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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 149081 matches for " Ty B. Schmidt "
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Effect of Citrus Byproducts on Survival of O157:H7 and Non-O157 Escherichia coli Serogroups within In Vitro Bovine Ruminal Microbial Fermentations
Heather A. Duoss-Jennings,Ty B. Schmidt,Todd R. Callaway,Jeffery A. Carroll
International Journal of Microbiology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/398320
Abstract:
Effect of Citrus Byproducts on Survival of O157:H7 and Non-O157 Escherichia coli Serogroups within In Vitro Bovine Ruminal Microbial Fermentations
Heather A. Duoss-Jennings,Ty B. Schmidt,Todd R. Callaway,Jeffery A. Carroll,James M. Martin,Sara A. Shields-Menard,Paul R. Broadway,Janet R. Donaldson
International Journal of Microbiology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/398320
Abstract: Citrus byproducts (CBPs) are utilized as a low cost nutritional supplement to the diets of cattle and have been suggested to inhibit the growth of both Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. The objective of this study was to examine the effects in vitro that varying concentrations of CBP in the powdered or pelleted variety have on the survival of Shiga-toxin Escherichia coli (STEC) serotypes O26:H11, O103:H8, O111:H8, O145:H28, and O157:H7 in bovine ruminal microorganism media. The O26:H11, O111:H8, O145:H28, and O157:H7 serotypes did not exhibit a change in populations in media supplemented with CBP with either variety. The O103:H8 serotype displayed a general trend for an approximate reduction in 5% powdered CBP and 20% pelleted CBP over 6?h. There was a trend for reductions in populations of a variant form of O157:H7 mutated in the stx1 and stx2 genes in higher concentrations of CBP. These results suggest that variations exist in the survival of these serotypes of STEC within mixed ruminal microorganism fluid media when supplemented with CBP. Further research is needed to determine why CBPs affect STEC serotypes differently. 1. Introduction Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is capable of naturally colonizing within the gastrointestinal tract of cattle without causing illness [1]. Human consumption of products contaminated with STEC can cause the severe illnesses hemorrhagic colitis and hemorrhagic uremic syndrome [2, 3]. The most notorious STEC within the meat industry has been E. coli O157:H7. Due to increased surveillance and pre- and post-harvest intervention, the occurrence of O157:H7 infections in the United States has been reduced to ≤1 case per 100,000 people. However, there now appears to be an increase in the occurrence of foodborne outbreaks due to non-O157 STEC serotypes. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) an estimated 265,000 cases of STEC infections were reported a year; of these, approximately 67% are attributed to non-O157 STEC [4]. With increased concerns related to the prevalence of non-O157 outbreaks, the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) has recently labeled the non-O157 STEC serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 as adulterants in fresh nonintact beef products [5]. The production of citrus for various food and nonfood products generates byproducts, such as the pulp and peel from citrus fruit. These citrus byproducts (CBPs) have been utilized by dairy and beef cattle producers in some regions of the United States as an inexpensive
The Marine Side of a Terrestrial Carnivore: Intra-Population Variation in Use of Allochthonous Resources by Arctic Foxes
Arnaud Tarroux, Jo?l Bêty, Gilles Gauthier, Dominique Berteaux
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042427
Abstract: Inter-individual variation in diet within generalist animal populations is thought to be a widespread phenomenon but its potential causes are poorly known. Inter-individual variation can be amplified by the availability and use of allochthonous resources, i.e., resources coming from spatially distinct ecosystems. Using a wild population of arctic fox as a study model, we tested hypotheses that could explain variation in both population and individual isotopic niches, used here as proxy for the trophic niche. The arctic fox is an opportunistic forager, dwelling in terrestrial and marine environments characterized by strong spatial (arctic-nesting birds) and temporal (cyclic lemmings) fluctuations in resource abundance. First, we tested the hypothesis that generalist foraging habits, in association with temporal variation in prey accessibility, should induce temporal changes in isotopic niche width and diet. Second, we investigated whether within-population variation in the isotopic niche could be explained by individual characteristics (sex and breeding status) and environmental factors (spatiotemporal variation in prey availability). We addressed these questions using isotopic analysis and Bayesian mixing models in conjunction with linear mixed-effects models. We found that: i) arctic fox populations can simultaneously undergo short-term (i.e., within a few months) reduction in both isotopic niche width and inter-individual variability in isotopic ratios, ii) individual isotopic ratios were higher and more representative of a marine-based diet for non-breeding than breeding foxes early in spring, and iii) lemming population cycles did not appear to directly influence the diet of individual foxes after taking their breeding status into account. However, lemming abundance was correlated to proportion of breeding foxes, and could thus indirectly affect the diet at the population scale.
