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Validity and efficacy of the labor contract Validez y eficacia del contrato de trabajo
Jorge Toyama
Derecho PUCP , 2012,
Abstract: The validity and efficacy of the labor contract as well as cases of nullity and defeasibility import an analysis of scopes of the supplementary application of Civil Code taking into account the peculiarities of Labor Law. Labor contract, while legal business has as regulatory framework to the regulations of Civil Code but it is necessary to determine, in each case, whether to apply fully this normative body, or modulate its supplemental application, or simply conclude that it doesn’t result compatible its regulation due to the special nature of labor relations. Specifically, this issue will be analyzed from cases of nullity and defeasibility of the labor contract. La validez y eficacia del contrato de trabajo así como los supuestos de nulidad y anulabilidad importan un análisis de los alcances de la aplicación supletoria del Código Civil teniendo en cuenta las peculiaridades del Derecho del Trabajo. El contrato de trabajo, en tanto negocio jurídico, tiene como marco de regulación a las disposiciones del Código Civil pero es necesario apreciar, en cada caso, si corresponde aplicar plenamente este cuerpo normativo, o modular su aplicación supletoria, o simplemente concluir que no resulta compatible su regulación por la naturaleza especial de las relaciones laborales. Especialmente, este tema será analizado a partir de los supuestos de nulidad y anulabilidad del contrato de trabajo
Prebióticos, probióticos y simbióticos en la dietoterapia de los pacientes quemados
Toyama,Gabriela Paula;
Diaeta , 2010,
Abstract: the composition of the gastrointestinal tract microflora is essential to maintain the barrier function. this is altered in burn patients immediately after suffering the injury and the consequential increase in intestinal permeability entails a greater possibility of uncontrolled infections that can lead to death in these immunocompromised patients. functional foods with pre-, pro-and synbiotics emerge as a therapeutic strategy consisting in biological immunomodulators that limit the development and translocation of pathogenic bacteria and endotoxins, as well as nosocomial infection and systemic inflammatory response of intestinal origin. the aim of this review is to describe the phenomenon of bacterial translocation and the alteration of intestinal mucosa's permeability in burn patients, and to recognize the functional foods and nutritional products with pre-, pro-and synbiotic effect that would be more adequate to offer in due time. the mechanisms that favor translocation are: the loss of barrier function, the modification of bacteria content in the intestinal lumen and the impaired host immune defenses. prebiotics can bring about gastrointestinal symptoms which are secondary to the osmotic effect and fermentation in the intestinal lumen. the use of bacteriotherapy with probiotics and synbiotics needs a judicious consideration of the potential adverse effects of certain bacterial strains, such as infections due to transmigration and dlactate acidosis. the experience in treating burn patients with foods and nutritional products having a pre-, pro-or synbiotic function is still not enough to make recommendations on their consumption and even less as regards those products available in the market.
Electromagnetic Scattering from Periodic Arrays of Composite Circular Cylindrer with Internal Cylindrical Scatterers
Hiroshi Toyama;Kiyotoshi Yasumoto
PIER , 2005, DOI: 10.2528/PIER04100101
Abstract: A very efficient and accurate method to characterize the electromagnetic scattering from periodic arrays of two-dimensional composite cylindrical ob jects with internal eccentric cylindrical scatterers is presented, using the lattice sums formula and the aggregate T-matrix for cylindrical structures. The method is quite general and applies to various configurations of two-dimensional periodic arrays. The dielectric host cylinder per unit cell of the array can contain two or more eccentric cylindrical scatterers (we call them inclusions in this paper), which may be dielectric, conductor, gyrotropic medium, or their mixture with different sizes. The power reflection coefficients from one-layer or one-hundred-layered periodic arrays of composite cylinders with up to two inclusions have been numerically studied. The effect of the presence of inclusions on the properties of resonance peaks or the stopband's width will be discussed.
