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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 145115 matches for " Tracy B. Shafizadeh "
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Comparison of Accuracy of Diabetes Risk Score and Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Assessing Risk of Incident Type 2 Diabetes in Inter99 Cohort
Tracy B. Shafizadeh, Edward J. Moler, Janice A. Kolberg, Uyen Thao Nguyen, Torben Hansen, Torben Jorgensen, Oluf Pedersen, Knut Borch-Johnsen
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022863
Abstract: Background Given the increasing worldwide incidence of diabetes, methods to assess diabetes risk which would identify those at highest risk are needed. We compared two risk-stratification approaches for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and a previously developed diabetes risk score, PreDx? Diabetes Risk Score (DRS). DRS assesses 5 yr risk of incident T2DM based on the measurement of 7 biomarkers in fasting blood. Methodology/Principal Findings DRS was evaluated in baseline serum samples from 4,128 non-diabetic subjects in the Inter99 cohort (Danes aged 30–60) for whom diabetes outcomes at 5 years were known. Subjects were classified as having MetS based on the presence of at least 3 MetS risk factors in baseline clinical data. The sensitivity and false positive rate for predicting diabetes using MetS was compared to DRS. When the sensitivity was fixed to match MetS, DRS had a significantly lower false positive rate. Similarly, when the false positive rate was fixed to match MetS, DRS had a significantly higher specificity. In further analyses, subjects were classified by presence of 0–2, 3 or 4–5 risk factors with matching proportions of subjects distributed among three DRS groups. Comparison between the two risk stratification schemes, MetS risk factors and DRS, were evaluated using Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI). Comparing risk stratification by DRS to MetS factors in the total population, the NRI was 0.146 (p = 0.008) demonstrating DRS provides significantly improved stratification. Additionally, the relative risk of T2DM differed by 15 fold between the low and high DRS risk groups, but only 8-fold between the low and high risk MetS groups. Conclusions/Significance DRS provides a more accurate assessment of risk for diabetes than MetS. This improved performance may allow clinicians to focus preventive strategies on those most in need of urgent intervention.
Effects of Observational Practice and Gender on the Self-efficacy and Learning of Aiming Skill
Mohsen Shafizadeh
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The purposes of the present investigation were to study the effects of observational model and gender on the learning and self-efficacy of dart throwing skill. Forty eight novice girls and boys from PE classes were divided into two observational and physical practice groups, randomly. In acquisition phase and in retention and transfer tests, they practiced 60 trials and 12 trials, respectively. The results of acquisition phase showed that there was significant main effect of gender and the follow-up results demonstrated that the males had more accurate performance and more self-efficacy score than females (p<0.05). There were no significant differences between observational and physical groups on throwing accuracy and self-efficacy (p>0.05), but the males had more accurate performance than females in retention and transfer phases. In conclusion, observing a model can result in acquiring and learning of a skill as well as the executing a skill because of the role of self-efficacy and observational model is more effective for males than females for learning facilitation.
Relationships Between Goal Orientation, Motivational Climate and Perceived Ability with Intrinsic Motivation and Performance in Physical Education University Students
Mohsen Shafizadeh
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The purposes of the present investigation were to study the relationships between goal orientation, motivational climate and perceived ability with intrinsic motivation, behavioral patterns and performance. One hundred and sixty three males and females students from physical education classes selected and completed the Task and Ego Orientation, Intrinsic Motivation, Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport and Perceived Ability questionnaires. The results of structural equation models (SEM) and correlation coefficients showed that there are significant correlations between ego-orientation, task-orientation and mastery climate with intrinsic motivation (R = 0.58, χ2 = 103.72, p<0.0001) and between intrinsic motivation with trend, effort and performance (R = 0.42, χ2 = 37.85, p<0.0001). In conclusion, to increase trend and effort of students in sport classes their achievement goal orientations should to considered and increasing the intrinsic motivation, perceived ability and mastery climate have a facilitative role.
Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders among Paramedics Working in a Large Hospital in Ahwaz, Southwestern Iran in 2010
KR Shafizadeh
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Background:Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are common among employees throughout the world, particularly in high risk groups such as nurses. Objective: To determine the prevalence of MSDs among nurses in a large hospital in Ahwaz, southwestern Iran, and to examine its correlation with gender, age, shift working, years at service and smoking. Methods: Using a self-reported questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, Nordic questionnaire for MSDs was disseminated to all inpatient hospital paramedics (n=195) in a large hospital in Ahwaz. Results: Questionnaires of 161 participants were completed and returned back for analysis (response rate of 83%). The reported prevalence of MSDs was very high in the studied paramedics so that more than 90% of them reported at least one MSD in last week. The most prevalent site affected was that of neck (64%) followed by head (62.1%), knees (54.7%) and wrists/hands (49.7%); the least frequent disorder was that of elbows (14.3%). MSD was more common in females and increased with age and years of service. Non-shift workers reported more neck and elbows MSDs than shift workers. Conclusion: Considering the very high prevalence of MSDs among paramedics, it is suggested that they engage in an exercise program at their work place to lower the risk of MSDs and promote working efficiency.
A Comparative and Correlational Study of the Body-Image in Active and Inactive Adults and with Body Composition and Somatotype
Abbas Bahram,Mohsen Shafizadeh
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: The purpose of present study were to examine the effects of regular participation in physical activities on body image and its relationship with body composition and somatotype. One hundred and twenty men and women (25-65 years) were randomly selected and then divided into two active and inactive groups through the Median split technique based on the physical activities index scores. Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ), which consisted of body fat, global physical and appearance sub-scales, were used. 2x2 MANCOVA (gender x group) with covariates of body fat percent and Body Mass Index (BMI) was used to analysis the data. The results show significant interaction (F = 3.55, p<0.01) for gender and group in body image sub-scales. Also, the results revealed inverse significant relationships between body image and body fat percent (r = -0.49, p<0.01), BMI (r = -0.38, p<0.01), endomorphy (r = -0.48, p<0.01) and mesomorphy (r = -0.38, p<0.01) and direct relationship with ectomorphy (r = 0.39, p<0.01). In conclusion, one`s attitude toward his/her body stems from his/her physical ability and size. In addition, active men have more positive body-image than women.
Relationship Between Maternal Distress with Fetus Growth Rate: Mediator Role of Heart Rate
M. Shafizadeh,M. Mehdizadeh
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: The aim of present investigation was to study the relationship between mothers` distress and fetal growth. In this correlational study, 110 pregnant women selected randomly and completed Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) before ultrasound measurement of fetus. The results of structural equation model have shown that the overall model has been accepted (χ2 = 36.4, df = 24, p>0.05). In fact, by increasing mothers` stress and anxiety, the fetus heart rate was increased and it decreased the height, weight, head circumference and width and femur length of fetus. Therefore, one of the environmental variables that have negative effect on the fetus growth is mother distress, because it can stimulate the fetal autonomic nervous system through the mediating of heart rate.
Non-Minimal Inflation Revisited
Kourosh Nozari,S. Shafizadeh
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0031-8949/82/01/015901
Abstract: We reconsider an inflationary model that inflaton field is non-minimally coupled to gravity. We study parameter space of the model up to the second ( and in some cases third ) order of the slow-roll parameters. We calculate inflation parameters in both Jordan and Einstein frames and the results are compared in these two frames and also with observations. Using the recent observational data from combined WMAP5+SDSS+SNIa datasets, we study constraint imposed on our model parameters especially the nonminimal coupling $\xi$.
