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Estimation of Population Variance Using the Coefficient of Kurtosis and Median of an Auxiliary Variable under Simple Random Sampling  [PDF]
Tonui Kiplangat Milton, Romanus Otieno Odhiambo, George Otieno Orwa
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2017.76066

In this study we have proposed a modified ratio type estimator for population variance of the study variable y under simple random sampling without replacement making use of coefficient of kurtosis and median of an auxiliary variable x. The estimator’s properties have been derived up to first order of Taylor’s series expansion. The efficiency conditions derived theoretically under which the proposed estimator performs better than existing estimators. Empirical studies have been done using real populations to demonstrate the performance of the developed estimator in comparison with the existing estimators. The proposed estimator as illustrated by the empirical studies performs better than the existing estimators under some specified conditions i.e. it has the smallest Mean Squared Error and the highest Percentage Relative Efficiency. The developed estimator therefore is suitable to be applied to situations in which the variable of interest has a positive correlation with the auxiliary variable.

Spatio-Temporal Variation of HIV Infection in Kenya  [PDF]
Benard Tonui, Samuel Mwalili, Anthony Wanjoya
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2018.85053
Abstract: Disease mapping is the study of the distribution of disease relative risks or rates in space and time, and normally uses generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) which includes fixed effects and spatial, temporal, and spatio-temporal random effects. Model fitting and statistical inference are commonly accomplished through the empirical Bayes (EB) and fully Bayes (FB) approaches. The EB approach usually relies on the penalized quasi-likelihood (PQL), while the FB approach, which has increasingly become more popular in the recent past, usually uses Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) techniques. However, there are many challenges in conventional use of posterior sampling via McMC for inference. This includes the need to evaluate convergence of posterior samples, which often requires extensive simulation and can be very time consuming. Spatio-temporal models used in disease mapping are often very complex and McMC methods may lead to large Monte Carlo errors if the dimension of the data at hand is large. To address these challenges, a new strategy based on integrated nested Laplace approximations (INLA) has recently been recently developed as a promising alternative to the McMC. This technique is now becoming more popular in disease mapping because of its ability to fit fairly complex space-time models much more quickly than the McMC. In this paper, we show how to fit different spatio-temporal models for disease mapping with INLA using the Leroux CAR prior for the spatial component, and we compare it with McMC using Kenya HIV incidence data during the period 2013-2016.
Short Communication- A two-pronged approach in leishmaniasis drug development in Kenya Medical Research Institute
RM Karaja, WK Tonui
African Journal of Health Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: No African Journal of Health Sciences Vol. 13 (1-2) 2008: pp. 135-138
Training Needs of International Medical Graduates [IMGs] in Psychiatry  [PDF]
Milton Kramer
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2014.44036
Abstract: The potential shortage of psychiatrists over the next 5 - 10 years has focused attention on the need to recruit more IMGs to fill the needs rather than use nurse practitioners or physician assistants. IMGs make up about 1/3 of first year psychiatry residents. These individuals have been found to provide services to the poor, the elderly and the psychotic. The quality of their medical work has been found to be satisfactory. The training needs of these physicians require an understanding on the part of their teachers that they come from cultures with different values that we have. The extended families of these primarily Asian residents clash with our strong commitment to individualism. It leads to a We-self rather than our I-Self. This difference coupled with the stress of leaving to come to a new culture is a great stress. Their exposure to psychiatry has been limited. They request and need more interview demonstration and practice, ore feedback and examinations. They should have help in accent reduction. They should be exposed to the working of the hospital by sitting on departmental and hospital committees. The faculty should extend their social opportunities and work as mentors on joint projects. Courses on the history of American culture should be taught. Psychotherapy for them should be encouraged as well as teaching medical ethics. They must become the major educational concern for the department that they are in.
Livestock Marketing Decisions Among Pastoral Communities: The Influence of Cattle Rustling in Baringo District, Kenya
Kaimba George Kinyua,Guliye Abdi Yakub,Njehia Bernard Kamau,Hillary Kiplangat Bett
International Journal of Agricultural Management and Development , 2011,
Abstract: The study sought to determine whether pastoralists haveresorted to sale of livestock as a form of insurance againstcommercialization of cattle rustling in which well structuredand managed cartels have organised more intense and frequentcattle raids on pastoralist, and how their decisions have affectedtheir herd size. The study was conducted among the pastoralBaringo community of Kenya. A sample size of 110 householdswas selected using multi-stage sampling procedures and interviewedusing a questionnaire. Binary Probit Model and OrdinaryLeast Squares were used in the analysis. Results indicated thatcattle rustling, particularly in its predatory state significantlycontributes to spontaneous sale of livestock even under verylow prices that in themselves could be described as raiding.The results further indicated that the number of livestock lostthrough cattle rustling dominated livestock sale and hencereduced herd size and the numbers of livestock available forsale. The insecurity generated by cattle rustling, coupled withthe poor marketing infrastructure make market inaccessible byboth buyers and sellers, resulting to increased poverty and dependencyamongst the pastoralists. Consequently, pastoralismhas become a source of misery rather than source of livelihood.
On Infrasound Standards, Part 1 Time, Frequency, and Energy Scaling  [PDF]
Milton A. Garces
InfraMatics (InfraMatics) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/inframatics.2013.22002
Abstract: A standardized, self-similar, multiresolution algorithm is developed for scaling infrasonic signal time, frequency, and power within the framework of fractional octave bands. This work extends accepted fractional octave band schemas to 0.001 Hz (1000 s periods) to facilitate the analysis of broadband signals as well as the deep acoustic-gravity and Lamb waves captured by the global infrasound network. The Infrasonic Energy, Nth Octave (INFERNO) multiresolutionEnergy Estimator is applied to computing the total acoustic energy of the Russian meteor signature recorded in the 45mHz-9 Hz frequency band by IMS array 131KZ, Kazakhstan.

