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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1217 matches for " Toshihiro Uchida "
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Fairness Norms and the Incidence of Environmental Subsidy  [PDF]
Toshihiro Uchida
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.36100
Abstract: Although fairness concerns are frequently discussed in the real world environmental politics, their effects are relatively neglected in the environmental economics literature. Using a survey method, this paper attempts to reveal how fairness norms affect the incidence of subsidy both in the short-run and long-run. The results indicate that statutory incidence (legal right to receive subsidy) affects people’s fairness norms on who should receive subsidy. In particular it is considered unfair for a firm to receive a part of the subsidy when it is legally granted to the consumer side. If firms avoid behaviors that are considered unfair, the tax and subsidy equivalence theorem may not hold under this situation. The survey results also reveal that fairness norms affect the incidence of subsidy in the long-run, in a sense that the allocation of gains that are generated due to subsidy is affected. People find it fair if allocation is made in proportion to firms’ own effort. Therefore, if an increase in profit is achieved by activities directly supported by subsidy, people find it less justifiable for firms to keep all the gains by themselves and thus firms may be forced to share the gains with consumers.
Influência do sombreamento no crescimento de mudas de três espécies amaz?nicas
Campos, Moacir Alberto Assis;Uchida, Toshihiro;
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-204X2002000300008
Abstract: the objective of this paper was to assess the development of jacaranda copaia (aubl.) d. don., hymenaea courbaril l. and ochroma lagopus (cav. ex. lam.) urban seedlings under different shade levels in the nursery. the experiment was carried out at experimental station of tropical silviculture (eest) of inpa, in manaus, am, brazil. the experiment design was fully randomised blocks with five treatments: two treatments with 50% of shading during 15 and 30 days, respectively and the remaining period under full sun light (0%) and three treatments under 30, 50 and 70% shade, respectively by using black polypropylene screen. stem diameter, seedling height, root length, leaf area, dry mass of leaves, root and stem, shoot/root ratio and height/diameter ratio were assessed. hymenaea courbaril had its growth affected under 70% of shade. ochroma lagopus and jacaranda copaia seedlings increased their growth under shade, but seedlings quality was poor. in choosing shade levels to grow seedlings, shoot/root ratio and development of root system should be considered.
Influência do sombreamento no crescimento de mudas de três espécies amaz nicas
Campos Moacir Alberto Assis,Uchida Toshihiro
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2002,
Abstract: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de mudas de caroba (Jacaranda copaia (Aubl.) D. Don.), jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril L.) e pau-de-balsa (Ochroma lagopus (Cav. ex. Lam.) Urban) sob diferentes níveis de sombreamento, em viveiro. O experimento foi realizado na Esta o Experimental de Silvicultura Tropical (EEST) do Inpa, em Manaus, AM. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos: dois tratamentos com 50% de sombra durante 15 e 30 dias, respectivamente, e o restante do período a pleno sol (0%), e três tratamentos com sombreamento a 30, 50 e 70%, respectivamente, obtido com o uso de telas de polipropileno, de cor preta. Foram avaliados o diametro do colo, a altura total da parte aérea das mudas, o comprimento das raízes, a massa de matéria seca de raízes, caule e folhas, a área foliar e as rela es altura/diametro do colo e parte aérea/sistema radicular. Hymenaea courbaril teve seu crescimento prejudicado quando cultivada sob 70% de sombra. As mudas de Ochroma lagopus e Jacaranda copaia apresentaram maior crescimento sob sombra, porém a qualidade das mudas foi prejudicada. Na tomada de decis o sobre qual sombreamento a ser usado, devem ser considerados, principalmente, os parametros que refletem um crescimento equilibrado da muda como um todo e um bom desenvolvimento radicular.
