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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 474 matches for " Toni Riittonen "
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The Challenge of Efficient Synthesis of Biofuels from Lignocellulose for Future Renewable Transportation Fuels
P?ivi M?ki-Arvela,Eero Salminen,Toni Riittonen,Pasi Virtanen,Narendra Kumar,Jyri-Pekka Mikkola
International Journal of Chemical Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/674761
Abstract: Dehydration of sugars to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) has recently been under intensive study by a multitude of research groups. On the other hand, when lignocellulosic biomass is applied as the starting material, very few studies can be found in the open literature. The direct synthesis of HMF, in line with the idea of “one-pot” synthesis strategy from lignocellulose, is demanding since the overall process should encompass dissolution, hydrolysis, and dehydration steps in a single processing unit. Ionic liquid-assisted methods to produce hydroxymethyl-furfural directly from lignocellulosic biomass are reported here together with a short overview of the most important biofuels. In reality, HMF is not suitable to be used as a single-component fuel as such, and, consequently, methods to produce HMF derivatives suitable as liquid fuels are reported. 1. Introduction The demand for renewable energy is expected to significantly increase from current levels, partially due to the depletion of fossil fuels and, also, as a result of political decisions aiming at reduced dependency on fossil resources. Among other actors, European Union (EU) has announced an ambitious goal of reaching 20% renewable energy share by 2020 [1]. In fact, the focus on the use of renewable energy is at low carbon-footprint fuels, resulting in reduced emissions of greenhouse gases to countermeasure the ever-increasing global use of fossil fuels affecting our biosphere [2]. Different sources of renewable energy such as utilization of wind and solar power, hydroelectric installations, and geothermal energy are used today. The use of biomass resources, either for direct combustion (including thermal processes such as gasification and pyrolysis) or as a source of raw material for various biological processes (fermentations; enzymatic transformation; anaerobic bacterial biogas production), as well as chemical and catalytic processes exist that aim at liquid or gaseous products. Transport sector stands for approximately one-third of the world’s primary energy-consumption currently amounting to about 500 EJ [3]. Since, for example, electric cars are not ideal for long distance transportation due to the low energy capacity of even the best batteries of today, there is a strong need to develop new liquid transportation fuel mixes. Upon formulation of renewable fuels from biomass, a general central step is to reduce the oxygen content embedded in the molecular structure of any biomass. Various liquid biofuels were already used in the beginning of the era of internal combustion engines (like
One-Pot Liquid-Phase Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to 1-Butanol over Aluminium Oxide—The Effect of the Active Metal on the Selectivity
Toni Riittonen,Esa Toukoniitty,Dipak Kumar Madnani,Anne-Riikka Leino,Krisztian Kordas,Maria Szabo,Andras Sapi,Kalle Arve,Johan W?rn?,Jyri-Pekka Mikkola
Catalysts , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/catal2010068
Abstract: Direct catalytic valorization of bioethanol to 1-butanol over different alumina supported catalysts was studied. Thirteen (13) heterogeneous catalysts were screened in search for the optimal material composition for direct one-pot conversion of ethanol to 1-butanol. For the most promising catalyst, a 25% ethanol conversion with 80% selectivity (among liquid carbon products) to 1-butanol could be reached at 250 °C. Additionally, the reaction kinetics and mechanisms were further investigated upon use of the most suitable catalyst candidate.
Determination of Total Galactose from Dried Blood Spots—Extensive Assay Evaluation of a CE-Marked Test-Kit  [PDF]
Ralph Fingerhut, Toni Torresani
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation (JASMI) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jasmi.2013.33020
Abstract:

Most newborn screening laboratories use CE-marked or FDA-approved test-kits, like in routine clinical chemistry. National regulations require only minimal evaluation from the customer, if the test-kits are used as specified by the manufacturer. The microtiter-based kit-concept is often based on the perception, that the laboratory always processes whole microtiter plates. However, in the daily routine, this is rather a rare exception, which leads to much higher costs per newborn, compared to the costs per assay in the test-kits. In addition the amount of wasted resources is quite high. Performance of the Neonatal Total Galactose kit from Perkin Elmer was tested. We have determined specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), intra and inter assay variation, recovery, stability of measuring signal and reagents. Results were also compared with the Astoria Pacific Spot Check System. In addition, we had (by chance) the opportunity to test 2 kits, which were already expired for more than 3 years. LOD was 165 - 306 μmol/L and LOQ 475 - 703 μmol/L, depending on the definition of LOD/LOQ. Mean recovery was 112.8%, intra assay CVs were 11.3, 7.3, 4.0, and 3.0, and inter assay CVs 28.7, 15.9, 7.8, and 9.3, at 220, 590, 1200, and 2060 μmol/L respectively. Reconstituted and mixed reagents must be used within some hours, and were unstable even if stored at -20℃. However, if the reconstituted galactose substrate reagent and galactose oxidase reagent were only mixed according to the daily requirements, and the rest stored separately at -20℃, they were stable for at least 12 days. The performance of the expired test-kits did not differ from the others. The performance of the Total Galactose kit is comparable to other tests used for newborn screening. However, we could significantly reduce the costs per newborn and reduce unnecessary production of waste, by thorough validation and modification of the assay procedures.

