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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2849 matches for " Tony Elliott "
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Impaired multiple object tracking in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome
Margarita H Cabaral, Elliott A Beaton, Joel Stoddard, Tony J Simon
Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1866-1955-4-6
Abstract: We used a multiple object tracking task to assay capacity and resolution performance of children with 22q11.2DS aged 7 to 14 years versus age-matched typically developing (TD) peers.Children with 22q11.2DS but not TD children demonstrated impaired performance when task demands increased due to an increase in the number of targets presented, but not from an increase in object speed. Task performance in children with 22q11.2DS was also unrelated to intelligence or measures of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.These findings suggest that children with 22q11.2DS may be particularly susceptible to dynamic crowding of objects with increasing cognitive demands related to monitoring multiple targets reflecting a reduced acuity in spatiotemporal cognitive representation.Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), also known as DiGeorge [1], velocardiofacial VCFS; [2] and conotruncal anomaly face [3] syndromes among other labels, results from a hemi-zygotic interstitial deletion between 1.5 and 3 Mb on the q11 band of chromosome 22. It is the most common survivable chromosomal micro-deletion with a prevalence of approximately 1:4,000 live births [4-6]. Syndrome presentation is highly variable, but physical dysmorphisms [7], socioemotional difficulties [8] and cognitive impairments in both the verbal and non-verbal domains [9,10] are characteristic of this population.Cognitive deficits commonly reported with 22q11.2DS include difficulties with numerical thinking [11,12] that may arise from decreased representational resolution for both space and time [13-15], which Simon [15] labels 'spatiotemporal hypergranularity' (see also [16]). As a result, children with 22q11.2DS may have greater difficulty attending to multiple objects moving and interacting dynamically in visual space. Reduced acuity in spatiotemporal representation increases apparent crowding between interacting objects, thereby reducing accessibility to individual items [17]. Successful interaction with
Flaws, Fallacies and Facts: Reviewing the Early History of the Lipid and Diet/Heart Hypotheses  [PDF]
J. Elliott
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.519201
Abstract: The lipid hypothesis of coronary heart disease proposes that a high total cholesterol level has a causative role in coronary heart disease (CHD), specifically in the development of atherosclerosis. It forms the basis for formulating target levels of serum cholesterol and hence the widespread use of statins for lowering cholesterol. An extension of the lipid hypothesis is the diet/heart hypothesis of coronary heart disease. This theory combines two ideas—that saturated fat raises cholesterol levels, and that a reduced saturated fat intake will lower cholesterol levels, thereby inhibiting the development of atherosclerosis and manifestations of CHD. Those who make diet recommendations or prescribe medication to reduce cholesterol may be unaware of the underpinning science. The original research behind these recommendations has given us “healthy heart” guidelines and preventive measures we assume to be true. While the lipid and diet/heart hypotheses are often presented as fact, they remain inadequately proven theories that have little agreement from experts. Historical perspectives can help us understand the basis of current-day beliefs. In the lipid hypothesis case, research from the 1950s and 60s was instrumental in its formation. This early work should not be considered irrelevant, outdated or obsolete because current recommendations from national heart associations in many countries continue to be shaped by these studies. This paper examines evidence used to formulate the lipid hypothesis and, subsequently, the diet/ heart hypothesis. By critically evaluating steps in the formation of the theory, inconsistencies, mistakes and alternate explanations become apparent and cast doubt on its validity.
Family Background and Environment, Psychological Distress, and Juvenile Delinquency  [PDF]
Tony Cassidy
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.29142
Abstract: The relationship between youth offending and family background is still unclear in the literature. This study explored the role of family factors and psychological distress in relation to delinquency and youth offending to try and explicate the relative importance of family structure, family relations, and psychological distress. The study used the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Family Environment Scale, and the Delinquency Scale in a structured interview format to measure psychological distress, family structure and relations, and levels of youth offending, in 219 older children and adolescents aged between 12-17 years living in areas associated with high levels of youth offending in the UK. Analysis involved correlations, hierarchical multiple regression and analysis of variance. Family relations were the best predictors of delinquency and were also correlated with psychological distress. The relationship between delinquency and psychological distress indicated that participants with more psychological distress were less likely to be involved in criminal behaviour. The study supports the conclusion that youth offending and psychological distress are both influenced by a range of factors in the family, but may be unrelated to each other.
Digital Renaissance: The Creative Potential of Narrative Technology in Education  [PDF]
Tony Hall
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.31016
Abstract: This paper outlines research which explores the potential of narrative technology: the synergy of storytelling and computing to enhance creativity and creative education. The paper outlines the theoretical basis of the research: n?ogenic narrative, which is informed by contemporary debates and themes in the educational sciences. These include narrativity and storytelling in education; and positive and humanistic psychology. Furthermore, from an empirical/practical perspective, a number of examples of narrative technology are presented and discussed. These exemplify the principal ways in which narrative technology has been deployed in the research-enhanced teaching outlined in this paper: as both a pedagogical, and as a reflective methodology. The paper concludes with insights regarding the deployment of narrative technology to enhance creativity and creative education; and how the synergy of storytelling and computing is potentially affording new possibilities for a digital renaissance in education and educational technology.
