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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3656 matches for " Tracy Russell "
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Les Nations Unies font-elles plus de mal que de bien ? Les abus sexuels dans la République Démocratique du Congo
Tracy Russell
Voix Plurielles , 2010,
Abstract: Une organisation est aussi forte que l’est chacun de ses membres, et si la francophonie se veut une force viable dans l’avenir, il faut qu’elle tienne compte de ces conflits armés qui détruisent plusieurs de ses pays membres, mais aussi qu’elle aide à les résoudre. Toute la population en subit les conséquences néfastes, mais ce sont les femmes et les enfants qui sont les victimes principales de ces conflits. Trop souvent, les violations des droits de la personne commises contre eux sont impunies. Cet article porte sur un tel exemple de conflit, a savoir celui que conna t actuellement le Congo, où des abus sexuels sont perpétrés sur une grande échelle, et dont les auteurs sont, entre autres, les militaires et les civils qui travaillent pour les Nations Unies.
The Effects of Dietary Intervention on HIV Dyslipidaemia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Clare Stradling, Yen-Fu Chen, Tracy Russell, Martin Connock, G. Neil Thomas, Shahrad Taheri
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038121
Abstract: Background Efficacy of dietary intervention for treatment and prevention of HIV-related lipid disturbances has not been well established. Methods We conducted a systematic search of electronic databases supplemented with manual searches and conference abstracts, without language restriction. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with blood lipid outcomes, involving dietary intervention or supplementation for the treatment or prevention of adult HIV dyslipidaemia, versus no or other intervention were included. Two authors using predefined data fields, including study quality indicators, extracted data independently. Results Eighteen studies (n = 873) met our inclusion criteria. Seven RCTs for omega-3 supplementation (n = 372), and four RCTs for dietary intervention (n = 201) were meta-analysed using random-effects models. Mild statistical heterogeneity was observed. Dietary intervention reduced triglyceride levels by ?0·46 mmol/l (95%CI: ?0·85 to ?0·07 mmol/l) compared to control. Omega-3 supplementation reduced triglyceride levels by ?1.12 mmol/l, (95%CI: ?1·57 to ?0·67 mmol/l) and total cholesterol, ?0·36 mmol/l (95%CI: ?0·67 to ?0·05 mmol/l) compared to placebo/control. Conclusions Both omega-3 supplementation and dietary intervention reduced triglyceride level, with the latter possibly to a smaller extent. While dietary interventions are beneficial, more stringent dietary approaches may be necessary to fully address lipid disturbances in HIV patients. Trial Registration PROSPERO 2011:CRD42011001329.
Tracking the Emergence of a New Breed Using 49,034 SNP in Sheep
James W. Kijas, James E. Miller, Tracy Hadfield, Russell McCulloch, Elsa Garcia-Gamez, Laercio R. Porto Neto, Noelle Cockett
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041508
Abstract: Domestic animals are unique in that they have been organised into managed populations called breeds. The strength of genetic divergence between breeds may vary dependent on the age of the breed, the scenario under which it emerged and the strength of reproductive isolation it has from other breeds. In this study, we investigated the Gulf Coast Native breed of sheep to determine if it contains lines of animals that are sufficiently divergent to be considered separate breeds. Allele sharing and principal component analysis (PCA) using nearly 50,000 SNP loci revealed a clear genetic division that corresponded with membership of either the Florida or Louisiana Native lines. Subsequent analysis aimed to determine if the strength of the divergence exceeded that found between recognised breed pairs. Genotypes from 14 breeds sampled from Europe and Asia were used to obtain estimates of pair-wise population divergence measured as FST. The divergence separating the Florida and Louisiana Native (FST = 6.2%) was approximately 50% higher than the average divergence separating breeds developed within the same region of Europe (FST = 4.2%). This strongly indicated that the two Gulf Coast Native lines are sufficiently different to be considered separate breeds. PCA using small SNP sets successfully distinguished between the Florida and Louisiana Native animals, suggesting that allele frequency differences have accumulated across the genome. This is consistent with a population history involving geographic separation and genetic drift. Suggestive evidence was detected for divergence at the poll locus on sheep chromosome 10; however drift at neutral markers has been the largest contributor to the genetic separation observed. These results document the emergence of populations that can be considered separate breeds, with practical consequences for bio-conservation priorities, animal registration and the establishment of separate breed societies.
A New Method of Estimating the Asset Rate of Return  [PDF]
Moawia Alghalith, Tracy Polius
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2011.11001
Abstract: We present a new consumption-based method of estimating the asset rate of return.
