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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 244 matches for " Tomohiko Eiraku "
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Inhibitors of calling behavior of Plodia interpunctella
Akinori Hirashima,Yoko Shigeta,Tomohiko Eiraku,Eiichi Kuwano
Journal of Insect Science , 2003,
Abstract: Some octopamine agonists were found to suppress the calling behavior of the stored product Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. Compounds were screened using a calling behavior bioassay using female P. interpunctella. Four active derivatives, with inhibitory activity at the nanomolar range, were identified in order of decreasing activity: 2-(1-phenylethylamino)-2-oxazoline > 2-(2-ethyl,6-methylanilino)oxazolidine > 2-(2-methyl benzylamino)-2-thiazoline > 2-(2,6-diethylanilino)thiazolidine. Three-dimensional pharmacophore hypotheses were built from a set of 15 compounds. Among the ten common-featured models generated by the program Catalyst/HipHop, a hypothesis including a hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, a hydrophobic aromatic and two hydrophobic aliphatic features was considered to be essential for inhibitory activity in the calling behavior. Active compounds mapped well onto all the hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, hydrophobic aromatic and hydrophobic aliphatic features of the hypothesis. On the other hand, less active compounds were shown not to achieve the energetically favorable conformation that is found in the active molecules in order to fit the 3D common-feature pharmacophore models. The present studies demonstrate that inhibition of calling behavior is via an octopamine receptor.
Coordination Always Occurs in a Two-Strategy Pure-Coordination Logit Game on Scale-Free Networks  [PDF]
Tomohiko Konno
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2015.54066
Abstract: We show that coordination always occurs in scale-free networks by social local interactions regardless of the values of parameters, while it occurs in regular networks if and only if the number of links times a payoff parameter exceeds the threshold. Scale-free networks are ubiquitous in the reality. We study a two-strategy pure coordination game on networks that indicate who plays with whom. A player chooses a strategy by Logit choice and the strategies are dynamically updated. Stable steady states are investigated.
Should a New Good Replace Existing Ones? A Network Approach  [PDF]
Tomohiko Konno
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2015.54068
Abstract: We study goods (or service) with network effect. Social network services are examples. An existing service has an advantage over new one because of the network effect. We study the condition that new goods (or service) replace the existing one, and show that the condition depends on the underlying network structures. For this purpose, we study a coordination game with network structure. If more than half of the players change their strategies, then new strategy beats the existing one in regular networks. On the other hand, if very small number of players with large degree changes their strategies, then the new strategy beats the existing one in scale-free networks.
Concealed Environmental Threat in the Coastal Region Requires Persistent Attention: The Panglao Island, Philippines Example  [PDF]
Daniel Edison Husana, Tomohiko Kikuchi
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.410131
Abstract:

Panglao is a small island in the central part of the Philippines and well-known for its world-class beaches and coral reefs. These attract millions of tourists each year thus providing business opportunities and employment, a significant source of revenue for the local economy. Moreover, this island lies in a region with high biodiversity. However, the escalating activity is so alarming that the negative effect to the local environment is very much prevalent but not easily perceivable. Analysis and measurement of physico-chemical parameters of the groundwater revealed high levels of human-induced contaminants. This subterranean pollution was attributable to the leakage of septic tanks, artificial application of disinfectants as well as infiltration of saltwater from the ocean due to over-extraction of groundwater in order to meet the increasing demand for water. The community within the area was oblivious because human impacts to the environment appear to be virtually absent. These findings clearly suggest the concealed vulnerability of the groundwater resources from human activities. Higher standard for the coastal development plan, strong implementation of environmental policy and immediate government action is deemed necessary.

Pathophysiological Characteristics of Diabetic Ocular Complications in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Rat
Tomohiko Sasase
Journal of Ophthalmology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/615641
Abstract: The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rat, a nonobese type 2 diabetes model, develops severe diabetic retinopathy as result of chronic severe hyperglycemia. Although existing diabetes animal models also develop ocular complications, severe retinal lesions frequently observed in human diabetes patients such as preretinal neovascularization or retinal detachment are not found. Distinctive features in SDT rat are hypermature cataract, tractional retinal detachment with fibrous proliferation, and massive hemorrhaging in the anterior chamber. These pathophysiological changes are caused by sustained hyperglycemic condition and subsequent increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in retina, iris, and ciliary body. Although some differences in diabetic retinopathy exist between SDT rats and humans (e.g., a low incidence of neovascular formation and poor development of nonperfused area are found in this animal), SDT rat will be a useful model in studies of the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetic retinopathy.
