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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 381 matches for " Toshiya Kuno "
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Cancer chemoprevention through the induction of apoptosis by natural compounds  [PDF]
Toshiya Kuno, Testuya Tsukamoto, Akira Hara, Takuji Tanaka
Journal of Biophysical Chemistry (JBPC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbpc.2012.32018
Abstract: As cell and tissue homeostasis are mediated by the balance between proliferation and apoptosis, controlling this balance is important for cancer chemoprevention. Cancer chemoprevention can be achieved by the use of natural, synthetic or biologic compounds that reverse, suppress or prevent the development of epithelial malignancies. Natural compounds including flavonoids are able to reduce oxidative stress, which is the most likely mechanism mediating the protective effects against cancer development. In addition, in vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that flavonoids, such as (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallete (EGCG), quercetin, and curcumin, act by induction of apoptosis. Several natural compounds inhibit cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Certain natural products have been shown to inhibit the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and Akt signaling pathways, both of which are known to maintain a homeostatic balance between cell survival and apoptosis. Understanding the mechanism of these natural products will contribute to the development of more specific preventive strategies against cancer development. Here we focus on the ability of natural cancer chemopreventive agents to induce apoptosis, and attempt to provide evidence for the preventive and therapeutic effects of natural compounds, EGCG, quercetin, and curcumin, in a succinct manner highlightingκand Akt signaling pathways in vivo.
Pathobiology and Chemoprevention of Bladder Cancer
Takuji Tanaka,Katsuhito Miyazawa,Tetsuya Tsukamoto,Toshiya Kuno,Koji Suzuki
Journal of Oncology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/528353
Abstract: Our understanding of the pathogenesis of bladder cancer has improved considerably over the past decade. Translating these novel pathobiological discoveries into therapies, prevention, or strategies to manage patients who are suspected to have or who have been diagnosed with bladder cancer is the ultimate goal. In particular, the chemoprevention of bladder cancer development is important, since urothelial cancer frequently recurs, even if the primary cancer is completely removed. The numerous alterations of both oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that have been implicated in bladder carcinogenesis represent novel targets for therapy and prevention. In addition, knowledge about these genetic alterations will help provide a better understanding of the biological significance of preneoplastic lesions of bladder cancer. Animal models for investigating bladder cancer development and prevention can also be developed based on these alterations. This paper summarizes the results of recent preclinical and clinical chemoprevention studies and discusses screening for bladder cancer. 1. Introduction There has recently been an increasing incidence of and significant mortality rates attributed to bladder cancer. Fortunately, our understanding of the pathobiology of this malignancy has improved considerably over the past decade. Translating these novel pathobiological discoveries into therapies or strategies to manage patients who are suspected to have or who have been previously diagnosed with bladder cancer is the ultimate goal. Of the three main histological variants of epithelial malignancies arising from the urothelium of the urinary bladder, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC, Figure 1) is the most prevalent in Japan, North America, and other developed countries, while squamous cell carcinoma (Figure 2) and adenocarcinoma (Figure 2) are diagnosed less frequently. Figure 1: Natural history of bladder cancer (transitional cell carcinoma). Tis, transitional cell carcinoma in situ; and TCC, transitional cell carcinoma. Figure 2: Three main histological types of bladder cancer and their urinary cytology. TCC, transitional cell carcinoma; SCC, squamous cell carcinoma; and ADC, adenocarcinoma. In this paper, the reported alterations of both oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in bladder cancer will be outlined and described in the context of possible novel therapies targeting these alterations. Several investigators have hypothesized that certain chromosomal abnormalities and mutations play definite roles in bladder cancer development, while other alterations correlate
Cancer Chemoprevention by Citrus Pulp and Juices Containing High Amounts of β-Cryptoxanthin and Hesperidin
Takuji Tanaka,Takahiro Tanaka,Mayu Tanaka,Toshiya Kuno
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/516981
Abstract: β-Cryptoxanthin, a carotenoid, and hesperidin, a flavonoid, possess inhibitory effects on carcinogenesis in several tissues. We recently have prepared a pulp (CHRP) and citrus juices (MJ2 and MJ5) from a satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Mar.) juice (MJ). They contain high amounts of β-cryptoxanthin and hesperidin. We have demonstrated that CHRP and/or MJs inhibit chemically induced rat colon, rat tongue, and mouse lung tumorigenesis. Gavage with CHRP resulted in an increase of activities of detoxifying enzymes in the liver, colon, and tongue rats'. CHRP and MJs were also able to suppress the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory enzymes in the target tissues. This paper describes the findings of our in vivo preclinical experiments to develop a strategy for cancer chemoprevention of colon, tongue, and lung neoplasms by use of CHRP and MJs.