Measured and Perceived Physical Fitness, Intention, and Self-Reported Physical Activity in Adolescence  [PDF]
Timo Jaakkola, Tracy Washington
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2011.12004
Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations among measured physical fitness, perceived fitness, intention towards future physical activity and self-reported physical activity through junior high school years. Methods: Study participants included 122 Finnish students who were 13 years old during Grade 7. The sample was comprised of 80 girls and 42 boys from 3 junior high schools (Grades 7-9). During the autumn semester of Grade 7, students completed fitness tests and a questionnaire analyzing self-perception of their physical fitness. The questionnaire delivered at Grade 8 included intention towards future physical activity. At Grade 9 students’ self-reported physical activity levels. Results: Structural Equation Modelling revealed an indirect path from physical fitness to self-reported physical activity via perceived physical fitness and intention towards future physical activity. The model also demonstrated a correlation between perceived physical fitness and physical activity. Squared multiple correlations revealed that perceived physical fitness explained 33 % of the actual physical fitness. Conclusions: The results of this study highlight the role of physical and cognitive variables in the process of adoption of physical activity in adolescence.
Collision Resolution MAC Protocols for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks  [PDF]
Xinhua Yang, Tracy Camp
Communications and Network (CN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2013.51003

In wireless ad hoc networks, nodes cooperatively form a network without any infrastructure such as a BS/AP (base station or access point). The widely-used contention-based MAC protocol, IEEE 802.11b, is inefficient in multi-hop networks due to the hidden and exposed terminal problems. The most popular schedule-based MAC protocol, TDMA (time division multiple access), is difficult to implement in an ad hoc network due to the lack of infrastructure. The contribution of this paper is to provide the community novel and efficient MAC (medium access control) protocols (i.e., a collision resolution protocol) for a wireless ad hoc network without a centralized infrastructure. We propose two new MAC protocols (one distributed algorithm and one cluster-based algorithm) that use a collision resolution scheme for a network with a single BS/AP. We first compare the performance of our distributed algorithm with our cluster-based algorithm. Then, we compare our algorithm that performs better (i.e., our cluster-based algorithm) to TDMA in a two-hop network. The simulation results illustrate that our cluster-based algorithm provides higher throughput and lower delay than TDMA in a two-hop network.

Research Findings Using Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Chronic Pain  [PDF]
Tracy L. Skaer
Pain Studies and Treatment (PST) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/pst.2015.34005
Abstract: Chronic pain is a complex condition that is very detrimental to physical and psychological wellbeing. It carries a significant level of disability and economic burden. Pain patients frequently experience comorbid mental illness (e.g. depression, anxiety, PTSD, insomnia) and often require psychotherapeutic interventions in addition to medication management. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have emerged as a means to treat several chronic conditions (e.g. chronic pain, depression, anxiety, substance abuse, stress, insomnia). The objective of this review is to evaluate the current research on the use of MBIs in chronic pain managment. Although there are several controlled trials on the use of MBIs in chronic pain management, only a few studies were found that demonstrated significant effects on pain intensity, quality of life, as well as physical and psychological functioning. Therefore, the current evidence is mixed and there are insufficient data to definitively confirm the full impact of the use of MBIs in chronic pain conditions such as fibromyalgia, chronic low back pain, rheumatoid arthritis, and chronic musculoskeletal pain. The lack of compelling evidence at this time signals a demand for higher quality investigations in this area. Research examining MBIs and concomitant CBT may be of great value in order to synergize and strengthen patient outcomes.
Scenario for the Origin of Matter (According to the Theory of Relation)  [PDF]
Russell Bagdoo
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2019.102013
Abstract: Where did matter in the universe come from? Where does the mass of matter come from? Particle physicists have used the knowledge acquired in matter and space to imagine a standard scenario to provide satisfactory answers to these major questions. The dominant thought to explain the absence of antimatter in nature is that we had an initially symmetrical universe made of matter and antimatter and that a dissymmetry would have sufficed for more matter having constituted our world than antimatter. This dissymmetry would arise from an anomaly in the number of neutrinos resulting from nuclear reactions which suggest the existence of a new type of titanic neutrino who would exceed the possibilities of the standard model and would justify the absence of antimatter in the macrocosm. We believe that another scenario could better explain why we observe only matter. It involves the validation of the negative energy solution of the Dirac equation, itself derived from the Einstein energy equation. The theory of Relation describes a negative energy ocean with the creation of real particle/antiparticle pairs. The origin of the masses of the particles would come from this ocean. A physical mechanism would allow their separation in the opposite direction and, therefore, the matter would be enriched at the expense of the ocean. The matter would be favored without resorting to negation or annihilation of negative energy, without the need for a CP (the behavioral difference between particle and antiparticle) violation that would be responsible for matter/antimatter asymmetry in the universe. And without the savior contribution of an undetectable obese neutrino: his search appears to us more a desperate act towards an “ultra-massive catastrophe” than a real effort to try to discover what really happened.