Characterizations of Orlicz-Sobolev Spaces by Means of Generalized Orlicz-Poincaré Inequalities
Toni Heikkinen
Journal of Function Spaces and Applications , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/426067
Abstract: Let Φ be an N-function. We show that a function ∈Φ(?) belongs to the Orlicz-Sobolev space 1,Φ(?) if and only if it satisfies the (generalized) Φ-Poincaré inequality. Under more restrictive assumptions on Φ, an analog of the result holds in a general metric measure space setting.
Decentralization and REDD+ in Brazil
Fabiano Toni
Forests , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/f2010066
Abstract: Recent discussions on REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks) have raised optimism about reducing carbon emissions and deforestation in tropical countries. If approved under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), REDD+ mechanisms may generate a substantial influx of financial resources to developing countries. Some authors argue that this money could reverse the ongoing process of decentralization of forest policies that has spread through a large number of developing countries in the past two decades. Central states will be accountable for REDD+ money, and may be compelled to control and keep a significant share of REDD+ funds. Supporters of decentralization argue that centralized implementation of REDD+ will be ineffective and inefficient. In this paper, I examine the relation between subnational governments and REDD+ in Brazil. Data show that some state governments in the Brazilian Amazon have played a key role in creating protected areas (PAs) after 2003, which helped decrease deforestation rates. Governors have different stimuli for creating PAs. Some respond to the needs of their political constituency; others have expectations to boost the forest sector so as to increase fiscal revenues. Governors also have led the discussion on REDD+ in Brazil since 2008. Considering their interests and political power, REDD+ is unlikely to curb decentralization in Brazil.
The Machinery of Life
Tina Toni
Human Genomics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1479-7364-4-5-369
Abstract: The book is aimed at non-scientific readers and at researchers from different disciplines who are looking for a quick and entertaining, but scientifically sound, introduction to molecular biology. But even experienced researchers across the biological sciences will derive great pleasure from dipping into the book and its charming hand-coloured pictures. The Machinery of Life is all about putting basic biological knowledge into perspective and developing intuition about how biological molecules assemble to build organelles, cells and whole organisms.The book wonderfully develops the understanding of a multi-scale view on the mechanisms of life; it explains how molecules assemble to form cells and how cells work together to build whole multicellular organisms. Without the need to understand thoroughly every single detail of each individual process and molecule, Goodsell teaches us how different molecules act in concert, and makes us appreciate and understand how processes on a molecular level are responsible for getting old, jumping when playing basketball, catching a cold or feeling hungry.The first three chapters of the book cover a quick introduction to basic molecular biology and the biochemistry of molecules such as DNA, lipids and poly-saccharides. We learn how these biological molecules are employed in cells to build new proteins or obtain energy, how they protect the cells and how cells use them to communicate with the environment.The next two chapters describe and contrast the structure and components of Escherichia coli and human cells. Through these model organisms, the reader is able to appreciate the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Viruses are then added to this collection in Chapter 8, which is an engaging introduction to immunology and covers today's pertinent issues, such as HIV and the avian and swine flu viruses. The book explains why vaccines sometimes work and sometimes do not, and why some infections are deadly while others a
Sustaining Innovation
Toni Nadig
Liber Quarterly : The Journal of European Research Libraries , 1999,
Abstract: I’ve been asked by the organisers of this event to speak about the subject of change management. I can imagine that a few of you in the audience have had experience with this bugaboo’ called change. It’s certainly nothing new, in fact it’s become a standard companion in most industry sectors. With a constant metamorphosis in external environments around us there is a real and pressing need to adjust our organisations, their structures and resources to changing conditions. And then to change again. And again.
