Abstract:
We develop an alternative view of the semiclassical wave packets of Hagedorn---often called the Hagedorn wave packets---stressing the roles of the symplectic and metaplectic groups along with the Heisenberg--Weyl group. Our point of view clarifies the relationship between the Hagedorn wave packets and the Hermite functions by building a bridge between the ladders of wave functions in both theories. This Hagedorn--Hermite correspondence provides an elegant view as well as simple proofs of some essential results on the Hagedorn wave packets. We build the theory starting from fundamental properties of ladder operators. Particularly, we show that the ladder operators of Hagedorn are a natural set obtained from the position and momentum operators using the symplectic group. The idea that pervades our view of the Hagedorn wave packets is so-called symplectic covariance; it generalizes some of fundamental results concerning the Hagedorn wave packets as well as simplifies their proofs. We apply our formulation to show the existence of minimal uncertainty products for the Hagedorn wave packets; it generalizes the one-dimensional result by Hagedorn to multi-dimensions. The Hagedorn--Hermite correspondence also leads to an alternative derivation of the generating function for the Hagedorn wave packets and clarifies its relationship with the generating function for the Hermite functions. This result, in turn, reveals the relationship between the Hagedorn polynomials and the Hermite polynomials.

Abstract:
This paper gives a brief contact-geometric account of the Pontryagin maximum principle. We show that key notions in the Pontryagin maximum principle---such as the separating hyperplanes, costate, necessary condition, and normal/abnormal minimizers---have natural contact-geometric interpretations. We then exploit the contact-geometric formulation to give a simple derivation of the transversality condition for optimal control with terminal cost.

Abstract:
We formulate symmetries in semiclassical Gaussian wave packet dynamics and find the corresponding conserved quantities, particularly the semiclassical angular momentum, via Noether's theorem. We consider two slightly different formulations of Gaussian wave packet dynamics; one is based on earlier works of Heller and Hagedorn, and the other based on the symplectic-geometric approach by Lubich and others. In either case, we reveal the symplectic and Hamiltonian nature of the dynamics and formulate natural symmetry group actions in the setting to derive the corresponding conserved quantities (momentum maps). The semiclassical angular momentum inherits the essential properties of the classical angular momentum as well as naturally corresponds to the quantum picture.

Abstract:
We show that the Siegel upper half space $\Sigma_{d}$ is identified with the Marsden-Weinstein quotient obtained by symplectic reduction of the cotangent bundle $T^{*}\mathbb{R}^{2d^{2}}$ with $\mathsf{O}(2d)$-symmetry. The reduced symplectic form on $\Sigma_{d}$ corresponding to the standard symplectic form on $T^{*}\mathbb{R}^{2d^{2}}$ turns out to be a constant multiple of the symplectic form on $\Sigma_{d}$ obtained by Siegel. Our motivation is to understand the geometry behind two different formulations of the Gaussian wave packet dynamics commonly used in semiclassical mechanics. Specifically, we show that the two formulations are related via the symplectic reduction.

Abstract:
This paper explores the role of symmetries and reduction in nonlinear control and optimal control systems. The focus of the paper is to give a geometric framework of symmetry reduction of optimal control systems as well as to show how to obtain explicit expressions of the reduced system by exploiting the geometry. In particular, we show how to obtain a principal connection to be used in the reduction for various choices of symmetry groups, as opposed to assuming such a principal connection is given or choosing a particular symmetry group to simplify the setting. Our result synthesizes some previous works on symmetry reduction of nonlinear control and optimal control systems. Affine and kinematic optimal control systems are of particular interest: We explicitly work out the details for such systems and also show a few examples of symmetry reduction of kinematic optimal control problems.

Abstract:
In this paper, we develop the theoretical foundations of discrete Dirac mechanics, that is, discrete mechanics of degenerate Lagrangian/Hamiltonian systems with constraints. We first construct discrete analogues of Tulczyjew's triple and induced Dirac structures by considering the geometry of symplectic maps and their associated generating functions. We demonstrate that this framework provides a means of deriving discrete Lagrange-Dirac and nonholonomic Hamiltonian systems. In particular, this yields nonholonomic Lagrangian and Hamiltonian integrators. We also introduce discrete Lagrange-d'Alembert-Pontryagin and Hamilton-d'Alembert variational principles, which provide an alternative derivation of the same set of integration algorithms. The paper provides a unified treatment of discrete Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics in the more general setting of discrete Dirac mechanics, as well as a generalization of symplectic and Poisson integrators to the broader category of Dirac integrators.

Abstract:
The paper gives a symplectic-geometric account of semiclassical Gaussian wave packet dynamics. We employ geometric techniques to "strip away" the symplectic structure behind the time-dependent Schr\"odinger equation and incorporate it into semiclassical wave packet dynamics. We show that the Gaussian wave packet dynamics is a Hamiltonian system with respect to the symplectic structure, apply the theory of symplectic reduction and reconstruction to the dynamics, and discuss dynamic and geometric phases in semiclassical mechanics. A simple harmonic oscillator example is worked out to illustrate the results: We show that the reduced semiclassical harmonic oscillator dynamics is completely integrable by finding the action--angle coordinates for the system, and calculate the associated dynamic and geometric phases explicitly. We also propose an asymptotic approximation of the potential term that provides a practical semiclassical correction term to the approximation by Heller. Numerical results for a simple one-dimensional example show that the semiclassical correction term realizes a semiclassical tunneling.

Abstract:
We discuss an extension of the Hamilton-Jacobi theory to nonholonomic mechanics with a particular interest in its application to exactly integrating the equations of motion. We give an intrinsic proof of a nonholonomic analogue of the Hamilton--Jacobi theorem. Our intrinsic proof clarifies the difference from the conventional Hamilton-Jacobi theory for unconstrained systems. The proof also helps us identify a geometric meaning of the conditions on the solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation that arise from nonholonomic constraints. The major advantage of our result is that it provides us with a method of integrating the equations of motion just as the unconstrained Hamilton--Jacobi theory does. In particular, we build on the work by Iglesias-Ponte, de Leon, and Martin de Diego so that the conventional method of separation of variables applies to some nonholonomic mechanical systems. We also show a way to apply our result to systems to which separation of variables does not apply.

Abstract:
We develop a discrete analogue of Hamilton-Jacobi theory in the framework of discrete Hamiltonian mechanics. The resulting discrete Hamilton-Jacobi equation is discrete only in time. We describe a discrete analogue of Jacobi's solution and also prove a discrete version of the geometric Hamilton-Jacobi theorem. The theory applied to discrete linear Hamiltonian systems yields the discrete Riccati equation as a special case of the discrete Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We also apply the theory to discrete optimal control problems, and recover some well-known results, such as the Bellman equation (discrete-time HJB equation) of dynamic programming and its relation to the costate variable in the Pontryagin maximum principle. This relationship between the discrete Hamilton-Jacobi equation and Bellman equation is exploited to derive a generalized form of the Bellman equation that has controls at internal stages.

Abstract:
We introduce a new density for the representation of quantum states on phase space. It is constructed as a weighted difference of two smooth probability densities using the Husimi function and first-order Hermite spectrograms. In contrast to the Wigner function, it is accessible by sampling strategies for positive densities. In the semiclassical regime, the new density allows to approximate expectation values to second order with respect to the high frequency parameter and is thus more accurate than the uncorrected Husimi function. As an application, we combine the new phase space density with Egorov's theorem for the numerical simulation of time-evolved quantum expectations by an ensemble of classical trajectories. We present supporting numerical experiments in different settings and dimensions.