The Spirit of Motivational Interviewing as an Apparatus of Governmentality. An Analysis of Reading Materials Used in the Training of Substance Abuse Clinicians  [PDF]
Tony Carton
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2014.42019
Abstract:

Substance abuse clinicians working at the coal face with clients daily are confronted with client problems that are robust and tangible. The understanding of these problems is granted epistemological and ontological legitimacy by the psy-sciences. As a result, practice in the substance abuse treatment and addiction fields are rarely subject to the scrutiny provided by post-structural analysis. Moreover, the disciplines of addiction treatment and sociology rarely collaborate in any meaningful way for numerous reasons. For the AoD clinician caught betwixt and between biological psychological and sociological discourses, there has been a tendency to opt for the perceived problem solving capabilities of psychological discourses. However, in a post-aetiological hemisphere, attention is increasingly fixated on the fiscal imperative. Clinician/Client relationships have been reconfigured in neo-liberal society. In this study, materials used to train undergraduate students Motivational Interviewing skills in an Alcohol and Drug degree programme were subject to a textual analysis deploying the Foucaultian concept of governmentality. The familiar aetiological descriptor model used in the field was transposed into the Foucaultian term discourse. One article subject to analysis is presented here. The intention was to interrogate the effects of Motivational Interviewing on client and clinician and the resultant repositioning. It was found that Motivational Interviewing technologies reposition the client as an active self-governing autonomous subject while the clinician is professionally and spiritually imprecated in the manufacture of a neo liberal subjectivity within the client. It is

Counselling: The Current Opium of the People?  [PDF]
Tony Carton
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2015.52011
Abstract: Western religion’s propensity to stultify holiness and the sacred is eclipsed in the profession of counselling. With its fundamentalist enthralment with the individual self, this poster-girl of liberalism, through its central modusoperandi, language has achieved a privileged rhetoric thereby relegating itself to the dustbin of history certainly in Western society. It is less a “sigh of the oppressed soul” (Marx, 1978) as the empowerment of an opportunistic harlotry that energises the profession in a neoliberal marketplace with discourses of social justice routinely cheapened and ideologically hijacked. The author designates a genealogy of this ascendant plummet learnt through retrospective insight. Counsellors have not only unconditionally accepted tablets of stone around truths but also binaries of truths. Interrogating several sacred cows in the profession including the concept of burnout, the should/need dichotomy and the parallel process he apprehends a trajectory chronicling nodal points and concluding that many undertakings within counselling serve increasingly to perpetuate a political-non-political conflation with marketplace morality idealised as liberalism morphs seamlessly into neoliberalism. What descends from a neoliberal paradise are reconfigurations of dichotomies not” of our choosing” (Marx, 1978) but of our own choice. Willingly with the anesthetising of any coherent Judeo-Christian impulses we opt for the sanctity of a vacuous Starbuck spirituality as liberalism or religion in its “degutted” version (Eagleton, 2009: p. 41) enacts the comfort of the afflicted but never the affliction of the comfortable.
Burnout as Alienation in the Counselling Field: The Descent from Homo-Faber to Homo-Economous  [PDF]
Tony Carton
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2016.62002
Abstract: The concepts burnout and alienation are routinely connected in a linear unproblematic trajectory (Tomei et al., 2011) perpetuating more of an ideological conflation than providing any insight into either concept. This is not due to the selection of shoddy analytic categories but to structural determinants of thinking, more systemically interesting than the entities themselves. The author attempts to problematize, politicise and polemicize the insipid commonsense under-standings of these classifications endemic in the counselling/addictions field. An informal discourse analysis was conducted on an aggregate example based on observation over several years in teaching professional practice. He concludes that the reported trajectory from alienation to burnout is more a narrative around changing ideology diffusion than a robust appraisal of social science. Furthermore, the concept of burnout serves to perpetuate, worsen and naturalise the problems it claims to remedy by a facilitation of spiritualising acts of passivity. An appreciation of alienation on the other hand enables awareness of the unnaturalness of current neo-liberal social structures. The author concludes that the quazireligious mantra of burnout invites the reader into a regime of self-care/self-blame contradictions and proves its effectiveness not by applicability but repetition. By continued use of the concept we reify the myth of burnout and grant it credence. The author also describes how clinicians enact their own informal and invisible means of resistance to power in the workplace where solidarity is enacted through humour and humanity.