Dai limiti del luogo alle barriere dello spazio Limited Places vs. Spatial Barriers
Toni Veneri
Between , 2011,
Abstract: Renaissance travel literature does not include the experience of the geometrical border yet: it tells about positioning in zones, transitional areas where everything happens. Thus these textual traces increasingly tend to fashion themselves according provisional negotiations between map indicators and route indicators, between description and narration, leading to a balance or a tension between strategies and tactics. The features of the modern map, its formalization and its newly acquired autonomy, depend on this very polarization, on a binarism emerging between spatial setup and material experience of places. Referring to this crucial historical context, this paper would like to consider some apparently divergent definitions of space and place. In the last decades two main trends, respectively oriented to the theoretical redemption of the notion of space (the spatial turn of cultural studies) and place (the humanistic turn of geographical disciplines), seem nonetheless to convey towards a shared critique of the rigidity and stability of the concept of place when confronted to the polysemic category of space. If the Aristotelian place as a qualitative limit worked as an authoritative foundation unit for the medieval space of localization, during the Renaissance a quantitative space willing to be an “unlimited place” challenges this well established organization. Considering this process, this paper suggests the possibility, in order to suit a distinction rendered influential by Yi-Fu Tuan in geographical studies, to invert the promising philosophical terms employed by Michel de Certeau to describe the radical changes undergone by geographical imagination in these critical centuries. Renaissance travel literature does not include the experience of the geometrical border yet: it tells about positioning in zones, transitional areas where everything happens. Thus these textual traces increasingly tend to fashion themselves according provisional negotiations between map indicators and route indicators, between description and narration, leading to a balance or a tension between strategies and tactics. The features of the modern map, its formalization and its newly acquired autonomy, depend on this very polarization, on a binarism emerging between spatial setup and material experience of places. Referring to this crucial historical context, this paper would like to consider some apparently divergent definitions of space and place. In the last decades two main trends, respectively oriented to the theoretical redemption of the notion of space (the spatial tur
About Iconography and Cartography in Renaissance Travel to Constantinople A proposito dell’iconografia e della cartografia del viaggio rinascimentale a Costantinopoli
Toni Veneri
Between , 2011,
Abstract: During the Renaissance, Venice acquired a leading role as a publishing centre and as a gathering place for geographical and cartographical information. New historical and cultural conditions, such as the rise of the Ottoman Empire and the secularization of the discourse on travel, lead to the possibility of adapting the traditional scheme of the pilgrimage to an itinerary for which the final destination represented a political utopia (Constantinople) rather than a religious one (Jerusalem).The traditional features of the pious journey thus came to a negotiation with new spatial paradigms emerging through the cartographical renewal, the development of the printing industry, and the invention of geopolitics. The high symbolic investment of the Republic in this journey not only had strong political, ideological and economic meanings, but also a crucial geographical relevance. From one perspective, as typical of the Venetian genre of the isolario, drawing on the notion of the microcosm, the itinerary becomes fragmented and cartographically idealized to represent an inventory of Venetian maritime possessions. From another, the marvel awakened in travellers from the Ottoman capital, referring to their descriptions and narrations in a process of secularization launched by Marco Polo, enhances the material presence in places where the political power seems to have reached levels of utopian perfection – places Michel Foucault would name heterotopias. Venezia durante il Rinascimento acquisisce un ruolo di avanguardia sia in quanto centro editoriale sia in quanto centro di raccolta dell’informazione geografica e cartografica. Nuove circostanze storiche e culturali, come l’ascesa dell’Impero Ottomano e la secolarizzazione del discorso sul viaggio, offrono la possibilità di riadattare il tradizionale schema del pellegrinaggio a un itinerario la cui destinazione finale rappresenta un’utopia politica (Costantinopoli) più che religiosa (Gerusalemme). Le caratteristiche tradizionali del viaggio devoto vanno dunque incontro a negoziazioni con nuovi paradigmi spaziali prodotti dal rinnovamento cartografico, dallo sviluppo dell’industria tipografica, dall’invenzione della geopolitica. L’alto investimento simbolico condotto dalla Repubblica su questo viaggio non solo assume un forte significato politico, ideologico ed economico, ma anche una rilevanza geografica cruciale. Da una parte nel genere tipicamente veneziano dell’isolario, attraverso la nozione di microcosmo, l’itinerario viene frammentato e idealizzato cartograficamente fino a costituire un inventario dei posse
Book Review: IDENTITY ECONOMICS: HOW OUR IDENTITIES SHAPE OUR WORK, WAGES, AND WELL-BEING George A. Akerlof & Rachel E. Kranton, Princeton, 2010, 185 pages, ISBN 978-0-691-14648-5
Toni Cannard
Economic Analysis and Policy , 2011,
Abstract: Akerlof & Kranton propose a way to capture the power of identity with traditional economic analysis. The writing is lucid and clear and opens the way to wide readership by avoiding the use of economic jargon. The book’s stated aim is to introduce a way of making sense of the effect social contexts have on beliefs (or non-economic motives). Identity economics, they say, gives a vocabulary and analytical framework to discover and describe norms that drives these motives – a social context putting ‘humanity’ into understanding individual decision making.
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