Advances in Angioscopic Imaging of Vascular Disease  [PDF]
Yasumi Uchida, Yasuto Uchida
World Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery (WJCS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjcs.2012.24021
Abstract:

Percutaneous angioscopy, using high resolution fiberoptic imaging, allows direct and two-dimensional visualization of the vascular interior, thereby enabling macroscopic pathological diagnosis. Percutaneous angioscopy has revealed that the vascular luminal surface exhibits various colors and morphologies characteristic of different vascular diseases. This imaging technique is used for evaluation of the severity of vascular diseases, staging of atherosclerosis, analysis of thrombus composition, evaluation of interventional and surgical therapies, and for guidance of intravascular interventions such as angioplasty, venous valvuloplasty and aortic stentgrafting. Recently, dye-image angioscopy has been used clinically for analyses of thrombus composition, endothelial damage and plaque composition. Intravascular microscopy was also developed for cellular imaging of vascular disease. Furthermore, fluorescent angioscopy was developed for molecular imaging of substances comprising atherosclerotic plaques. In this article, we describe the history of the development of angioscopy, angioscopic systems and techniques, angioscopic changes associated with vascular diseases, angioscope-guided intravascular therapies, and evaluation of intravascular and surgical therapies. Angioscopic pictures, except those of the coronary arteries, have rarely been published in the literature, so we have included many representative angioscopic pictures obtained by the authors in this article.

MiR-376c Down-Regulation Accelerates EGF-Dependent Migration by Targeting GRB2 in the HuCCT1 Human Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Line
Jun Iwaki, Kunio Kikuchi, Yoshiaki Mizuguchi, Yutaka Kawahigashi, Hiroshi Yoshida, Eiji Uchida, Toshihiro Takizawa
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069496
Abstract: MicroRNA miR-376c was expressed in normal intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells (HIBEpiC), but was significantly suppressed in the HuCCT1 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) cell line. The biological significance of the down-regulation of miR-376c in HuCCT1 cells is unknown. We hypothesized that miR-376c could function as a tumor suppressor in these cells. To test this hypothesis, we sought the targets of miR-376c, and characterized the effect of its down-regulation on HuCCT1 cells. We performed proteomic analysis of miR-376c-overexpressing HuCCT1 cells to identify candidate targets of miR-376c, and validated these targets by 3′-UTR reporter assay. Transwell migration assays were performed to study the migratory response of HuCCT1 cells to miR-376c overexpression. Furthermore, microarrays were used to identify the signaling that were potentially involved in the miR-376c-modulated migration of HuCCT1. Finally, we assessed epigenetic changes within the potential promoter region of the miR-376c gene in these cells. Proteomic analysis and subsequent validation assays showed that growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2) was a direct target of miR-376c. The transwell migration assay revealed that miR-376c significantly reduced epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent cell migration in HuCCT1 cells. DNA microarray and subsequent pathway analysis showed that interleukin 1 beta and matrix metallopeptidase 9 were possible participants in EGF-dependent migration of HuCCT1 cells. Bisulfite sequencing showed higher methylation levels of CpG sites upstream of the miR-376c gene in HuCCT1 relative to HIBEpiC cells. Combined treatment with the DNA-demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A significantly upregulated the expression of miR-376c in HuCCT1 cells. We revealed that epigenetic repression of miR-376c accelerated EGF-dependent cell migration through its target GRB2 in HuCCT1 cells. These findings suggest that miR-376c functions as a tumor suppressor. Since metastasis is the major cause of death in ICC, microRNA manipulation could lead to the development of novel anti-cancer therapy strategies for ICC.
Ameloblastin in Hertwig’s Epithelial Root Sheath Regulates Tooth Root Formation and Development
Naoto Hirose, Atsushi Shimazu, Mineo Watanabe, Kotaro Tanimoto, Souichi Koyota, Toshihiro Sugiyama, Takashi Uchida, Kazuo Tanne
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054449
Abstract: Tooth root formation begins after the completion of crown morphogenesis. At the end edge of the tooth crown, inner and outer enamel epithelia form Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath (HERS). HERS extends along with dental follicular tissue for root formation. Ameloblastin (AMBN) is an enamel matrix protein secreted by ameloblasts and HERS derived cells. A number of enamel proteins are eliminated in root formation, except for AMBN. AMBN may be related to tooth root formation; however, its role in this process remains unclear. In this study, we found AMBN in the basal portion of HERS of lower first molar in mice, but not at the tip. We designed and synthesized small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting AMBN based on the mouse sequence. When AMBN siRNA was injected into a prospective mandibular first molar of postnatal day 10 mice, the root became shorter 10 days later. Furthermore, HERS in these mice revealed a multilayered appearance and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) positive cells increased in the outer layers. In vitro experiments, when cells were compared with and without transiently expressing AMBN mRNA, expression of growth suppressor genes such as p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 was enhanced without AMBN and BrdU incorporation increased. Thus, AMBN may regulate differentiation state of HERS derived cells. Moreover, our results suggest that the expression of AMBN in HERS functions as a trigger for normal root formation.
