conducted for model development demonstrate a mutual influence of the perceived audio and video quality, and the predominance of the video quality for the overall audiovisual quality. The balance between audio quality and video quality, however, depends on the content, the video format, and the audio degradation type. The proposed model is based on impairment factors which quantify the quality-impact of the different degradations. The impairment factors are computed from parameters extracted from the bitstream or packet headers. For high definition video, the model predictions show a correlation with unknown subjective ratings of 95%. For comparison, we have developed a more classical audiovisual quality model which is based on the audio and video qualities and their interaction. Both quality- and impairment-factor-based models are further refined by taking the content-type into account. At last, the different model variants are compared with modeling approaches described in the literature.
Impairment-Factor-Based Audiovisual Quality Model for IPTV: Influence of Video Resolution, Degradation Type, and Content Type
M. N. Garcia,R. Schleicher,A. Raake
EURASIP Journal on Image and Video Processing , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/629284
Primordial magnetic field constraints from the end of reionization
Dominik R. G. Schleicher,Francesco Miniati
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-3933.2011.01162.x
Abstract: Primordial magnetic fields generated in the early universe are subject of considerable investigation, and observational limits on their strength are required to constrain the theory. Due to their impact on the reionization process, the strength of primordial fields can be limited using the latest data on reionization and the observed UV-luminosity function of high-redshift galaxies. Given the steep faint-end slope of the luminosity function, faint galaxies contribute substantial ionizing photons, and the low-luminosity cutoff has an impact on the total budget thereof. Magnetic pressure from primordial fields affects such cutoff by preventing collapse in halos with mass below 10^{10} M_solar (B_0 / 3 nG)^3, with B_0 the co-moving field strength. In this letter, the implications of these effects are consistently incorporated in a simplified model for reionization, and the uncertainties due to the cosmological parameters, the reionization parameters and the observed UV luminosity function are addressed. We show that the observed ionization degree at z\sim7 leads to the strongest upper limit of B_0\lsim 2-3nG. Stronger limits could follow from measurements of high ionization degree at z>7.
Planet formation from the ejecta of common envelopes
Dominik R. G. Schleicher,Stefan Dreizler
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201322860
Abstract: The close binary system NN Serpentis must have gone through a common envelope phase before the formation of its white dwarf. During this phase, a substantial amount of mass was lost from the envelope. The recently detected orbits of circumbinary planets are likely inconsistent with planet formation before the mass loss.We explore whether new planets may have formed from the ejecta of the common envelope and derive the expected planetary mass as a function of radius.We employed the Kashi & Soker model to estimate the amount of mass that is retained during the ejection event and inferred the properties of the resulting disk from the conservation of mass and angular momentum. The resulting planetary masses were estimated from models with and without radiative feedback. We show that the observed planetary masses can be reproduced for appropriate model parameters. Photoheating can stabilize the disks in the interior, potentially explaining the observed planetary orbits on scales of a few AU. We compare the expected mass scale of planets for 11 additional systems with observational results and find hints of two populations, one consistent with planet formation from the ejecta of common envelopes and the other a separate population that may have formed earlier. The formation of the observed planets from the ejecta of common envelopes seems feasible. The model proposed here can be tested through refined observations of additional post-common envelope systems. While it appears observationally challenging to distinguish between the accretion on pre-existing planets and their growth from new fragments, it may be possible to further constrain the properties of the protoplanetary disk through additional observations of current planetary candidates and post-common envelope binary systems.
A new interpretation of the far-infrared - radio correlation and the expected breakdown at high redshift
Dominik R. G. Schleicher,Rainer Beck
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201321707
Abstract: (Abrigded) Observations of galaxies up to z 2 show a tight correlation between far-infrared and radio continuum emission. We explain the far-infrared - radio continuum correlation by relating star formation and magnetic field strength in terms of turbulent magnetic field amplification, where turbulence is injected by supernova explosions from massive stars. We calculate the expected amount of turbulence in galaxies based on their star formation rates, and infer the expected magnetic field strength due to turbulent dynamo amplification. We estimate the timescales for cosmic ray energy losses via synchrotron emission, inverse Compton scattering, ionization and bremsstrahlung emission, probing up to which redshift strong synchrotron emission can be maintained. We find that the correlation between star formation rate and magnetic field strength in the local Universe can be understood as a result of turbulent magnetic field amplification. If the typical gas density in the interstellar medium increases at high z, we expect an increase of the magnetic field strength and the radio emission, as indicated by current observations. Such an increase would imply a modification of the far-infrared - radio correlation. We expect a breakdown when inverse Compton losses start dominating over synchrotron emission. For a given star formation surface density, we calculate the redshift where the breakdown occurs, yielding z (Sigma_SFR/0.0045 M_solar kpc^{-2} yr^{-1})^{1/(6-alpha/2)}. In this relation, the parameter \alpha describes the evolution of the characteristic ISM density in galaxies as (1+z)^\alpha. Both the possible raise of the radio emission at high redshift and the final breakdown of the far-infrared -- radio correlation at a critical redshift will be probed by the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and its pathfinders, while the typical ISM density in galaxies will be probed with ALMA.
