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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 966 matches for " Tomoko Shiraishi "
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Visual Perception of Incomplete Human-Like Body Postures: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study  [PDF]
Hiroshi Ito, Hirofumi Saito, Misato Oi, Tomoko Shiraishi, Shuang Meng, Victor Alberto Palacios
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2014.412053
Abstract: Previous studies have reported that the mirror neuron system plays a crucial role in social cognition. We examined whether the higher-order cognitive functions are involved in the activations in the mirror neuron area when we perceive simplified pseudo-postures. We measured 14 participants’ brain activation during the posture-recognition task using near-infrared spectroscopy. The participants’ task was to observe five sequentially presented target pseudo-postures and judge whether a test pseudo-posture was identical to one of the preceding five target pseudo-postures. The results in the majority of participants (n = 10/14) revealed that the activity in the inferior frontal mirror neuron area is modulated by perception of human-likeness, but not in the remaining four participants (n = 4/14). These results suggest that the degree of the activation of higher-order cognitive functions, which may be engaged in the inhibitory and/or facilitative processing of human body or bodily movement, leads to the distinctive activities in the inferior frontal mirror neuron area.
Treatment of Leptothrix Cells with Ultrapure Water Poses a Threat to Their Viability
Tatsuki Kunoh,Tomoko Suzuki,Tomonori Shiraishi,Hitoshi Kunoh,Jun Takada
Biology , 2015, DOI: 10.3390/biology4010050
Abstract: The genus Leptothrix, a type of Fe/Mn-oxidizing bacteria, is characterized by its formation of an extracellular and microtubular sheath. Although almost all sheaths harvested from natural aquatic environments are hollow, a few chained bacterial cells are occasionally seen within some sheaths of young stage. We previously reported that sheaths of Leptothrix sp. strain OUMS1 cultured in artificial media became hollow with aging due to spontaneous autolysis within the sheaths. In this study, we investigated environmental conditions that lead the OUMS1 cells to die. Treatment of the cells with ultrapure water or acidic buffers (pH 6.0) caused autolysis of the cells. Under these conditions, the plasma membrane and cytoplasm of cells were drastically damaged, resulting in leakage of intracellular electrolytes and relaxation of genomic DNA. The autolysis was suppressed by the presence of Ca 2+. The hydrolysis of peptidoglycan by the lysozyme treatment similarly caused autolysis of the cells and was suppressed also by the presence of Ca 2+. However, it remains unclear whether the acidic pH-dependent autolysis is attributable to damage of peptidoglycan. It was observed that L. discophora strain SP-6 cells also underwent autolysis when suspended in ultrapure water; it is however, uncertain whether this phenomenon is common among other members of the genus Leptothrix.
A Novel Method for Culturing of Leptothrix sp. Strain OUMS1 in Natural Conditions
Tomoko Suzuki,Hiromichi Ishihara,Mitsuaki Furutani,Tomonori Shiraishi,Hitoshi Kunoh,Jun Takada
Minerals , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/min2020118
Abstract: Although some strains of Leptothrix spp. isolated from aquatic environments have been characterized by culturing them in laboratory conditions, they often show morphological and chemical features distinct from those found in natural environments. To resolve this discrepancy, a novel cultivation method was devised for culturing such strains in natural groundwater. Leptothrix sp. strain OUMS1 was pre-cultured in a medium lacking Fe for 2 days, and then injected into a small dialysis tube bag and immersed in a container with continuously flowing groundwater for 1–3 and 14 days. Microscopic analysis of the initial phase of sheath formation and arbitrary comparisons with medium cultures revealed that in groundwater the surface coat of the sheath comprised much thinner fibrils, and an inner sheath wall that was much thinner and more indistinct compared with medium cultures. These differences were probably attributable to poorer secretion from the cell surface in groundwater conditions. A nutrient-rich medium likely activates cell metabolism and promotes secretion, resulting in a thicker inner sheath wall and thicker outer coat fibrils. Aqueous-phase Fe was deposited on immature sheaths in a similar manner in both cultures. These results indicate that laboratory culture of isolated microbes does not always reflect their characteristics in natural environments.
