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Loss to Followup in HIV-Infected Patients from Asia-Pacific Region: Results from TAHOD
Jialun Zhou,Junko Tanuma,Romanee Chaiwarith,Christopher K. C. Lee,Matthew G. Law,Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy,Praphan Phanuphak,Yi-Ming A. Chen,Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul,Fujie Zhang,Saphonn Vonthanak,Rossana Ditangco,Sanjay Pujari,Jun Yong Choi,Tuti Parwati Merati,Evy Yunihastuti,Patrick C. K. Li,Adeeba Kamarulzaman,Van Kinh Nguyen,Thi Thanh Thuy Pham,Poh Lian Lim
AIDS Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/375217
Abstract: This study examined characteristics of HIV-infected patients in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database who were lost to follow-up (LTFU) from treatment and care. Time from last clinic visit to 31 March 2009 was analysed to determine the interval that best classified LTFU. Patients defined as LTFU were then categorised into permanently LTFU (never returned) and temporary LTFU (re-entered later), and these groups compared. A total of 3626 patients were included (71% male). No clinic visits for 180 days was the best-performing LTFU definition (sensitivity 90.6%, specificity 92.3%). During 7697 person-years of follow-up, 1648 episodes of LFTU were recorded (21.4 per 100-person-years). Patients LFTU were younger ( ), had HIV viral load ≥500?copies/mL or missing ( ), had shorter history of HIV infection ( ), and received no, single- or double-antiretroviral therapy, or a triple-drug regimen containing a protease inhibitor ( ). 48% of patients LTFU never returned. These patients were more likely to have low or missing haemoglobin ( ), missing recent HIV viral load ( ), negative hepatitis C test ( ), and previous temporary LTFU episodes ( ). Our analyses suggest that patients not seen at a clinic for 180 days are at high risk of permanent LTFU, and should be aggressively traced. 1. Introduction Loss to followup (LTFU) in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy can cause serious consequences such as discontinuation of treatment and increased risk of death [1–3]. At a program level, LTFU can make it difficult to evaluate outcomes of treatment and care [4, 5]. In resource-limited settings, where treatment has become rapidly available following the rollout of antiretroviral therapy, LTFU presents even more challenging obstacles that require special consideration and approaches [6, 7]. One of the key questions in patient followup is how to define a patient as LTFU. This has varied in studies conducted in different settings [8–10]. Defining LTFU using a very early threshold, for example, a patient with no clinic visit in the last three months, may result in many patients being considered as LTFU who would return to clinic naturally at a later date. Defining LTFU with a long threshold, for example, one year, may mean delaying too long before any effort is made to track patients potentially at risk of LTFU. The majority of research into LTFU in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral treatment in resource-limited settings has been conducted in the sub-Saharan Africa region [3, 10–13]. A few studies have been conducted among Asian, mostly female, patients
Andi Yasmon,Ni Nengah Dwi Fatmawati,Fera Ibrahim,Ketut Tuti Parwati
Makara Seri Kesehatan , 2009,
Abstract: Serologic assays are commonly used for screening (ELISA) and for confirmation (Western blot) of HIV-1 infection; however, both assays have potentially yielded the false-positive or false-negative results. In this study, a diagnostic RT-PCR assay as an alternative test for detection of HIV-1 was developed. Forty-six plasma specimens from highly risky groups, who visited a voluntary counseling and testing for HIV (VCT) in Sanglah Clinic of General Hospital,Denpasar,Bali, were tested by RT-PCR assay with specific primers for Pol region of HIV-1 genome. The results of the RT-PCR tests were then compared with those of serologic tests to obtain the sensitivity and specificity of RT-PCR assay. The results of this study showed that the RT-PCR assay could detect 17 (sensitivity: 65.4%) of 26 serologically positive specimens and was unexpectedly able to detect 2 (specificity: 90%) of 20 serologically negative specimens. Thus, the RT-PCR assay developed in this study is potential to be used as an alternative test, even though there are numerous aspects, particularly the sensitivity, that need to be improved in further research.
