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Arcidae species are commercially important bivalves in Japan and are commonly referred to as bloody ark due to their red blood. They have thick shells with distinct radiating ribs, and the numbers of these ribs are important morphological features for species discrimination. However, some Arcidae species are morphologically indistinguishable, with a similar number of the ribs in adults and deficient rib formation, particularly among juveniles. Thus, we developed a reliable molecular marker to genetically discriminate between 7 Arcidae species belonging to Scapharca, Anadara, and Tegillarca based on species-specific polymorphic segments of mitochondrial DNA. PCR amplification of partial COI, 16S rRNA, 12S rRNA, and Cyt b genes was performed on 7 species using 8 primer sets. Only the set of Scapharca-specific forward primer and universal reverse primer for the partial COI gene successfully yielded single PCR products from all 7 species examined. Thus, nucleotide sequences of 481 bp portion of these PCR products were determined, and the degrees of nucleotide substitutions ranged from 0.4% between S. broughtonii and T. granosa to 20.2% between S. satowi and A.
Ark shell Scapharca kagoshimensis is one of the commercially important bivalve resources in East Asia. In Japan, the mass production method for its natural seedlings was developed in the 1880s, and they had been transplanted to an array of the major fishing areas. It has been therefore concerned with its genetic disturbance among not only current but also former fishing areas in Japan. This study was undertaken to ascertain its genetic diversity and population structure in East Asia by means of nucleotide sequence analysis of a 555-bp portion of the mitochondrial DNA COI gene. Of 225 individuals collected from 8 populations and 1 population in Japan and Korea, respectively, a total of 59 haplotypes, including 14 common haplotypes, were found, and Japan and Korea shared 3 common haplotypes. In Japan, the haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity ranged from 0.65 to 0.93 and from 0.22% to 0.59%, respectively, reflecting relatively high levels of genetic diversity. The values in Korea were determined to be 0.45% and 0.19%, respectively, indicating significantly lower genetic diversity compared with that in Japan. Mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests showed a recent history of multiple types of reproduction and signals of demographic change in each population. These results suggest that S. kagoshimensis has experienced rapid population growth or reduction in population size such as a bottleneck in a short period.
objective of this study is to look at the understanding and perceptions of
public health nurses (PHNs) related to
behavioral characteristics of fathers that contribute to emotional
instability in mothers by reviewing abuse cases involving infants and very
young children. A qualitative descriptive design was applied to the data
analysis, based on a semi-structured
interview administered to three experienced PHNs who had been in charge of maternal and child health services
for at least five years at a public health department or health center; with
the data obtained in the interview
narratives analyzed. In the observations of the
experienced PHNs, the behavioral characteristics of fathers who are instigators
of child abuse can be classified into five categories, fathers who are: “Talking
to others about marital problems without attempting to solve these by
themselves”, “Working on learning about childcare seeking to correct childcare methods”, “Taking the initiative
in childcare at cross purposes with mothers”, “Stressing the effort they (the fathers) put into childcare”, and
“Failing to notice the own family situation and problems”. The findings of the study suggest the necessity
for PHNs to understand fathers, to be aware of the difficulty of
building a supportive relationship with fathers, and to improve skills enabling
the PHNs to help fathers form good relationships with other family members.