In vivo confocal microscopic and histological findings of unknown bullous keratopathy probably associated with pseudoexfoliation syndrome
Xiaodong Zheng, Yasushi Inoue, Atsushi Shiraishi, Yoko Hara, Tomoko Goto, Yuichi Ohashi
BMC Ophthalmology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2415-12-17
Abstract: In this case note, we report the clinical features and in vivo confocal microscopic and pathological findings of two BK cases of unknown cause.Our findings suggest that the BK was caused by the corneal endotheliopathy of PEX, a common disease that could affect up to 30% of people over 60 years old and is more prevalent than we have believed.
Autolysis of Bacterial Cells Leads to Formation of Empty Sheaths by Leptothrix spp.
Tomoko Suzuki,Hiromichi Ishihara,Kazuhiro Toyoda,Tomonori Shiraishi,Hitoshi Kunoh,Jun Takada
Minerals , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/min3020247
Abstract: The aquatic, Fe-oxidizing bacteria Leptothrix spp. produce uniquely shaped extracellular sheaths composed of organic bacterial polymers encrusted with inorganic elements from its aquatic environments. At the initial stage of sheath formation, bacterial cells were aligned in the sheath, but later most sheaths became empty. Here, we studied the mechanism of sheath hollowing by examining an isolate of Leptothrix sp. strain OUMS1 cultured in either artificial medium or natural groundwater. After 3 days in the medium, most sheaths at the initial stage surrounded a line of live cells, while some cells in the line were dead regardless of their position in a sheath. In sheaths where cells and/or their remnants were barely distinguishable by differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC), a vital stain and a stain specific for nucleic acids occasionally revealed dead cells and/or nucleic acid remnants, while sheaths that lacked a positive response to these reagents looked transparent when viewed with DIC. In specimens cultured in the medium for 7 days, dead cells increased in number regardless of their position in the sheath. Almost the same phenomena occurred in specimens cultured in natural groundwater until day 7. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that cells degenerated, leading to autolysis of bacterial cells in the sheath. These observations led us to conclude that autolysis of bacterial cells could be a major cause of sheath hollowing.
Results of Dating Violence Prevention Education for Japanese High School Boys  [PDF]
Tomoko Suga
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.512013
Abstract:
We conducted a class on domestic violence (DV) prevention for 234 high school boys (intervention group: 154 boys, non-intervention group: 80 boys) and verified its effect on the boys. The program dealt with respect, relationships and types of violence. The factor analysis of a questionnaire survey conducted before the class on DV prevention revealed that the high school boys’ understanding of “a relationship” and “a coercive behavior” was weak. Therefore, after conducting the class on DV prevention, we tested whether there was an improvement in their understanding of the terms “relationship” and “coercive behavior”. To understand whether boys’ understanding of “relationships” showed any change after the class, a comparison of the intervention and the non-intervention groups was carried out at four different time points—before the class on DV prevention, after the class, after a month, and after six months. A 2-factorial analysis of variance (repeated measures) was conducted. The results revealed that no mutual points of interaction were seen with the different measurement times based on the presence or absence of intervention (F (3,696) = 0.995, n.s.). To understand whether the term “coercive behaviors” changed boys’ understanding of the term after the class, the comparison from the results before the class till six months later showed significant mutual interactions with the measurement times based on the presence or absence of intervention (F (3,696) = 4.48, p < 0.01). From this study, it is clear that interventions such as a single class on DV prevention can help boys understand the term “coercive acts” and have an impact on their minds for a long time. However, the same may not be true in their understanding of “relationships”.
Japanese Educators’ Knowledge of DV  [PDF]
Tomoko Suga
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.62002
Abstract:
In the present research, a survey of the Domestic Violence (DV) related experience, knowledge, understanding of characteristics, and opinions on prevention of 244 Japanese educators was conducted. It cannot be overlooked that 8.0% of the 244 educators had experience suffering from DV. Additionally, 28.8% of the educators had experience taking a training or class on DV, and 34.0% had experience studying DV through books, etc. It was revealed from the present survey that roughly 30% of the educators had educational experience related to DV. Also it was revealed that 90.7% of female educators and 85.9% of male educators who were subjects of the present study thought that “It’s best if DV prevention is implemented during middle school and high school classes.” Educators who had studied DV through books, etc. understood six out of seven items about the characteristics of DV, which was more than those who had not studied DV. Additionally, those who had experience taking a training or class understood in detail three questions out of seven, which was more than those without experience. It is important to provide opportunities for training that would lead to learn the correct knowledge about DV for educators.
