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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1685 matches for " Toru Arai "
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Markerless Respiratory Motion Tracking Using Single Depth Camera  [PDF]
Shinobu Kumagai, Ryohei Uemura, Toru Ishibashi, Susumu Nakabayashi, Norikazu Arai, Takenori Kobayashi, Jun’ichi Kotoku
Open Journal of Medical Imaging (OJMI) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojmi.2016.61003
Abstract: The aim of this study is to propose a novel system that has an ability to detect intra-fractional motion during radiotherapy treatment in real-time using three-dimensional surface taken by a depth camera, Microsoft Kinect v1. Our approach introduces three new aspects for three-dimensional surface tracking in radiotherapy treatment. The first aspect is a new algorithm for noise reduction of depth values. Ueda’s algorithm was implemented and enabling a fast least square regression of depth values. The second aspect is an application for detection of patient’s motion at multiple points in thracoabdominal regions. The third aspect is an estimation of three-dimensional surface from multiple depth values. For evaluation of noise reduction by Ueda’s algorithm, two respiratory patterns are measured by the Kinect as well as a laser range meter. The resulting cross correlation coefficients between the laser range meter and the Kinect were 0.982 for abdominal respiration and 0.995 for breath holding. Moreover, the mean cross correlation coefficients between the signals of our system and the signals of Anzai with respect to participant’s respiratory motion were 0.90 for thoracic respiration and 0.93 for abdominal respiration, respectively. These results proved that the performance of the developed system was comparable to existing motion monitoring devices. Reconstruction of three-dimensional surface also enabled us to detect the irregular motion and breathing arrest by comparing the averaged depth with predefined threshold values.
Improved Experimental Procedures for Achieving Efficient Germ Line Transmission of Nonobese Diabetic (NOD)-Derived Embryonic Stem Cells
Satoko Arai,Christina Minjares,Seiho Nagafuchi,Toru Miyazaki
Experimental Diabetes Research , 2004, DOI: 10.1080/15438600490486877
Abstract: The manipulation of a specific gene in NOD mice, the best animal model for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), must allow for the precise characterization of the functional involvement of its encoded molecule in the pathogenesis of the disease. Although this has been attempted by the cross-breeding of NOD mice with many gene knockout mice originally created on the 129 or C57BL/6 strain background, the interpretation of the resulting phenotype(s) has often been confusing due to the possibility of a known or unknown disease susceptibility locus (e.g., Idd locus) cosegregating with the targeted gene from the diabetes-resistant strain. Therefore, it is important to generate mutant mice on a pure NOD background by using NOD-derived embryonic stem (ES) cells. By using the NOD ES cell line established by Nagafuchi and colleagues in 1999 (FEBSLett., 455, 101–104), the authors reexamined various conditions in the context of cell culture, DNA transfection, and blastocyst injection, and achieved a markedly improved transmission efficiency of these NOD ES cells into the mouse germ line. These modifications will enable gene targeting on a “pure” NOD background with high efficiency, and contribute to clarifying the physiological roles of a variety of genes in the disease course of IDDM.
Efficacy of computed image modification of capsule endoscopy in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding
Tomoaki Matsumura,Makoto Arai,Toru Sato,Tomoo Nakagawa
World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy , 2012, DOI: 10.4253/wjge.v4.i9.421
Abstract: AIM: To investigate whether flexible spectral color enhancement (FICE) improves diagnostic yields of capsule endoscopy (CE) for obscure gastro-intestinal bleeding (OGIB). METHODS: The study subjects consisted of 81 patients. Using FICE, there were three different sets with different wavelengths. Using randomly selected sets of FICE, images of CE were evaluated again by two individuals who were not shown the conventional CE reports and findings. The difference between FICE and conventional imaging was examined. RESULTS: The overall diagnostic yields in FICE sets 1, 2, 3 and conventional imaging (48.1%) were 51.9%, 40.7%, 51.9% and 48.1%, respectively, which showed no statistical difference compared to conventional imaging. The total numbers of detected lesions per examination in FICE imaging and conventional imaging were 2.5 ± 2.1 and 1.8 ± 1.7, respectively, which showed a significant difference (P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: The diagnostic yield for OGIB is not improved by FICE. However, FICE can detect significantly more small bowel lesions compared to conventional imaging.
