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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1061 matches for " Toru "
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Re-expansion pulmonary edema in a boy with spontaneous pneumothorax during an influenza B virus infection  [PDF]
Toru Watanabe
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2012.24042
Abstract: Re-expansion Pulmonary Edema (RPE) is an uncommon complication following rapid re-expansion of the lungs, and the most common disorder associated with RPE is spontaneous pneumothorax. The majority of patients with RPE associated with pneumothorax have been adults; only 4 cases have been reported in children. We present a patient who developed RPE after treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax that occurred during an influenza B virus infection. His condition improved only with oxygen supplementation and intravenous corticosteroids. Infection with influenza B virus leads to increased production of lung epithelial oxidants, which might have contributed to the development of RPE in our patient.
Treatment Strategy for Recurrent Multiple Hepatocellular Carcinoma  [PDF]
Toru Ishikawa
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.42A049

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has some unique characteristics in the digestive organ cancer. Therefore it is very important to select an appropriate treatment for recurrent HCC according to several situations such as the type of recurrence, previous treatments and conditions of patient. This article is a review of the concept of recurrent multiple HCC and its therapeutic strategies.

Study on Contra-Rotating Small-Sized Axial Flow Hydro Turbine  [PDF]
Ryosuke Sonohata, Junichiro Fukutomi, Toru Toru Shigemitsu
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics (OJFD) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojfd.2012.24A039

It is thought that small hydropower generation is alternative energy, and the energy potential of small hydropower is large. The efficiency of small hydro turbines is lower than that of large one, and these small hydro turbine’s common problems are out of operation by foreign materials. Then, there are demands for small hydro turbines to keep high per- formance and wide flow passage. Therefore, we adopted contra-rotating rotors which can be expected to achieve high performance and low-solidity rotors with wide flow passage in order to accomplish high performance and stable opera- tion. Final goal on this study is development of an electric appliance type small hydro turbine which has high portability and makes an effective use of the unused small hydro power energy source. In the present paper, the performance and the internal flow conditions in detail of contra-rotating small-sized axial flow hydro turbine are shown as a first step of the research with the numerical flow analysis. Then, a capability adopting contra-rotating rotors to an electric appliance type small hydro turbine was discussed. Furthermore, the high performance design for it was considered by the numeri- cal analysis results.