C57BL/KsJ-db/db-ApcMin/+ Mice Exhibit an Increased Incidence of Intestinal Neoplasms
Kazuya Hata,Masaya Kubota,Masahito Shimizu,Hisataka Moriwaki,Toshiya Kuno,Takuji Tanaka,Akira Hara,Yoshinobu Hirose
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijms12118133
Abstract: The numbers of obese people and diabetic patients are ever increasing. Obesity and diabetes are high-risk conditions for chronic diseases, including certain types of cancer, such as colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to develop a novel animal model in order to clarify the pathobiology of CRC development in obese and diabetic patients. We developed an animal model of obesity and colorectal cancer by breeding the C57BL/KsJ- db /db (db/db) mouse, an animal model of obesity and type II diabetes, and the C57BL/6J- ApcMin/+ (Min/+) mouse, a model of familial adenomatous polyposis. At 15 weeks of age, the N9 backcross generation of C57BL/KsJ- db /db- ApcMin/+ (db/db-Min/+) mice developed an increased incidence and multiplicity of adenomas in the intestinal tract when compared to the db/m-Min/+ and m/m-Min/+ mice. Blood biochemical profile showed significant increases in insulin (8.3-fold to 11.7-fold), cholesterol (1.2-fold to 1.7-fold), and triglyceride (1.2-fold to 1.3-fold) in the db/db-Min/+ mice, when compared to those of the db/m-Min/+ and m/m-Min/+ mice. Increases (1.4-fold to 2.6-fold) in RNA levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IRF-1R, and IGF-2 were also observed in the db/db-Min/+ mice. These results suggested that the IGFs, as well as hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia, promoted adenoma formation in the db/db-Min/+ mice. Our results thus suggested that the db/db-Min/+ mice should be invaluable for studies on the pathogenesis of CRC in obese and diabetes patients and the therapy and prevention of CRC in these patients.
Optimal Execution in Illiquid Market with the Absence of Price Manipulation  [PDF]
Seiya Kuno, Masamitsu Ohnishi
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2015.51001
Abstract: This article shows the execution performance of the risk-averse institutional trader with constant absolute risk aversion (CARA) type utility by using the condition of no price manipulation defined in the risk neutral sense. From two linear price impact models both satisfying that condition, we have derived the unique explicit optimal execution strategy calculated backwardly with dynamic programming equations. And our study shows that the optimal execution strategy exists in the static class. The derived solution can be decomposed into mainly two components, each giving an explanation of the property of optimal execution volume. Moreover we propose two conditions in order to compare the performance of these two price models, and illustrate that the performances of the two models are surprisingly different under certain conditions.
Zur logischen Genese der Sprachverwendung
Kuno Lorenz
Philosophica , 1985,
The mapping class group and the Meyer function for plane curves
Yusuke Kuno
Mathematics , 2007, DOI: 10.1007/s00208-008-0261-0
Abstract: For each d>=2, the mapping class group for plane curves of degree d will be defined and it is proved that there exists uniquely the Meyer function on this group. In the case of d=4, using our Meyer function, we can define the local signature for 4-dimensional fiber spaces whose general fibers are non-hyperelliptic compact Riemann surfaces of genus 3. Some computations of our local signature will be given.
A combinatorial formula for Earle's twisted 1-cocycle on the mapping class group \mathcal{M}_{g,*}
Yusuke Kuno
Mathematics , 2007, DOI: 10.1017/S0305004108001680
Abstract: We present a formula expressing Earle's twisted 1-cocycle on the mapping class group of a closed oriented surface of genus >=2 relative to a fixed base point, with coefficients in the first homology group of the surface. For this purpose we compare it with Morita's twisted 1-cocycle which is combinatorial. The key is the computation of these cocycles on a particular element of the mapping class group, which is topologically a hyperelliptic involution.
A combinatorial construction of symplectic expansions
Yusuke Kuno
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: The notion of a symplectic expansion directly relates the topology of a surface to formal symplectic geometry. We give a method to construct a symplectic expansion by solving a recurrence formula given in terms of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff series.
On the global monodromy of a Lefschetz fibration arising from the Fermat surface of degree 4
Yusuke Kuno
Mathematics , 2008,
Abstract: A complete description of the global monodromy of a Lefschetz fibration arising from the Fermat surface of degree 4 is given. As a by-product we get a positive relation among right hand Dehn twists in the mapping class group of a closed orientable surface of genus 3.
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