The Equation of the Universe (According to the Theory of Relation)  [PDF]
Russell Bagdoo
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2019.103022
Abstract: A new equation is found in which the concept of matter-space-time is mathematically connected; gravitation and electromagnetism are also bound by space-time. A mechanism is described showing how velocity, time, distance, matter, and energy are correlated. We are led to ascertain that gravity and electricity are two distinct manifestations of a single underlying process: electro-gravitation. The force of gravitation arises of electromagnetism—inherently much stronger—divided by the cosmological space-time. The radius of space-time belongs to the family of electromagnetic waves: the wavelength is the radius (1026 m) of the universe and the period (1017 s) is its cosmological age. For the first time, the cosmological time, considered as a real physical object, is integrated into a “cosmological equation” which makes coherent what we know regarding the time (its origin, its flow …), the matter, and space. It sets up a mathematical model allowing us to interpret dark energy (or cosmological constant) as being both “negative” and “tired” energy. After an introduction with a brief history of unifications and the presentation of two roughly equal ratios arising out from Dirac’s large-number hypotheses which relate to the ratio of electric force to gravitational force and the ratio of the age of the universe to the atomic time unit associated with atomic processes, we present in §2 this new equation of quantum cosmology which operates the reconciliation between the macrocosm and the microcosm. In §3 and §4, we discuss the irreversible cosmological time resulting from the equation, as well as the role of the mass (heavy) relative to the gravitational constant G. In §5 we discuss the links that the equation establishes between gravitation (structure of condensation) and electromagnetism (structure of expansion), between relativity and quantum theory. We apply the formula to Planck’s time. We speak of the new essential variable? ?\"\", and briefly of a new principle, the principle of compensation. In §6 we discuss the negative energy solutions banned by physics, and we deplore that half of the universe escapes us. We present the electro-gravitation in §7, from the equation which represents a super hydrogen atom. In § 8 we show that the global mass (gravitational) is variable: it increases during the expansion while the mass of the elementary
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor and HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor as Adjunct Treatment for Persons with HIV Infection: A Feasibility Randomized Trial
Jason V. Baker, Kathleen Huppler Hullsiek, Rachel Prosser, Daniel Duprez, Richard Grimm, Russell P. Tracy, Frank Rhame, Keith Henry, James D. Neaton
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046894
Abstract: Background Treatments that reduce inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among individuals with HIV infection receiving effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) are needed. Design and Methods We conducted a 2×2 factorial feasibility study of lisinopril (L) (10 mg daily) vs L-placebo in combination with pravastatin (P) (20 mg daily) vs P-placebo among participants receiving ART with undetectable HIV RNA levels, a Framingham 10 year risk score (FRS) ≥3%, and no indication for ACE-I or statin therapy. Tolerability and adherence were evaluated. Longitudinal mixed models assessed changes in blood pressure (BP), blood lipids, and inflammatory biomarkers from baseline through months 1 and 4. Results Thirty-seven participants were randomized and 34 [lisinopril/pravastatin (n = 9), lisinopril/P-placebo (n = 8), L-placebo/pravastatin (n = 9), L-placebo/P-placebo (n = 8)] attended at least one follow-up visit. Participants were 97% male, 41% white, 67% were current smokers, and 65% were taking a protease inhibitor. Median age was 48 years, CD4 count 483 cells/mm3, FRS 7.79%, total cholesterol 184 mg/dL, and LDL-C 95 mg/dL. There was no treatment difference for pravastatin vs P-placebo in total cholesterol, LDL-C, or any of the inflammatory biomarkers. Participants randomized to lisinopril vs. L-placebo had significant declines in diastolic BP (?3.3 mmHg, p = 0.05), hsCRP (?0.61 μg/mL, p = 0.02) and TNF-α (?0.17 pg/mL, p = 0.04). Participants taking lisinopril vs L-placebo were more likely to report missed doses (88 vs 35%; p = 0.001) and have adherence <90% by pill count (42 vs. 0%; p = 0.02). Few participants from either group reported side effects (n = 3 vs. n = 1). Conclusions The modest BP changes and decreased adherence with lisinopril and absence of lipid differences with pravastatin suggest future studies of these drug classes should consider a run-in period to assess adherence and use a different statin. Our results also indicate that ACE-I therapy may have anti-inflammatory benefits for ART-treated persons with HIV infection and this should be further evaluated. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00982189
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