A Theoretical Study on Van Der Pauw Measurement Values of Inhomogeneous Compound Semiconductor Thin Films  [PDF]
Toru Matsumura, Yuichi Sato
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2010.15048
Abstract: The influence of intermixing heterogeneous regions that have different electrical properties from the base materials on van der Pauw measurement values was theoretically studied by computer simulation using the finite-element method. The measurement samples selected were thin films of inhomogeneous semiconductors. Calculated electrical properties, such as resistivity, carrier density, and mobility of the thin films, varied in predictable ways when heterogeneous regions were dispersed in wide ranges over the samples. On the other hand, the mobility of the thin films showed a different change when heterogeneous regions were locally concentrated in the measurement samples.
Comparison of Hemodynamic Responses Associated with Tracheal Intubation Under Various Induction Doses of Remifentanil and Propofol  [PDF]
Toru Goyagi, Masashi Yoshimoto
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2012.24035
Abstract: .Background: The optimal dose of propofol and remifentanil induction to minimize the cardiovascular response associated with tracheal intubation may exist. We investigated the cardiovascular response associated with tracheal intubation when various continuous induction doses of remifentanil in combination with propofol were used. Methods: Seventy- five patients were randomly allocated into 1 of 3 groups: the R-0.4 P-1 group (remifentanil 0.4 μg/kg/min and propofol 1 mg/kg); the R-0.5 P-1 group (remifentanil 0.5 μg/kg/min and propofol 1 mg/kg); and the R-0.4 P-2 group (remifentanil 0.4 μg/kg/min and propofol 2 mg/kg). One minute after remifentanil infusion commenced, a bolus of propofol was injected. Rocuronium 1 mg/kg was administered 1 min after propofol injection following loss of consciousness. Controlled ventilation was then performed for 2 min, and the trachea was intubated 4 min after the start of the remifentanil infusion. The infusion rate of remifentanil was decreased to 0.1 μg/kg/min after intubation. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured during this period until 5 min after tracheal intubation. Results: The changes in BP response due to tracheal intubation in the R-0.4 P-1 group were greater than those in the other 2 groups, whereas the HR responses to tracheal intubation were similar among the 3 groups. Conclusion: The combination of remifentanil 0.4 μg/kg/min and propofol 1 mg/kg led to an exaggerated cardiovascular response to tracheal intubation compared with the other combination groups.
Assessment of Land Use Land Cover Change Drivers and Its Impacts on above Ground Biomass and Regenerations of Woody Plants: A Case Study at Dire Dawa Administration, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Amisalu Milkias, Tessema Toru
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2018.81008
Abstract: Understanding land use land cover (LULC) change drivers at local scale is vital for development of management strategies to tackle further decline of natural resources. In connection to this, a study was conducted in Dire Dawa administration, Ethiopia to investigate the drivers for change in land use land cover and its impact on above ground biomass and regenerations of woody plants. A total of 160 respondents were selected randomly to collect data on drivers of LULC change. A multistage stratified cluster sampling was used for above ground biomass assessment. Nine sample plots of 10 m × 10 m size in each cluster and a total of 36 sample plots in all clusters were randomly established. In all sample plots, woody plants having >5 cm diameter were measured for their diameter at breast height (DBH), and biomass estimated using allometric equation. The study revealed that, cutting of woody plants for fuel wood and making charcoal, population growth, expansion of cultivated land, drought, settlement areas and livestock ranching are the major six important drivers of LULC change. The study also revealed that, the mean above ground biomass of woody plants in Dire Dawa Administration was 4.94 ton/ha, with maximum and minimum above ground biomass of 6.27 ton/ha and 3.90 ton/ha, respectively. The number of regenerants of tree species was low and only 36% of the plots had tree regenerants. Thus, proper woodland management strategies implementation, land use planning, afforestation and reforestation activities are recommended to minimize unprecedented LULC change in the study area.
Role of HER2-Targeted Agents in Adjuvant Treatment for Breast Cancer
Toru Mukohara
Chemotherapy Research and Practice , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/730360
Abstract: Approximately 20% of breast cancers overexpress human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) protein, mainly as a result of gene amplification. The receptor tyrosine kinase is believed to play a critical role in the pathogenesis and further proliferation of these tumors. The application of trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the extracellular domain of HER2 protein, to HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer has significantly improved treatment outcomes. Following this success, several phase III trials have evaluated the role of trastuzumab in the adjuvant setting, with the result that trastuzumab use is now the standard of care for most HER2-positive early breast cancer patients. In this paper, we review these pivotal phase III trials. We also discuss unresolved issues in adjuvant treatment with trastuzumab, including target patient population, sequential or concurrent use with chemotherapy or radiation, treatment duration, cardiotoxicity, and the possibility of eliminating chemotherapy. Following confirmation of its ability to partially overcome trastuzumab resistance, we also discuss the role of lapatinib in adjuvant use.
Symmetries of Spatial Graphs and Rational Twists along Spheres and Tori
Toru Ikeda
Symmetry , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/sym4010026
Abstract: A symmetry group of a spatial graph Γ in S3 is a finite group consisting of orientation-preserving self-diffeomorphisms of S3 which leave Γ setwise invariant. In this paper, we show that in many cases symmetry groups of Γ which agree on a regular neighborhood of Γ are equivalent up to conjugate by rational twists along incompressible spheres and tori in the exterior of Γ.
Early administration of branched-chain amino acid granules
Toru Ishikawa
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2012, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i33.4486
Abstract: The effect of malnutrition on survival in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis has not been well defined. Nutritional intervention with branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) can increase serum albumin concentration in patients with decompensated cirrhosis but its effects on survival are unclear. The BCAA to tyrosine ratio (BTR) is a surrogate marker (the normal range of BTR is between 4.41 and 10.05, and a Fischer’s ratio of 1.8 corresponds to a BTR of 3.5) in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis, and BCAA inhibits hepatic carcinogenesis in patients with compensated cirrhosis. This review discusses data regarding the effect of early administration of BCAA granules based on the ratio of BCAA to BTR on prognosis in patients with cirrhosis.
Branched-chain amino acids to tyrosine ratio value as a potential prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma
Toru Ishikawa
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2012, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i17.2005
Abstract: The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) depends on tumor extension as well as hepatic function. Hepatic functional reserve is recognized as a factor affecting survival in the treatment of HCC; the Child-Pugh classification system is the most extensively used method for assessing hepatic functional reserve in patients with chronic liver disease, using serum albumin level to achieve accurate assessment of the status of protein metabolism. However, insufficient attention has been given to the status of amino acid (AA) metabolism in chronic liver disease and HCC. Fischer’s ratio is the molar ratio of branched-chain AAs (BCAAs: leucine, valine, isoleucine) to aromatic AAs (phenylalanine, tyrosine) and is important for assessing liver metabolism, hepatic functional reserve and the severity of liver dysfunction. Although this ratio is difficult to determine in clinical situations, BCAAs/tyrosine molar concentration ratio (BTR) has been proposed as a simpler substitute. BTR correlates with various liver function examinations, including markers of hepatic fibrosis, hepatic blood flow and hepatocyte function, and can thus be considered as reflecting the degree of hepatic impairment. This manuscript examines the literature to clarify whether BTR can serve as a prognostic factor for treatment of HCC.
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