An Analysis of Surveys on Domestic Violence by Japan’s Cabinet Office (1999-2017)  [PDF]
Tomoko Suga
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.67005
Abstract: Japan’s Cabinet Office conducted surveys on DV seven times (1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017). As a secondary source, we used the data on the Cabinet Offices website. In 2001, the first DV law, the Act on the Prevention of Spousal Violence was passed, after which the Japanese public began to recognize DV. Based on the question item on “domestic violence from a spouse” the data of the Cabinet Office’s survey from 2005 to 2017 indicated that on average, just over 30% of women experienced DV, while just under 20% of men did. These figures have not changed much. The proportions of victims who use advisory services have increased with every survey due to political movements and Japanese policy. In 2017, the data showed that a little less than 58% of women and almost 27% of men used advisory services. The most recent survey conducted in 2017, showed that people who do not separate from their spouse experience DV. In terms of the reasons that they do not separate, “children” weighed high on the list.
The Principal of Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI, the Method of Pharmacokinetic Analysis, and Its Application in the Head and Neck Region
Toru Chikui,Makoto Obara,Arjan W. Simonetti,Masahiro Ohga,Shoichi Koga,Shintaro Kawano,Yoshio Matsuo,Takeshi Kamintani,Tomoko Shiraishi,Erina Kitamoto,Katsumasa Nakamura,Kazunori Yoshiura
International Journal of Dentistry , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/480659
Abstract: Many researchers have established the utility of the dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in the differential diagnosis in the head and neck region, especially in the salivary gland tumors. The subjective assessment of the pattern of the time-intensity curve (TIC) or the simple quantification of the TIC, such as the time to peak enhancement ( ) and the wash-out ratio (WR), is commonly used. Although the semiquantitative evaluations described above have been widely applied, they do not provide information on the underlying pharmacokinetic analysis in tissue. The quantification of DCE-MRI is preferable; therefore, many compartment model analyses have been proposed. The Toft and Kermode (TK) model is one of the most popular compartment models, which provide information about the influx forward volume transfer constant from plasma into the extravascular-extracellular space (EES) and the fractional volume of EES per unit volume of tissue is used in many clinical studies. This paper will introduce the method of pharmacokinetic analysis and also describe the clinical application of this technique in the head and neck region. 1. Introduction The technique of dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in which multiphase MRI scans are taken following the intravenous injection of a contrast agent, has been widely used in clinical practice. Many researchers have established the utility of the DCE-MRI in the differential diagnosis of salivary gland tumors [1–3]. DCE-MRI can successfully demonstrate the nature of a lymphoma and is helpful for making a differential diagnosis from other lesions [4]. Some researcher have also attempted to utilize DCE-MRI for lesions in the jaw bone [5–7]. The most conventional assessment using DCE-MRI may, therefore, be to use the characteristics of the time-intensity curve (TIC) regarding the regions of interest (ROIs), which are delineated by the observers. The subjective assessment of the pattern of the TIC or the simple quantification of the TIC, such as the time to peak enhancement ( ) and the wash-out ratio (WR), is also commonly used.  Although the semiquantitative evaluations described above have been widely applied, they do not provide information on the underlying pharmacokinetic nature in the tissue. Moreover, an analysis based on the signal intensity (SI) is predominantly affected by the scan parameters. Therefore, it is difficult to compare the results obtained at different institutes. Conversely, a pharmacokinetic analysis enables the quantification of contrast agent
Economic and Social Impact of Tourism on a Small Town: Peterborough New Hampshire  [PDF]
Tomoko Tsundoda, Samuel Mendlinger
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2009.22009
Abstract: This study examined the perceived impacts of tourism on the lives of people from a small New England town. Twenty seven in-depth unstructured interviews were conducted. The study found that most people perceive both positive and negative impacts of tourism and do not want to change their town for increased tourism development even if it results in increased revenue. People recognized tourism’s benefit to the town’s economy but less so to their economic situation. Working locals expressed worry regarding the town’s gradually polarized economy and divided social classes and regard tourism as one of the causes. Wealthier members generally view tourism at its present level as beneficial. For further tourism development Peterborough’ population will need to solve this dilemma.
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