Pathophysiological Characteristics of Diabetic Ocular Complications in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Rat
Tomohiko Sasase
Journal of Ophthalmology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/615641
Abstract: The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rat, a nonobese type 2 diabetes model, develops severe diabetic retinopathy as result of chronic severe hyperglycemia. Although existing diabetes animal models also develop ocular complications, severe retinal lesions frequently observed in human diabetes patients such as preretinal neovascularization or retinal detachment are not found. Distinctive features in SDT rat are hypermature cataract, tractional retinal detachment with fibrous proliferation, and massive hemorrhaging in the anterior chamber. These pathophysiological changes are caused by sustained hyperglycemic condition and subsequent increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in retina, iris, and ciliary body. Although some differences in diabetic retinopathy exist between SDT rats and humans (e.g., a low incidence of neovascular formation and poor development of nonperfused area are found in this animal), SDT rat will be a useful model in studies of the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetic retinopathy. 1. Introduction Many animal models have been used in research into diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications. Animal models of chemically induced DM such as streptozotocin (STZ) or alloxan-induced diabetic animals are widely used [1]. Genetic models of DM such as Nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice [2], Bio-Breeding (BB) rats [3], ob/ob mice [4], db/db mice [5], Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats [6], Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats [7], and Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats [8] are also used commonly. Although these model animals develop either type 1 (T1D) or type 2 (T2D) diabetes and subsequent ocular complications, severe retinal lesions frequently observed in human diabetes patients such as preretinal neovascularization or retinal detachment are not found; early pathological changes such as pericyte loss [9, 10], early biophysiological changes such as retinal leukostasis [11], and abnormal pattern in electroretinogram (ERG) [12] are observed, at most. The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rat, a nonobese T2D model is an inbred rat strain established from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat by Shinohara et al. [13, 14]. As a result of chronic severe hyperglycemia, SDT rats develop diabetic retinopathy (DR) [13–20], diabetic peripheral neuropathy [19, 20], and diabetic nephropathy [21]. Of these, severe DR such as cataract, tractional retinal detachment with fibrous proliferation, and massive hemorrhaging in the anterior chamber is a distinctive feature of SDT rat [13, 14]. Since the establishment and the first report of SDT rat by
Conformal Anomaly of String Theory in the Harmonic Gauge
Tomohiko Takahashi
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1143/PTP.95.995
Abstract: Considering the conformal anomaly in an effective action, the critical dimension of string theory can be decided in the harmonic gauge, in which it had been reported before to be indefinite. In this gauge, there is no anomaly for the ghost number symmetry. This can be naturally understood in terms of Faddeev-Popov conjugation in the theory.
Tachyon Condensation and Universal Solutions in String Field Theory
Tomohiko Takahashi
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysb.2003.08.007
Abstract: We investigate a non-perturbative vacuum in open string field theory expanded around the analytic classical solution which has been found in the universal Fock space generated by matter Virasoro generators and ghost oscillators. We carry out level-truncation analyses up to level (6,18) in the theory around one-parameter families of the solution. We observe that the value of the vacuum energy cancels the D-brane tension as the approximation level is increased, but this non-perturbative vacuum disappears at the boundary of the parameter space. These results provide strong evidence for the conjecture that, although the universal solutions are pure gauge in almost all the parameter space, they are regarded as the tachyon vacuum solution at the boundary.
Trace formulas of the Hecke operator on the spaces of newforms
Suda Tomohiko
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: In this paper, for a square-free integer l>1, a even positive integer k and a positive integer N, we give a trace formula of the Hecke operator T(l) on the space S_k^0(N) of all newforms of weight k and level \Gamma_0(N). Moreover, we give a decomposition S_k^0(N)=\oplus_{i|N}S_k^0(N;i) and also give a trace formula of T(l) on S_k^0(N;i).
Homomorphisms on groups of volume-preserving diffeomorphisms via fundamental groups
Tomohiko Ishida
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: Let $M$ be a closed manifold. Polterovich constructed a linear map from the vector space of quasi-morphisms on the fundamental group $\pi _{1}(M)$ of $M$ to the space of quasi-morphisms on the identity component ${\rm Diff}_{\Omega}^{\infty} (M)_{0}$ of the group of volume-preserving diffeomorphisms of $M$. In this paper, the restriction $H^{1}(\pi_{1}(M); {\mathbb R})\to H^{1}({\rm Diff}_{\Omega}^{\infty} (M)_{0} ; {\mathbb R})$ of the linear map is studied and its relationship with the flux homomorphism is described.
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