Efficacy of biorhythmic transdermal combined hormone treatment in relieving climacteric symptoms: a pilot study
B Formby, F Schmidt
International Journal of General Medicine , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S16139
Abstract: acy of biorhythmic transdermal combined hormone treatment in relieving climacteric symptoms: a pilot study Original Research (3539) Total Article Views Authors: B Formby, F Schmidt Published Date February 2011 Volume 2011:4 Pages 159 - 163 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S16139 B Formby, F Schmidt The Rasmus Institute for Medical Research, Program in Reproductive Endocrinology, Santa Barbara, CA, USA Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a combination of bioidentical combined 17β-estradiol and progesterone transdermal delivery system (lipophilic emulsion-type base) to relieve climacteric symptoms. The hormonal replacement was given during a period of 6 months at four different cyclic doses to mimic the normal ovary secretory pattern. Design: An open, randomized, comparative, between-patient trial conducted over 6 months in 29 menopausal women with climacteric symptoms assessed with the Kupperman index at baseline and during treatments. Saliva and serum values of 17β-estradiol and progesterone were quantitated before treatment and after 3 and 6 months. Pharmacokinetic data following transdermal administration of 17β-estradiol (0.3 mg, daily) and progesterone (100 mg, daily) were calculated from saliva levels using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Results: Improvement in climacteric symptoms was reported in 93% of women evaluated before and after 3 and 6 months of treatment. Values of saliva 17β-estradiol increased after 6 months from 0.6 ± 0.3 pg/mL to 14.1 ± 3.3 pg/mL, and the values of serum 17β-estradiol increased from 3.3 ± 2.8 pg/mL to 80.6 ± 21.9 pg/mL. Of responders, 88% characterized symptom relief as complete. No adverse health-related events were attributed to the bioidentical hormone therapy. Time to maximum saliva concentrations (Tmax), in all experimental cases, was observed after 6 hours. Baseline values were reached within 24 hours, indicating a diurnal rhythm of 17β-estradiol seen in normally cyclic women over the 24-hour period, ie, its daily biological rhythm. Conclusion: Percutaneous absorption of 17β-estradiol, as well as the absorption of progesterone, was associated with relief of climacteric symptoms. The cyclical transdermal delivery of combined bioidentical hormones may be advantageous because it mimics the secretory profiles of 17β-estradiol and progesterone in normally cyclic women over a 28-day period. Larger studies are needed to determine the long-term effects of our therapy.
Efficacy of biorhythmic transdermal combined hormone treatment in relieving climacteric symptoms: a pilot study
B Formby,F Schmidt
International Journal of General Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: B Formby, F SchmidtThe Rasmus Institute for Medical Research, Program in Reproductive Endocrinology, Santa Barbara, CA, USAObjective: To evaluate the efficacy of a combination of bioidentical combined 17β-estradiol and progesterone transdermal delivery system (lipophilic emulsion-type base) to relieve climacteric symptoms. The hormonal replacement was given during a period of 6 months at four different cyclic doses to mimic the normal ovary secretory pattern.Design: An open, randomized, comparative, between-patient trial conducted over 6 months in 29 menopausal women with climacteric symptoms assessed with the Kupperman index at baseline and during treatments. Saliva and serum values of 17β-estradiol and progesterone were quantitated before treatment and after 3 and 6 months. Pharmacokinetic data following transdermal administration of 17β-estradiol (0.3 mg, daily) and progesterone (100 mg, daily) were calculated from saliva levels using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis.Results: Improvement in climacteric symptoms was reported in 93% of women evaluated before and after 3 and 6 months of treatment. Values of saliva 17β-estradiol increased after 6 months from 0.6 ± 0.3 pg/mL to 14.1 ± 3.3 pg/mL, and the values of serum 17β-estradiol increased from 3.3 ± 2.8 pg/mL to 80.6 ± 21.9 pg/mL. Of responders, 88% characterized symptom relief as complete. No adverse health-related events were attributed to the bioidentical hormone therapy. Time to maximum saliva concentrations (Tmax), in all experimental cases, was observed after 6 hours. Baseline values were reached within 24 hours, indicating a diurnal rhythm of 17β-estradiol seen in normally cyclic women over the 24-hour period, ie, its daily biological rhythm.Conclusion: Percutaneous absorption of 17β-estradiol, as well as the absorption of progesterone, was associated with relief of climacteric symptoms. The cyclical transdermal delivery of combined bioidentical hormones may be advantageous because it mimics the secretory profiles of 17β-estradiol and progesterone in normally cyclic women over a 28-day period. Larger studies are needed to determine the long-term effects of our therapy.Keywords: menopause, transdermal, 17β-estradiol, circadian rhythms, estrogen homeostasis
Editorial. Forum européen pour la recherche agronomique pour le développement
Schmidt-Nielsen, B.