Stabilization and Augmentation of Circulating AIM in Mice by Synthesized IgM-Fc
Toshihiro Kai, Tomoko Yamazaki, Satoko Arai, Toru Miyazaki
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097037
Abstract: Owing to rapid and drastic changes in lifestyle and eating habits in modern society, obesity and obesity-associated diseases are among the most important public health problems. Hence, the development of therapeutic approaches to regulate obesity is strongly desired. In view of previous work showing that apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) blocks lipid storage in adipocytes, thereby preventing obesity caused by a high-fat diet, we here explored a strategy to augment circulating AIM levels. We synthesized the Fc portion of the soluble human immunoglobulin (Ig)M heavy chain and found that it formed a pentamer containing IgJ as natural IgM does, and effectively associated with AIM in vitro. When we injected the synthesized Fc intravenously into mice lacking circulating IgM, it associated with endogenous mouse AIM, protecting AIM from renal excretion and preserving the circulating AIM levels. As the synthesized Fc lacked the antigen-recognizing variable region, it provoked no undesired immune response. In addition, a challenge with the Fc-human AIM complex in wild-type mice, which exhibited normal levels of circulating IgM and AIM, successfully maintained the levels of the human AIM in mouse blood. We also observed that the human AIM was effectively incorporated into adipocytes in visceral fat tissue, suggesting its functionality against obesity. Thus, our findings reveal potent strategies to safely increase AIM levels, which could form the basis for developing novel therapies for obesity.
Synthesis and Molecular Structure of Chiral (2S, 5S)-tert-Butyl 3-Oxo-2-oxa-5-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-5-carboxylate
Tetsuji Moriguchi,Suvratha Krishnamurthy,Toru Arai,Akihiko Tsuge
Journal of Crystallography , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/150796
Abstract: The title compound (2S, 5S)-tert-butyl 3-oxo-2-oxa-5-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-5-carboxylate was synthesized as a chiral cyclic amino acid ester from the corresponding cis- and trans-5-hydroxypipecolic acid ethyl esters via an intramolecular lactonization reaction without using chiral catalyst or enzyme and without separation by chiral column chromatography. The chiral compound was characterized using 1H NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Its exact structure was then determined via single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of a single crystal obtained after recrystallization of the compound from ethyl acetate/diethyl ether. The crystal was found to be of the orthorhombic space group P212121 (No. 19, noncentrosymmetric, chiral) with ??, ??, ??, 4?g/cm3, and a Flack parameter of 0.0(5) at 90?K. The compound has a bicyclo[2.2.2]octane structure comprised of lactone and piperidine groups. 1. Introduction Hydroxypipecolic acid (5-hydroxy-2-piperidinecarboxylic acid) is a six-membered homologue of 4-hydroxyproline found in some natural plants, such as date and acacia trees, whereas 4-hydroxyproline is found in animals (collagen) [1, 2]. Several hydroxypipecolic acid derivatives have been synthesized via intramolecular reactions of precursors functionalized with epoxide groups [3–5]. However, a diastereomeric mixture of cis- and trans-5-hydroxymethylpipecolic acids has generally been obtained, and in some cases, the formation of undesired 5-hydroxymethylprolines has also been noted [4–6]. Because the intramolecular reaction of epoxide precursors suffers from the formation of stereo- and regioisomers, a straightforward method for the preparation, isolation, and characterization of the pure single enantiomers of hydroxypipecolic acid and derivatives of this rare amino acid is required. Previously, we synthesized a 4-hydroxyproline derivative from an amino acid bearing an epoxide [7]. During this study, we observed that the cis isomer underwent intramolecular lactonization. In addition, we reported the crystal structure of “racemic” tert-butyl 3-oxo-2-oxa-5-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-5-carboxylate prepared using an alternative synthetic pathway [8]. Based on these previous results, it was expected that cis-5-hydroxypipecolic acids would also undergo intramolecular lactonization, while the corresponding trans isomers would not. Indeed, when a mixture of a cis- and trans-5-hydroxypipecolic acid derivative was reacted under acidic conditions, the cis isomer was successfully converted to the lactone (2S, 5S)-tert-butyl
Synthesis and Molecular Structure of tert-Butyl 3-oxo-2-oxa-5-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-5-carboxylate
Tetsuji Moriguchi,Suvratha Krishnamurthy,Toru Arai,Taisuke Matsumoto,Koji Araki,Akihiko Tsuge,Norikazu Nishino
Journal of Crystallography , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/645079
Abstract: The compound tert-butyl 3-oxo-2-oxa-5-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-5-carboxylate was synthesized as a cyclic amino acid ester from the corresponding ethyl 2-amino-4-(2-oxiranyl)butanoate HCl salt via an intramolecular lactonization reaction and was characterized by using 1H NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The product was then recrystallized from dichloromethane/diethyl ether and its structure was determined via single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystal was found to be of the monoclinic space group P21/c (no. 14) with ??, ??, ??, β = 114.186(13)°, and = 1.350?g/cm3 at 123?K. The compound has bicyclo[2.2.2]octane structure including a lactone moiety and a piperidine ring, and the two diastereomers of the molecules are present in a 1?:?1 ratio in the crystal. 