Leishmania donovani-derived lipophosphoglycan plus BCG induces a Th1 type immune response but does not protect Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) and BALB/c mice against Leishmania donovani
W.K. Tonui,S.S. Mpoke,S.J. Turco,P.A. Mbati
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/ojvr.v70i4.290
Abstract: The efficacy of Leishmania donovani-derived lipophosphoglycan (LPG) plus Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) as a vaccine candidate against visceral leishmaniosis in susceptible BALB/c mouse and Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) models was investigated. Following a triple vaccination with a total dose of 150 μl BCG plus 60 μg or 30 μg of LPG for hamsters and BALB/c mice respectively, there were no noticeable side effects both locally and systemically; implying that the molecule was safe at this dosage level. Vaccinated animals demonstrated an activation of both the humoral as well as cell-mediated responses to LPG, which correlated with resistance against the disease. Protection by LPG plus BCG, was however, poor as the remaining immunized animals showed disease progression leading to severity of the disease as illustrated by emaciation, mass loss and heavy splenic parasitaemia in hamsters. These data nevertheless suggest that it may be rewarding to further evaluate the potential of LPG as a vaccine candidate in leishmaniosis using other adjuvants, which may enhance its immunogenicity.
Building Capacity for Intercultural Citizenship  [PDF]
Ida Castiglioni, Milton J. Bennett
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.63016
Changing national boundaries, migration and mobility, multinational residence, and the cross-border flow of refugees are challenging traditional views of citizenship. The term “intercultural citizenship” is coined to refer to a definition based more on affiliation with a cultural group than on legal ascription to a nation state. The implications of citizenship based on belonging carry some of the same rights and responsibilities as legal citizenship, but in addition they include 1) conscious identification with chosen groups; 2) acceptance of responsibility for sustaining the commonweal in a variety of ways; 3) development of flexible perceptual boundaries that allow for multiple group identifications; and 4) participation in the group coordination of meaning and action that constitutes the maintenance of a living culture. Three major factors in building capacity for intercultural citizenship are explored: 1) capacity for empathy, which involves overcoming the golden rule and its assumption of similarity to embrace the platinum rule and the assumption of difference; 2) capacity for mutual adaptation, which generates virtual third cultures, or forms of communicative intersectionality; and 3) capacity for intercultural ethicality, which demands that judgments be made among viable alternatives revealed by empathic perspective-taking.
Correction for false statement
Milton Diamond
International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1687-9856-2012-1
Abstract: A false statement has been published in your journal in an article by P. A. Lee and C. P. Houk. (2010) Article ID 563640. "The Role of Support Groups, Advocacy Groups, and Other Interested Parties in Improving the Care of Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Pleas and Warnings [1]."These authors say "Confrontational tactics used by "advocacy" groups have included pressuring the medical community to adopt narrow mandates, such as a moratorium on all reproductive system surgery (six), that cannot apply to the broad range of situations encountered in practice or the use of accusations regarding therapy received by patients in the past."In support of their argument they cite our paper (M. Diamond & H. K. Sigmundson, Management of intersexuality. Guidelines for dealing with persons with ambiguous genitalia. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 1997;151(10):1046-1050 [2]. We have been wrongly quoted and cited.Here is exactly what we say:"Perform no major surgery for cosmetic reasons alone; only for conditions related to physical/medical health. This will entail a great deal of explanation needed for the parents who will want their children to "look normal." Explain to them that appearances during childhood, while not typical of other children, may be of less importance than functionality and post pubertal erotic sensitivity of the genitalia. Surgery can potentially impair sexual/erotic function. Therefore such surgery, which includes all clitoral surgery and any sex reassignment, should typically wait until puberty or after when the patient is able to give truly informed consent." [emphasis added].Our emphasis was on cosmetic surgery and since our statement no evidence has shown any surgery had been of benefit. Many unneeded surgeries have been devastating.Significantly damaging were those surgeries imposed on males that were sex reassigned for different reasons. Often these were instances where the penis was considered too small for appropriate male sta
MMBB arquitectos
ARQ (Santiago) , 2002, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-69962002005100009
Abstract: they emerge from a country whose 20th century architectural project was charged with a certain modernity, marked by the presence of le corbusier, niemeyer and the creation of brasilia. today, the neutral nature of the works of mmbb architects marks a transition, offering silence as a possible route to the new brazil
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