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Bacteria, like industrial engineers, must manage processes that convert low value inputs into high value outputs. Bacteria are not intelligent, so they utilize self-organizing production systems to accelerate life-sustaining chemical processes. Here I explore two questions. First, can businesses apply the principles of self-organization? Second, can operations researchers contribute to our understanding of biological systems? I explain biochemical concepts in plain terms, illustrated with a few informative laboratory evolution experiments, and describe the organizing principles that underlie complex biological systems. I describe the new disciplines of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, which offer opportunities for interdisciplinary collaboration between life scientists and operations researchers.
is increasingly recognized that asthma represents
a syndrome, and there is clinical and pathobiological heterogeneity. Many genes
are reported to be associated with asthma, and may be involved in the disease
heterogeneity. Diverse cells, such as T helper 1 (Th1)-cells, Th2-cells,
Th17-cells, airway epithelial cells, and innate and adaptive immunity
associated cells, contribute to the pathobiology of asthma independently of
each other or they can also coexist and interact. Although, generally, Th2
immunity is important in most asthma endotypes, non- Th2-driven inflammation
tends to be difficult to manage. Recently, increased attention has been focused
on severe asthma and glucocorticoid (GC)-resistant (GC-R) asthma, in which
diverse inflammatory processes may be involved. Treatment approaches should
take into account pathological differences.