Differences in Lipid Measurements by Antiretroviral Regimen Exposure in Cohorts from Asia and Australia
Amit C. Achhra,Janaki Amin,Jennifer Hoy,Junko Tanuma,Thira Sirisanthana,David Nolan,Tuti Merati,Michelle Giles
AIDS Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/246280
Abstract: We explored the mean differences in routinely measured lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) according to exposure to different combination antiretroviral regimens in Asian ( ) and Australian (predominantly Caucasian, ) cohorts. The regimen was defined as at least 3 antiretroviral drugs with at least 2 nucleoside-reverse transcriptases (NRTIs) and either of at least one protease inhibitor (PI) or non-nucleoside-reverse transcriptases (NNRTIs). We categorised cART regimens as: NRTIs as tenofovir based or not; NNRTIs as nevirapine or efavirenz (but not both); and PI as atazanavir based or not. We found that the impact of various antiretroviral regimens on lipids in Asian and Australian cohorts was only different by cohort for total cholesterol ( for interaction between regimen and cohort: <0.001) but not in case of other lipids ( for interaction: >0.05). The differences in total cholesterol were however small and unlikely to be of clinical significance. Overall, tenofovir with nevirapine or atazanavir was associated with the most favorable lipids, while the PI regimens without tenofovir and atazanavir were associated with least favorable lipids. We conclude that the impact of various ART regimens on lipids is largely similar in Asian and Australian cohorts and that the newer drugs such as tenofovir and atazanavir are likely to provide similar benefit in terms of lipid profiles in both populations. 1. Introduction Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for HIV infection is associated with adverse changes in lipid profiles and can include elevation in total cholesterol and triglycerides, which may increase the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) [1–4]. Moreover, different classes of cART and drugs within each class have differential impacts on lipids [2]. Protease-inhibitors (PIs) are associated with more significant changes in lipid profile than nucleoside and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs and NNRTIs, resp.) [2, 3, 5]. And within NNRTI class, efavirenz (EFV) is associated with greater changes in the lipid profile than nevirapine (NVP) [2, 5, 6]. Also tenofovir (TDF) and atazanavir (ATV) are known to have a favorable impact on lipids [5, 7, 8]. Drugs such as TDF, EFV, and ATV are becoming increasingly available in low-middle-income countries, including Asia [9, 10]. However, much of our knowledge about the relative impact of different cART regimens on lipids comes mainly from clinical trials and cohort studies from European or North-American settings [2, 4, 7, 8]. The impact of cART
Comparison of Uniform and Kernel Gaussian Weight Matrix in Generalized Spatial Panel Data Model  [PDF]
Tuti Purwaningsih, Erfiani  
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2015.51011
Abstract: Panel data combine cross-section data and time series data. If the cross-section is locations, there is a need to check the correlation among locations. ρ and λ are parameters in generalized spatial model to cover effect of correlation between locations. Value of ρ or λ will influence the goodness of fit model, so it is important to make parameter estimation. The effect of another location is covered by making contiguity matrix until it gets spatial weighted matrix (W). There are some types of W—uniform W, binary W, kernel Gaussian W and some W from real case of economics condition or transportation condition from locations. This study is aimed to compare uniform W and kernel Gaussian W in spatial panel data model using RMSE value. The result of analysis showed that uniform weight had RMSE value less than kernel Gaussian model. Uniform W had stabil value for all the combinations.
Il Rigestum comunis Albe: la struttura di un liber iurium dal progetto originario alla fisionomia attuale
Patrizia Merati
Scrineum Rivista , 2006,
Abstract: The Rigestum comunis Albe is one of the earliest libri iurium in Piemonte and it has been used for a lot of papers about history and diplomatics; nevertheless, after the publication of the critical edition (1903) the codex was lost. Its founding, in 2003, allowed to analyse the book's structure, to reconstruct its original appearance, to trace the events of its life, so that the liber is not only the case of the sources for the history of the town, but also the protagonist of its own history. The first part (1215) is a faithful reproduction of the whole content of civic archive; after that, periodical updates have been added. Moreover, the scribes used to record on its pages also different kinds of documents, such as banishment lists or statutes’ articles. The form and content analysis of the unities composing the liber let us understand that, in comparison to the orginal project, both their sequence and their number have changed. The use of keeping fascicles unbound, so to make them easier to use in communal offices, was often the cause of their misplacing: because of that, they have been bound in the wrong order and material that was not part of the book has been included. It is likely that there have been some losses, but they are impossible to quantify. So we see a picture of the Rigestum which is different from today’s, but the constant element is the book’s identity: although in changed conditions, it succeedes in meeting the communal records’ conservation needs that led to its drafting.
