Abstract:
Primary care physicians infrequently address lifestyle modification with their obese patients, among whom those of lower economic means are disproportionately represented. To enhance patients’ access to education on lifestyle modification, a clinic-based computer kiosk was installed at our residency clinic for the purpose of healthy lifestyle education. While posttest scores improved and were maintained after completion of lifestyle modification education, body mass index (BMI) was essentially unaffected. Computer-based education without intensive counseling on lifestyle modification appears ineffective in reducing BMI amongst obese patients of lower economic means. Accountable care organization-sponsored health coaching may represent a potential means by which intensive counseling is accomplished among such patients.

Abstract:
Die Psychotherapie stellt eine wirksame Behandlung für alle Angstst rungen dar. Die Kombination mit einer (antidepressiven) Pharmakotherapie dürfte oft sinnvoll sein, ist jedoch nur bei der Panikst rung empirisch untermauert. Bei allen Angstst rungen sind verhaltenstherapeutische Ans tze am besten in ihrer Wirksamkeit belegt. Inzwischen sind au er für die spezifischen Phobien auch psychodynamische Ans tze manualisiert und empirisch evaluiert. Entspannungsverfahren werden bei der sozialen Phobie und der Panikst rung empfohlen und sind oft Bestandteil umfassender Behandlungsprogramme. Komorbide St rungen insbesondere Pers nlichkeitsst rungen verschlechtern den Outcome der Angstbehandlung. Für die Zukunft sind weitere Untersuchungen zur langfristigen Wirksamkeit der Psychotherapie sowie zur Behandlung von Angstpatienten mit komorbiden St rungen notwendig.

Abstract:
We provide a conceptual discussion and physical interpretation of some of the quite abstract constructions in the topos approach to physics. In particular, the daseinisation process for projection operators and for self-adjoint operators is motivated and explained from a physical point of view. Daseinisation provides the bridge between the standard Hilbert space formalism of quantum theory and the new topos-based approach to quantum theory. As an illustration, we will show all constructions explicitly for a three-dimensional Hilbert space and the spin-z operator of a spin-1 particle. This article is a companion to the article by Isham in the same volume.

Abstract:
Topos theory, a branch of category theory, has been proposed as mathematical basis for the formulation of physical theories. In this article, we give a brief introduction to this approach, emphasising the logical aspects. Each topos serves as a `mathematical universe' with an internal logic, which is used to assign truth-values to all propositions about a physical system. We show in detail how this works for (algebraic) quantum theory.

Abstract:
After a brief introduction to the spectral presheaf, which serves as an analogue of state space in the topos approach to quantum theory, we show that every state of the von Neumann algebra of physical quantities of a quantum system determines a certain measure on the spectral presheaf of the system. The so-called clopen subobjects of the spectral presheaf play the role of measurable sets. Measures on the spectral presheaf can be characterised abstractly, and the main result is that every abstract measure induces a unique state of the von Neumann algebra. Finally, we show how quantum-theoretical expectation values can be calculated from measures associated to quantum states.

Abstract:
We discuss some conceptual issues that any approach to quantum gravity has to confront. In particular, it is argued that one has to find a theory that can be interpreted in a realist manner, because theories with an instrumentalist interpretation are problematic for several well-known reasons. Since the Hilbert space formalism almost inevitably forces an instrumentalist interpretation on us, we suggest that a theory of quantum gravity should not be based on the Hilbert space formalism. We briefly sketch the topos approach, which makes use of the internal logic of a topos associated with a quantum system and comes with a natural (neo-)realist interpretation. Finally, we make some remarks on the relation between system logic and metalogic.

Abstract:
The Stone spectrum of a von Neumann algebra is a generalization of the Gelfand spectrum, as was shown by de Groote. In this article we clarify the structure of the Stone spectra of von Neumann algebras of type $I_{n}$.

Abstract:
Antonymous functions are real-valued functions on the Stone spectrum of a von Neumann algebra R. They correspond to the self-adjoint operators in R, which are interpreted as observables in quantum physics. Antonymous functions turn out to be generalized Gelfand transforms, related to de Groote's observable functions.

Abstract:
The topos approach to the formulation of physical theories includes a new form of quantum logic. We present this topos quantum logic, including some new results, and compare it to standard quantum logic, all with an eye to conceptual issues. In particular, we show that topos quantum logic is distributive, multi-valued, contextual and intuitionistic. It incorporates superposition without being based on linear structures, has a built-in form of coarse-graining which automatically avoids interpretational problems usually associated with the conjunction of propositions about incompatible physical quantities, and provides a material implication that is lacking from standard quantum logic. Importantly, topos quantum logic comes with a clear geometrical underpinning. The representation of pure states and truth-value assignments are discussed. It is briefly shown how mixed states fit into this approach.

Abstract:
In arXiv:1212.2613, we associated a presheaf \Sigma^A with each unital C*-algebra A. The spectral presheaf \Sigma^A generalises the Gelfand spectrum of an abelian unital C*-algebra. In the present article, we consider one-parameter groups of automorphisms of the spectral presheaf, in particular those arising from one-parameter groups of inner automorphisms of the algebra. We interpret the spectral presheaf as a (generalised) state space for a quantum system and show how one can use flows on the spectral presheaf and on associated structures to describe the time evolution of non-relativistic quantum systems, both in the Schr\"odinger picture and the Heisenberg picture.