Supernova explosions in magnetized, primordial dark matter halos
D. Seifried,R. Banerjee,D. Schleicher
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu294
Abstract: The first supernova explosions are potentially relevant sources for the production of the first large-scale magnetic fields. For this reason we present a set of high resolution simulations studying the effect of supernova explosions on magnetized, primordial halos. We focus on the evolution of an initially small-scale magnetic field formed during the collapse of the halo. We vary the degree of magnetization, the halo mass, and the amount of explosion energy in order to account for expected variations as well as to infer systematical dependencies of the results on initial conditions. Our simulations suggest that core collapse supernovae with an explosion energy of 10^51 erg and more violent pair instability supernovae with 10^53 erg are able to disrupt halos with masses up to a about 10^6 and 10^7 M_sun, respectively. The peak of the magnetic field spectra shows a continuous shift towards smaller k-values, i.e. larger length scales, over time reaching values as low as k = 4. On small scales the magnetic energy decreases at the cost of the energy on large scales resulting in a well-ordered magnetic field with a strength up to ~ 10^-8 G depending on the initial conditions. The coherence length of the magnetic field inferred from the spectra reaches values up to 250 pc in agreement with those obtained from autocorrelation functions. We find the coherence length to be as large as $50\%$ of the radius of the supernova bubble. Extrapolating this relation to later stages we suggest that significantly strong magnetic fields with coherence lengths as large as 1.5 kpc could be created. We discuss possible implications of our results on processes like recollapse of the halo, first galaxy formation, and the magnetization of the intergalactic medium.
Disk fragmentation and the formation of population III stars
M. A. Latif,D. R. G. Schleicher
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu2573
Abstract: Our understanding of population III star formation is still in its infancy. They are formed in dark matter minihalos of $\rm 10^5-10^6 M_{\odot}$ at $z=20-30$. Recent high resolution cosmological simulations show that a protostellar disk forms as a consequence of gravitational collapse and fragments into multiple clumps. However, it is not entirely clear if these clumps will be able to survive to form multiple stars as simulations are unable to follow the disk evolution for longer times. In this study, we employ a simple analytical model to derive the properties of marginally stable steady-state disks. Our results show that the stability of the disk depends on the critical value of the viscous parameter $\alpha$. For $\alpha_{crit} = 1$, the disk is stable for an accretion rate of $\rm \leq 10^{-3} M_{\odot}/yr$ and becomes unstable at radii about $\rm \geq 100 AU$ in the presence of an accretion rate of $\rm 10^{-2} M_{\odot}/yr$. For $0.06 < \alpha_{crit} < 1$, the disk can be unstable for both accretion rates. The comparison of the migration and the Kelvin-Helmholtz time scales shows that clumps are expected to migrate inward before reaching the main sequence. Furthermore, in the presence of a massive central star the clumps within the central 1 AU will be tidally disrupted. We also find that UV feedback from the central star is unable to disrupt the disk, and that photo-evaporation becomes important only once the accretion rate has dropped to $\rm 2 \times 10^{-4} M_{\odot}/yr$. As a result, the central star may reach a mass of 100 $\rm M_{\odot}$ or even higher.
Modeling gravitational instabilities in self-gravitating protoplanetary disks with adaptive mesh refinement techniques
Tim Lichtenberg,Dominik R. G. Schleicher
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201424528
Abstract: The astonishing diversity in the observed planetary population requires theoretical efforts and advances in planet formation theories. Numerical approaches provide a method to tackle the weaknesses of current planet formation models and are an important tool to close gaps in poorly constrained areas. We present a global disk setup to model the first stages of giant planet formation via gravitational instabilities (GI) in 3D with the block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) hydrodynamics code ENZO. With this setup, we explore the impact of AMR techniques on the fragmentation and clumping due to large-scale instabilities using different AMR configurations. Additionally, we seek to derive general resolution criteria for global simulations of self-gravitating disks of variable extent. We run a grid of simulations with varying AMR settings, including runs with a static grid for comparison, and study the effects of varying the disk radius. Adopting a marginally stable disk profile (Q_init=1), we validate the numerical robustness of our model for different spatial extensions, from compact to larger, extended disks (R_disk = 10, 100 and 300 AU, M_disk ~ 0.05 M_Sun, M_star = 0.646 M_Sun). By combining our findings from the resolution and parameter studies we find a lower limit of the resolution to be able to resolve GI induced fragmentation features and distinct, turbulence inducing clumps. Irrespective of the physical extension of the disk, topologically disconnected clump features are only resolved if the fragmentation-active zone of the disk is resolved with at least 100 cells, which holds as a minimum requirement for all global disk setups. Our simulations illustrate the capabilities of AMR-based modeling techniques for planet formation simulations and underline the importance of balanced refinement settings to reproduce fragmenting structures.
The formation of supermassive black holes in rapidly rotating disks
M. A. Latif,D. R. G. Schleicher
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: Massive primordial halos exposed to moderate UV backgrounds are the potential birthplaces of supermassive black holes. In such a halo, an initially isothermal collapse will occur, leading to high accretion rates of $\sim0.1$~M$_\odot$~yr$^{-1}$. During the collapse, the gas in the interior will turn into a molecular state, and form an accretion disk due to the conservation of angular momentum. We consider here the structure of such an accretion disk and the role of viscous heating in the presence of high accretion rates for a central star of $10$, $100$ and $10^4$~M$_\odot$. Our results show that the temperature in the disk increases considerably due to viscous heating, leading to a transition from the molecular to the atomic cooling phase. We found that the atomic cooling regime may extend out to several $100$~AU for a $10^4$~M$_\odot$ central star and provides substantial support to stabilize the disk. It therefore favors the formation of a massive central object. The comparison of clump migration and contraction time scales shows that stellar feedback from these clumps may occur during the later stages of the evolution. Overall, viscous heating provides an important pathway to obtain an atomic gas phase within the center of the halo, and helps in the formation of very massive objects. The latter may collapse to form a massive black hole of about $\geq 10^4$~M$_\odot$.
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