Secoli XI e XII: l'invenzione della memoria
Patrizia Merati
Scrineum Rivista , 2006,
La diplomatique urbaine en Europe au moyen age. Actes du congrès de la Commission internationale de Diplomatique, Gand, 25-29 ao t 1998
Patrizia Merati
Scrineum Rivista , 2003,
Effect of Atmospheric Plasma Paint Removal on the Fatigue Performance of 2024-T3 Aluminium Alloy Sheet  [PDF]
Marko Yanishevsky, Ali Merati, Yan Bombardier
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2018.61002
Abstract: This article documents fatigue testing that was conducted using as-painted (baseline) and Atmospheric Plasma de-painted specimens made of 0.063 inch thick 2024-T3 aluminium alloy sheet. The intent of the test program was to determine whether AP de-painting would alter the fatigue properties of this aluminium substrate. AP de-painting process parameters were selected based on previous work that would remove the topcoat, while leaving most of the primer intact. This process was repeated five times to simulate service experience, where aircraft typically undergo five paint/de-paint cycles in their lifetime. As-painted (baseline) and five times de-painted specimens were fatigue tested under constant amplitude conditions, at two load ratios and several maximum stress levels. Ten samples per condition were used to establish statistical behaviour and repeatability. The test results and statistical analysis demonstrated that the selected AP process parameters did not have a detrimental effect on the fatigue performance of 2024-T3 aluminium alloy sheet.
Detoxification Through Fermentation By Consortium Of Aspergillus Niger And Neurospora Sitophila Towards The Degree Of Forbol Esther And Nutrition Value Of Jatropha Curcas L. For Broilers Feed
Tuti Kurniati
Journal of Asian Scientific Research , 2012,
Abstract: Seedcake of Jatropha curcas L seed is a by product of biodiesel processing. Hard fibers and tiny raw protien is potentially useful as alternative feed for Broilers. So far, the use of Jatropha as feed is restricted due to the toxin of forbo loster. To increase the quality of seedcake, detoxification through biological fermentation was carried out. The research is aimed at achieving the followings: (1) obtaining the best product of the seed of Jatropha curcas L fermented by the consortium of Aspergillus niger ; (2) obtaining the lowest degree of anti-forbol esther nutrition as the result of the first stage research., and; (3) deciding on the quality of fermented seed of Jatropha curcas L by measuring metabolical energy. The degree of forbol esthered was measured at the laboratory of Psycho-Chemistry of Bandung Institute of Technology. The experiment employed experimental design, that is, Complete Randomization Factorial design (3 X 3). The three A-factor (dosage of consortium inoculum of Aspergillus niger and Neurospora sitophila is d1 = 2 g, d2 = 3 g, d3 = 4g) and the three B- factor (the time spent for fermentation of Aspergillus niger and Neurospora sitophila is t1 = 72 hours, t2 = 96 hours, nd t3 = 120 hours). This was repeated as much as 3 times. Data analysis was carried out by using variant analysis technique. To identify the diference between the treatments, Duncan Multiple Distance Test was employed. The research reveals that Jatropha curcas L fermented by consortium of Aspergillus niger and Neurospora sitophila with the dosage: 3 g inoculum and 96 hours of fermentation could best increase the nutrition value, that is, increasing Crude Protein as much as 16.88%, decreasing raw fat as much as 63.89%, and decreasing raw fiber as much as 14.96%. The highest decrease of forbol esther was achieved by substrate fermented by Aspergillus niger and Neurospora sitophila with the dosage of inoculum: 3 g and 3 hours of fermentation, that is, 79,69% with metabolical energy as much as 3849 kkal/kg.
Effect of Some Environmental Factors on Incidence and Severity of Angular Leaf Spot of Cotton in Yola and Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria  [PDF]
N. Z. Tuti, H. Nahunnaro, K. Ayuba
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2015.33B004

Environmental factors such as relative humidity and rainfall generally have been found to increase the incidence, rate of spread and severity of diseases thereby reducing yield of crops. Study was conducted on five cotton varieties, which were artificially inoculated with bacterial blight pathogen to determine the effects of rainfall and relative humidity on incidence and severity of angular leaf spot (ALS) and yield of seed cotton in Yola and Mubi. Results showed that the severity of ALS was higher in Yola (58.65%) at 13 WAS assumed to be due to higher relative humidity range of 76% - 87% and low rainfall of 2 - 40.6 mm. This is assumed to have favoured disease development as against that of Mubi location which recorded lower severity (51.11%) due to lower relative humidity (42% - 55%) and rainfall (37 - 73 mm). Results further revealed that at 13 WAS, SAMCOT-8 had low incidence (66%) and severity (39%) in Yola. This was against the much higher corresponding incidence and severity of 82% and 42% respectively that was observed in Mubi during the same period. SAMCOT-10 and SAMCOT-9 varieties were found to be highly susceptible to the disease at the same period. SAMCOT-8 recorded the highest yield of 390.00 kg?ha?1 in Yola and 868.09 kg?ha?1 in Mubi while the lowest yields of 227.17 kg?ha?1 was observed on SAMCOT-10 in Yola while 461.61 kg?ha?1 was obtained on SAMCOT-9 in Mubi. The variation in yield among these varieties might be due to the differences in their reactions to the disease. There is a need to conduct further trials in these locations to confirm the level of resistance or other aspects of these varieties to the disease.

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