El derecho de propiedad en John Locke
Jorge Luis Toyama Miyagusuku
Pensamiento Constitucional , 1998,
Abstract: El tema que abordaremos en esta monografía se contrae en determinar los principales aspectos de la teoría sobre el derecho de propiedad del inglés John Locke (Wrington, 1632-1704), en su obra Segundo Ensayo sobre el GobiernoCivil .John
The Relationships among Tourist Novelty, Familiarity, Satisfaction, and Destination Loyalty: Beyond the Novelty-familiarity Continuum
Masaki Toyama,Yuichi Yamada
International Journal of Marketing Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ijms.v4n6p10
Abstract: Novelty and familiarity play an important role in tourists’ perceptions, and these have been regarded as contrasting concepts for a long time. However, recent cognitive science literature suggests that novelty and familiarity are separate concepts, independently influencing consumer behavior. Based on this, our study aims to examine the differences between the effects of novelty and familiarity on satisfaction and destination loyalty. These relationships are explored by analyzing the responses of tourists in Takayama City, Japan. The research model was tested using structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques. The results show that both novelty and familiarity contribute to destination loyalty; however, only novelty has an effect on the formation of satisfaction. Theoretical and managerial implications of these are also discussed.
Prebióticos, probióticos y simbióticos en la dietoterapia de los pacientes quemados Prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics in the diet therapy of burned patients
Gabriela Paula Toyama
Diaeta , 2010,
Abstract: La composición de la microflora del tracto gastrointestinal es esencial en el mantenimiento de la función de barrera. ésta se altera en los pacientes quemados inmediatamente después de sufrir la injuria y el consecuente aumento de la permeabilidad intestinal conlleva una mayor posibilidad de infecciones incontroladas que pueden conducir a la muerte en estos pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Los alimentos funcionales con pre-, pro- y simbióticos surgen como una estrategia terapéutica de contar con inmunomoduladores biológicos que limiten el desarrollo y la translocación de bacterias patógenas y endotoxinas, la infección nosocomial y la respuesta inflamatoria sistémica de origen intestinal. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron describir el fenómeno de translocación bacteriana y la alteración de la permeabilidad de la mucosa intestinal en el paciente quemado, y reconocer los productos alimenticios y nutroterápicos funcionales con efecto pre-, pro-y simbiótico más adecuados que puedan ser ofrecidos oportunamente. Los mecanismos que favorecen la translocación son: la pérdida de la función de barrera, la modificación en el contenido de las bacterias de la luz intestinal y las alteraciones inmunológicas del huésped. Los prebióticos pueden ocasionar síntomas gastrointestinales secundarios al efecto osmótico y a la fermentación en la luz intestinal. El uso de la bacterioterapia con probióticos y simbióticos requiere una consideración juiciosa de los potenciales efectos adversos de determinadas cepas bacterianas, como son las infecciones por transmigración y la acidosis Dláctica. La experiencia en el abordaje del paciente quemado con alimentos y nutroterápicos con función pre-, pro-o simbiótica es aún insuficiente para poder formular recomendaciones en cuanto a su consumo y más aún de aquellos disponibles en el mercado. The composition of the gastrointestinal tract microflora is essential to maintain the barrier function. This is altered in burn patients immediately after suffering the injury and the consequential increase in intestinal permeability entails a greater possibility of uncontrolled infections that can lead to death in these immunocompromised patients. Functional foods with pre-, pro-and synbiotics emerge as a therapeutic strategy consisting in biological immunomodulators that limit the development and translocation of pathogenic bacteria and endotoxins, as well as nosocomial infection and systemic inflammatory response of intestinal origin. The aim of this review is to describe the phenomenon of bacterial translocation and the alteration of intestinal mu
A Reduction-Preserving Completion for Proving Confluence of Non-Terminating Term Rewriting Systems
Takahito Aoto,Yoshihito Toyama
Computer Science , 2012, DOI: 10.2168/LMCS-8(1:31)2012
Abstract: We give a method to prove confluence of term rewriting systems that contain non-terminating rewrite rules such as commutativity and associativity. Usually, confluence of term rewriting systems containing such rules is proved by treating them as equational term rewriting systems and considering E-critical pairs and/or termination modulo E. In contrast, our method is based solely on usual critical pairs and it also (partially) works even if the system is not terminating modulo E. We first present confluence criteria for term rewriting systems whose rewrite rules can be partitioned into a terminating part and a possibly non-terminating part. We then give a reduction-preserving completion procedure so that the applicability of the criteria is enhanced. In contrast to the well-known Knuth-Bendix completion procedure which preserves the equivalence relation of the system, our completion procedure preserves the reduction relation of the system, by which confluence of the original system is inferred from that of the completed system.