Using Patents in Promotional Activities  [PDF]
Toshihiro Tsuchihashi
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2016.65094
Abstract: A traditional view of patents and patenting shows a trade-off between the benefit of appropriation and the cost of information revelation. However, firms may benefit from information revelation to consumers because patents can provide credible information about the firms ability to develop new technologies and produce good quality products. In fact, we frequently observe that many firms use their patents for promotion in a variety of industries, including foods, cosmetics, and electronic devices. We construct a simple model to study a usage of patents in promotion activities, a promotional patent, and investigate an advantage for a firm to employ a promotional patent. We make two findings. First, we find a positive information value of a promotional patent to a high-type firm. The benefit stems from an increase in the consumers’ willingness to pay in two ways. The expected valuation to the consumers increases because i) the patented innovation directly improves the product quality and ii) the promotional patent increases a likelihood of the firm to be a high type. The firm then absorbs the increase of the expected valuation. Second, the information value to the high-type firm is non-monotonic. The information value increases (decreases) with a prior probability that a firm is a high type when the prior probability is low (high).
High-Quality Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography Angiography of Abdominal Viscera with Small Focal Spot, Low Tube Voltage, and Iterative Model Reconstruction Technique  [PDF]
Masafumi Uchida
Open Journal of Radiology (OJRad) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojrad.2015.51002
Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the quality of three-dimensional (3D) CT angiography images of the abdominal viscera with small focal spot, low tube voltage, and iterative model reconstruction technique (IMR). Materials and Methods: Seven patients with suspected disease of the pancreatobiliary system had undergone CT with high-quality CTA protocol in the present study. There were 5 men and 2 women, ranging in age from 52 to 80 years (mean: 64 years). Results: Depiction of abdominal small artery, small portal vein was possible in all cases. In two cases that we were able to compare, it was superior to standard CTA in small vascular depiction in CTA made clearly in high quality protocol. Conclusions: Although the use of small focal spot, low tube voltage, and IMR can produce higher-quality images of abdominal vessels than standard CTA, this improvement is not significant at elevated radiation doses.
High-Resolution Micro-Siting Technique for Large Scale Wind Farm Outside of Japan Using LES Turbulence Model  [PDF]
Takanori Uchida
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2017.912050
Abstract: The spatial distribution of wind speed varies greatly over steep complex terrain, thus the selection of an optimal site in such terrain for wind turbine construction requires great care. We have developed a numerical model for simulating unsteady flows called RIAM-COMPACT (Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, COM putational Prediction of Airflow over Complex Terrain), which is based on the LES (Large-Eddy Simulation) technique. The computational domain of RIAM-COMPACT can be varied from several meters to several kilometers, and the model is able to predict airflow over complex terrain with high accuracy. The present paper discusses the application of RIAM-COMPACT to the micro-siting of wind turbines at sites outside Japan. The results from two case studies will be presented.
High-Resolution LES of Terrain-Induced Turbulence around Wind Turbine Generators by Using Turbulent Inflow Boundary Conditions  [PDF]
Takanori Uchida
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics (OJFD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojfd.2017.74035
Abstract:
We have developed an LES (Large-Eddy Simulation) code called RIAM-COMPACT (Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Computational Prediction of Airflow over Complex Terrain). The analysis do-main of this numerical model extends from several meters to several kilometers. The model is able to predict airflow over complex terrain with high accuracy and is also now able to estimate the annual power output of wind turbine generators with the use of field observation data. In the present study, a numerical simulation of turbulent airflow over an existing wind farm was performed using RIAM-COMPACT and high-resolution elevation data. Based on the simulation results, suitable and unsuitable locations for the operation of WTGs (Wind Turbine Generators) were identified. The latter location was subject to the influence of turbulence induced by small topographical variations just upwind of the WTG location.
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