1. Introduction The compound hydroxypipecolic acid (5-hydroxy-2-piperidinecarboxylic acid) is a six-membered homologue of 4-hydroxyproline. Hydroxypipecolic acid is found in some natural plants such as date and acacia trees, whereas 4-hydroxyproline is found in animals (collagen) [1, 2]. Several hydroxypipecolic acid derivatives have been synthesized via the intramolecular reactions of precursors functionalized with epoxide groups [3–5]. Generally, a diastereomeric mixture of cis- and trans-5-hydroxymethylpipecolic acids has been obtained. The formation of 5-hydroxymethylprolines along with the desired 5-hydroxypipecolic acids has also been noted [4–6]. The intramolecular reaction from epoxide precursor suffers the formation of both stereoisomers (cis and trans) and regioisomers (pipecolic acid and proline). The synthetic reports so far seem to be confused because of the formation of many products. The straightforward method to isolate this rare amino acid, hydroxypipecolic acid, is still desired with a clear compound characterization. Previously, we synthesized a 4-hydroxyproline derivative from an amino acid bearing epoxide [7]. During this study, we observed that the cis isomer underwent intramolecular lactonization. Then, the product lactone, tert-butyl 3-oxo-2-oxa-5-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-5-carboxylate, was isolated from the trans ester with ease. It was expected that cis-5-hydroxypipecolic acids would also undergo intramolecular lactonization, whereas the trans isomers would not. Indeed, when a mixture of cis- and trans-5-hydroxypipecolic acids derivatives reacted under acidic conditions, the cis isomer was successfully converted to the lactone, tert-butyl 3-oxo-2-oxa-5-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-5-carboxylate, which was readily separated from the remaining
Re-expansion pulmonary edema in a boy with spontaneous pneumothorax during an influenza B virus infection  [PDF]
Toru Watanabe
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2012.24042
Abstract: Re-expansion Pulmonary Edema (RPE) is an uncommon complication following rapid re-expansion of the lungs, and the most common disorder associated with RPE is spontaneous pneumothorax. The majority of patients with RPE associated with pneumothorax have been adults; only 4 cases have been reported in children. We present a patient who developed RPE after treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax that occurred during an influenza B virus infection. His condition improved only with oxygen supplementation and intravenous corticosteroids. Infection with influenza B virus leads to increased production of lung epithelial oxidants, which might have contributed to the development of RPE in our patient.
Treatment Strategy for Recurrent Multiple Hepatocellular Carcinoma  [PDF]
Toru Ishikawa
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.42A049
Abstract:

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has some unique characteristics in the digestive organ cancer. Therefore it is very important to select an appropriate treatment for recurrent HCC according to several situations such as the type of recurrence, previous treatments and conditions of patient. This article is a review of the concept of recurrent multiple HCC and its therapeutic strategies.

The Influence of Acupressure at Extra 1 Acupuncture Point on the Spectral Entropy of the EEG and the LF/HF Ratio of Heart Rate Variability
Young-Chang P. Arai,Takahiro Ushida,Takako Matsubara,Kazuhiro Shimo,Hiroshi Ito,Yuko Sato,Yoshiko Wakao,Toru Komatsu
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nen061
Abstract: Acupressure applied on the Extra 1 acupuncture point results in sedation, thereby reducing bispectral index (BIS) values. Mental status and hypnotic agents influence the autonomic nervous system. We hypothesized that acupressure at the Extra 1 point would induce sedation and change sympatho-parasympathetic nerve balance. We investigated the effect of acupressure at the Extra 1 point on the EEG spectral entropy values and heart rate variability (HRV). Forty-eight volunteers (24 males and 24 females) were randomly assigned to the control or Extra 1 group. The control group received acupressure at a sham point and the Extra 1 group received acupressure at the Extra 1 point. Acupressure was applied for 5 min. The record of the EEG spectral entropy values and HRV started 5 min before acupressure and stopped 5 min after acupressure. Acupressure significantly reduced the EEG spectral entropy values in both groups, but the values of the Extra 1 group were significantly smaller than those of the control group (P < .01). Acupressure significantly decreased the LF/HF ratio of HRV in both groups (P < .05). When divided upon gender, although acupressure tended to decrease the LF/HF ratio, the ratio significantly decreased during and after acupressure only in females of the Extra 1 group (P < .05). We concluded that acupressure on the Extra 1 point significantly reduced the EEG spectral entropy in both the genders, but affected the LF/HF ratio of HRV only in females.
A Questionnaire Analysis of the Asch Experiment without Using Confederates  [PDF]
Miho Arai, Kazuo Mori
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.411127
Abstract:

Without using confederates, Mori and Arai (2010) replicated the Asch results with 40 male and 64 female Japanese undergraduates in same-sex groups of four. One from each foursome wore a different type of polarizing sunglasses so that he/she observed the standard lines differently form the other three participants, who played the same role as the majority in the Asch experiments. As expected, the minority participants tended to conform to the majority. There was a gender difference: the female minority participants conformed, but the males did not. The present study reported the qualitative findings from analysis of the responses on a questionnaire administered in the Mori and Arai experiments. It revealed that female participants who conformed more than the males were less confident and felt more isolated and anxious than the males.

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