Evaluation of the inclusive payment system based on the diagnosis procedure combination with respect to cataract operations in Japan------A comparison of lengths of hospital stay and medical payments among hospitals  [PDF]
Kazumitsu Nawata, Masako Ii, Hinako Toyama, Tai Takahashi
Health (Health) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/health.2009.12016
Abstract: Following the recommendations of a report submitted by the Central Social Insurance Medical Council concerning the 2002 revision of the Medical Service Fee Schedule, a new inclu-sive payment system, which is based on the Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC) sys-tem, was introduced in 82 special functioning hospitals in Japan, effective beginning in April 2003. Since April 2004, the system has been gradually extended to general hospitals that satisfy certain prerequisites. In this paper, the new inclusive payment system is analyzed. Data pertaining to 1,225 patients, who were hospital-ized for cataract diseases and underwent lens operations from July 2004 to September 2005, are used. The lengths of hospital stay and medical payments among hospitals are com-pared. Even after eliminating the influence of patient characteristics, there are large differ-ences among hospitals in average lengths of hospital stay and DPC-based inclusive pay-ments. The highest average inclusive payment is 3.5 times as high as the lowest payment. On the other hand, there are relatively small differ-ences in non-inclusive payments based on the conventional fee-for-service system—the larg-est deviation from the average of all hospitals is approximately 10%. Thus, although payments based on the DPC account for only one-third of the total medical payments for this disease, the major differences in medical payments among hospitals are caused by differences in their DPC-based inclusive payments. The results of the study strongly suggest that revisions of the payment system in Japan are necessary for the efficient use of medical resources in the future.
Surgical Experience of a Partial Atrioventricular Septal Defect in an Elderly Patient: A Case Report  [PDF]
Yukiharu Sugimura, Masaaki Toyama, Masanori Katoh, Yuji Kato
World Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery (WJCS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjcs.2013.32006
Abstract: The following paper describes patch closure (bovine pericardial sheet) of an ostium primum atrial septal defect and mitral valve repair (sutured mitral valve cleft + autologous pericardial annuloplasty + Alfieri’s method) in a 50-year-old man. He had been perfectly well until he was brought to the emergency room because of acute heart failure. Chest radiography revealed right-side heart enlargement. Electrocardiography indicated atrial flutter. Echocardiography revealed a large ostium primum atrial septal defect and moderate mitral regurgitation. The pulmonary-to-systemic blood flow ratio was 3.24. First, cardiologists performed catheter ablation of the cavotricuspid isthmus for atrial flutter. We performed patch closure of an ostium primum atrial septal defect and mitral valve repair after the patient’s heart failure was under control. The patient was discharged 13 days postoperatively in a satisfactory condition without any critical complications.
Factors influencing self-efficacy in breastfeeding support among public health nurses in Japan  [PDF]
Noriko Toyama, Kayoko Kurihara, Mineko Muranaka, Kiyoko Kamibeppu
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.512278
Abstract:

This study investigated self-efficacy in breastfeeding support among public health nurses (PHNs) working at maternal and child health (MCH) services in Japanese municipalities, and its related factors such as education, working experience, breastfeeding experience, and postgraduate/continuous education. Directors of the MCH divisions were requested to select one PHN to answer the self-report questionnaires sent. The questionnaires were collected from October 2010 to January 2011. Of the 1750 questionnaires sent, 831 were returned (response rate: 47.5%); 102 were excluded from analysis because of missing data (valid response rate: 41.7%). After adjusting the weights of PHN sampling and collection rates by prefecture and population size, Model 1 of the multiple regression analysis showed that the self-efficacy in breastfeeding support was significantly higher in large/urban municipalities (β = 0.13) and in the Kanto district. Model 2 revealed that self-efficacy was significantly associated with working experience (β = 0.13) and breastfeeding experience (β = 0.22) but not with educational background. Model 3 showed that self-efficacy was significantly associated with postgraduate education (β = 0.14) and continuous education (β = 0.12). This suggested that PHNs’ self-efficacy increased through self-enrichment. It is necessary to create training opportunities about breastfeeding support for PHNs—especially those working in remote and/or small municipalities— and to provide them with new and important information.

 

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