A Survey on Prevalence Rate of Cryptosporidiosis Among Children with Diarrhea in Khorram-Abad
S Maleki,S Nayeb Zadeh,F Shafizadeh
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2005,
Abstract: Background: The present study was carried out for determination of prevalence of cryptosporidiosis among infected children in Khooram-Abad city, Iran, 2002-2003. Materials and Methods: In this survey fecal samples of both rural and urban children were studied. Results & Conclusion: From all samples, 4.75% were infected. The infection rate was higher in summer and autumn. Also the results showed that the infection rate in Khooram-Abad was higher than Shiraz (3.5%), Bandarabbas (2.4%), Ahwaz (2.23%) and Rasht (1.57%) and the infection rate about equlity Ghazvin (4.75%) and Hamadan (5.3%) and lower than Isfahan (16.9%), Mashhad (14.6%), Urmia (105), Naghadeh (9.2%) and Tabriz (6.15%). Our observations indicated that the infection rate was higher in males (1.5%), equal between rural and urban children. Another finding was accompanying of cryptosporidiosis with some other infections like Shigellosis (15.7%) and giardiosis (5.26%) in some cases.
Effect of Attention of Focus Feedback on Error-Detection Capability in Bimanual Coordination Task
Mohsen Shafizadeh,Abbas Bahram,Ahmad Farokhi
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The aim of present investigation was to study the effect of attention of focus feedback on the error-detection capability. Forty eight (24 males and 24 females) undergraduate students who participated in this study voluntarily divided into four experimental groups according to estimation condition (estimation/no estimation) and focus of feedback (internal/external). The task was bimanual coordination that the subjects should to move two slides from back to front to produce given relative phase (in phase) and move a pointer to intercept a ball at given movement time. Mixed factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that in acquisition phase, there were the estimation and feedback interaction effect on relative phase and estimation, feedback and trials interaction effect on movement time for Absolute Constant Error (ACE) and Root-Mean-Square-Error (RMSE). In addition, in the retention phase, there was an estimation and feedback interaction effect on relative phase for ACE, so no estimation-internal and estimation-external groups were better than other groups. In conclusion, learners' sensitiveness to sensory information that focuses their attention to movement effect or external-focus comparing to movement itself or internal-focus, increase learning. Thus, one of the effects of external-focus feedback on motor learning is error-detection capability that it added to other mechanisms that proposed in this regard previously.
Pre-conditioning induces the precocious differentiation of neonatal astrocytes to enhance their neuroprotective properties
Ellora Sen,Anirban Basu,Lisa B Willing,Tracy F Uliasz
ASN Neuro , 2011, DOI: 10.1042/an20100029
Abstract: Hypoxic preconditioning reprogrammes the brain's response to subsequent H/I (hypoxia–ischaemia) injury by enhancing neuroprotective mechanisms. Given that astrocytes normally support neuronal survival and function, the purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that a hypoxic preconditioning stimulus would activate an adaptive astrocytic response. We analysed several functional parameters 24 h after exposing rat pups to 3 h of systemic hypoxia (8% O2). Hypoxia increased neocortical astrocyte maturation as evidenced by the loss of GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein)-positive cells with radial morphologies and the acquisition of multipolar GFAP-positive cells. Interestingly, many of these astrocytes had nuclear S100B. Accompanying their differentiation, there was increased expression of GFAP, GS (glutamine synthetase), EAAT-1 (excitatory amino acid transporter-1; also known as GLAST), MCT-1 (monocarboxylate transporter-1) and ceruloplasmin. A subsequent H/I insult did not result in any further astrocyte activation. Some responses were cell autonomous, as levels of GS and MCT-1 increased subsequent to hypoxia in cultured forebrain astrocytes. In contrast, the expression of GFAP, GLAST and ceruloplasmin remained unaltered. Additional experiments utilized astrocytes exposed to exogenous dbcAMP (dibutyryl-cAMP), which mimicked several aspects of the preconditioning response, to determine whether activated astrocytes could protect neurons from subsequent excitotoxic injury. dbcAMP treatment increased GS and glutamate transporter expression and function, and as hypothesized, protected neurons from glutamate excitotoxicity. Taken altogether, these results indicate that a preconditioning stimulus causes the precocious differentiation of astrocytes and increases the acquisition of multiple astrocytic functions that will contribute to the neuroprotection conferred by a sublethal preconditioning stress.
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