The War on P (Pure, Methamphetamine) in New Zealand, a Moral-Panic?  [PDF]
Tony Carton
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2016.63008
Abstract: This article illuminates how the transfiguration from the sociological concept of moral-panic to moral-regulation replicates wider socioeconomic conditions. The author urges that the Alcohol and Other Drug (named so in order that alcohol can also be categorised as a drug) clinicians reflect on the structural and reproductive impact of their work. The sociological concept, “moral-panic” has socio-clinical efficacy in the (AOD) treatment field. It has much affinity as history in the field is littered with the phenomenon. The author, a long time Alcohol and Drug clinician, now lecturer in the AOD field, considers the phenomenon in New Zealand around the use what is known locally as P (pure) or methamphetamine. Various texts on a War on P campaign were analysed. It was found that, through various literary devices familiar themes emerged, evoking local folk devils and heroes. This analysis was carried out against a backdrop of creeping neo-liberalism, a new right-wing government committed to market liberalisation, and thereby the increased availability of a more dangerous yet licit drug, known as ethyl alcohol (Saunders, 1989). However, the concept of moral-panic can be deployed as a means to critically analyse the impact of various licit and illicit drugs under the theme of proportionality. Moreover, a sociological understanding of the prevention paradox can create a pathway to understand the role of moral-regulation and its ramifications as outlined by a governmental analysis. An appreciation of Moral-panic theory and Moral-regulation is crucial in the AoD field, as alternatives to dominant medical and psychological individualising discourses, in order to empower clinician and client alike and to politicise a discipline that traditionally eschews politicisation. The author argues that reflecting on the trajectory from moral-panic to moral-regulation creates insights into the dismantling western social state. From an ethical standpoint, it is important that clinicians become aware of the politically reproductive nature of their profession and how they are required to codify themselves and clients into ideological positions.
A Welcome Antidote to the Evangelism of Compulsory Optimism and Resilience  [PDF]
Tony Carton
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2017.72005
Abstract: This article problematizes the current western hubris around resilience and compulsory positivity that has ideologically insinuated itself into the addiction counselling treatment field. It argues that these discourses emanate less from clinical propositions but represent a virulent enactment of a neo-liberal agenda wherein language is implicated in the recreation of new subjectivities conducive to a declining social state. We also apprehend the ideological effect of verbal softeners, euphemisms and fabricated binaries and inversions routinely utilized by addiction clinicians enrolled as ground troops in this project. We also anticipate some likely challenges to this. The objective of this article is to reinstall the veracity of vulnerability and deficit appreciation, thus problematizing a prevailing Pollyanna version of resilience. It reviews the ineluctable alienating trajectory of lexicons used in the field over a few decades in various interventions, including Twelve Step Therapy, Client Centred Practice, Cognitive Behavioural Practice and Motivational Interviewing in order to show how clinicians now reproduce neo-liberal subjectivity through a language that constitutes subjectivity amenable to a declining social state. We apprehend grammatical structures that stigmatise sickness to reproduce hegemony of compulsory wellness.

When self-esteem, or others’ adulation,
Would cunningly persuade us we are something,
Above the common level of our kind,
The grave gainsays the smooth complexioned-flattery,
And with blunt truth acquaints us with what we are—The Grave by Robert Blair (Clymer, 1995)

Of the argument with others we make rhetoric,
Of the argument with ourselves we make poetry—W. B. Yeats (Bloom, 1970)
From Second Chance Learners and Second-Class Citizens to Competent Addiction Practitioners  [PDF]
Tony Carton
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2018.82012
Abstract: The idea that clinicians who are in recovery from addiction or substance abuse working as addiction practitioners seems deeply counter-intuitive. Compounding this is the problem that many have incurred criminal records, so the idea seems, at best nonsensical. Yet the cold hard essentialisms of professionalization and medicine gives way at times to the sophistry and serendipity of empiricism. These former sufferers know what they are talking about. The result is that there is an extremely high success rate in securing employment at practitioner, supervisor and management level as well as popularity with clients, due to them having a high affinity with lay experiences. This is an exploratory sociological article intended to raise some issues that present with the employment and training of recovering people as addiction practitioners. The tentative conclusions are that counsellors in recovery have a sophisticated awareness of the idiosyncrasies of the addiction field. However, of much more impact is the issue that they face challenges, related to matters of professionalization, stigma and the associated ongoing gentrification of the addiction field. There is a need for further research and emerging themes given the changing and reconfiguring nature of the health field and the wider neo-liberal political arena. They also possess a resilient and strength based wisdom not located in the over accessible neo-liberal vocabulary around these precepts but have experiences of the encounter with the Gethsemane understanding of deficit and purgatory; thereby the right to take back the stolen neo-liberal appropriation of resilience. They also importantly have access to alternative proven yet marginalised discourses that have stood the test of time.
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