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement , 1998,
Abstract:
Die diastolische Herzinsuffizienz - Pathophysiologische Grundlagen, diagnostische Strategien, therapeutische Optionen
Schmidt AG,Pieske B
Journal für Kardiologie , 2012,
Abstract: Herzinsuffizienz ist die h ufigste Diagnose bei hospitalisierten Patienten im Alter 65 Jahre. Bei über der H lfte dieser Patienten liegt der Erkrankung eine prim r diastolische Funktionsst rung bei noch weitgehend erhaltener systolischer Pumpfunktion zugrunde. Das klinische Problem der diastolischen Herzinsuffizienz hat mittlerweile epidemische Ausma e angenommen. Die Pr valenz der diastolischen Herzinsuffizienz unterliegt einer deutlichen Altersabh ngigkeit; die Prognose ist schlecht und der systolischen Herzinsuffizienz vergleichbar. Zu den h ufigsten Ursachen der diastolischen Herzinsuffizienz z hlen arterielle Hypertonie, koronare Herzerkrankung und Diabetes mellitus. Die aus der jeweiligen Grunderkrankung resultierenden pathophysiologischen Mechanismen, die zu einer diastolischen Dysfunktion führen, sind noch unzureichend identifiziert. Rezente Studien zeigen zudem, dass eine Reihe von kardiovaskul ren Ver nderungen, die nicht direkt die diastolische Funktion betreffen, zum Syndrom diastolische Herzinsuffizienz beitragen. Trotz der klinischen Relevanz der diastolischen Herzinsuffizienz existiert bisher keine evidenzbasierte, die Prognose verbessernde Therapie. Einer frühzeitigen Diagnose und kausalen Therapie kommt deshalb eine besondere Bedeutung zu, um die Progression der Erkrankung zu verhindern und die Mortalit t zu senken.
Transferência de dispositivos de reconhecimento da agricultura organica e apropria o local: uma análise sobre a Rede Ecovida
Pascal Byé,Vanice D. B. Schmidt,Wilson Schmidt
Desenvolvimento e Meio Ambiente , 2002,
Abstract: Recognition mechanisms for organic agriculture have been transferred from the European Union and the United Sates of America to Brazil, along with their regulation and certification systems. Our research aims to evaluate the local adaptation and appropriation of such systems in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. This work is a preliminary analysis of field data collected from one of the three networks surveyed, "Rede Ecovida de Agroecologia". This network is set up to escape, as far as possible, from constraints established by a kind of recognition its members define as "official", belonging to the"certification industry", and exceedingly reductionist. The network gives, therefore, priority to direct sales to "aware" consumers. This militant practice constitutes an ambitious form of social control ofcertification, but their procedures have been situated, for a long time, in the relatively narrow space of local markets. They are confronted, however, to other options linked to wider markets with shorter action time spans, that reflect the reactivity of commercial operators to rapid changes in urban consumption models. The duration, stability and flexibility of each of these recognition systems depend largely on the dynamic imposed on the temporal and spatial contexts of their agents.
Composition of the Invasive Macrophyte Community in three river basins in the Okyeman Area, Southern Ghana
TY Annang
West African Journal of Applied Ecology , 2012,
Abstract: A survey was carried out to study the composition of the invasive aquatic macrophyte community including submerged forms, in three river basins the Okyeman area namely the Ayensu, Birim and Densu basins. Of prime interest was the presence of any one of these four species, Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce), Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), Azolla species (fairy fern) and Salvinia molesta (Kariba weed), a floating water fern, which are alien to Africa. The number of invasive macrophytes encountered in the survey of the macrophytes was low with Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) conspicuously missing. A concerted effort to exclude these species from our freshwater bodies is suggested as the presence of any of these four is regarded as detrimental to aquatic life, because once they become established they tend to prevent the growth of native ones.
A Check-list of Some Elements of the Vegetation in three river basins in the Okyeman Area, Southern Ghana
TY Annang
West African Journal of Applied Ecology , 2012,
Abstract: The composition of some elements of the aquatic flora was determined in three river basins namely Ayensu, Birim and Densu, in the Okyeman area in Southern Ghana. Samples of these vegetation types, namely bryophytes, podostemonads and rhodophytes, in the three river basins were taken at 16 sites as follows: 4 sampling sites from the Ayensu basin, 7 sampling sites within the Birim and 5 sites were sampled in the Densu basin. Two species of rhodophytes were identified inconclusively. However no bryophyte species and podostemonads were encountered due to stated factors. Issues concerning detailed update of these members of the aquatic flora in Ghana are discussed.
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